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ENTOMOLOGIST 

OF 

GENERAL ENTOMOLOGY. 

EDITED BY RICHARD SOUTH, F.E.S. 



WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF 



ROEEBT ADKIN, F.E.S. 

T. E. BILLUPS, F.E.S. 

W. LUCAS DISTANT, F.E.S., &c. 

EDWARD A. FITCH, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

F. W. FEOHAWK, F.E.S. 



MARTIN JACOBY, F.E.S. 
W. F. KIRBY, F.L.S., F.E.S. 
J. H. LEECH, B.A., F.L.S., F.E.S. 
Dk. D. sharp, F.E.S., F.E.S., &c. 
G. H. VEEEALL, F.E.S. 



W. WAEREN, M.A., F.E.S. 



"By mutual confidence and mutual aid 
Great deeds are done and great discoveries made." 



VOLUME THE THIRTIETH. 



LONDON: 

WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN. 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & CO., Limited. 

1897. 



1 



'<l^€C^ 



CONTENTS. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Adkin, B. a., 269, 270 

Adkin, Eobert, F.E.S., 25, 205, 232, 

266 
Alderson, M., 270 
Anderson, Joseph, Jun., 271, 298 
Andrew, Wilfred J., 271 
Arkle, J., 45, 70, 142, 252, 296, 297 
AsHBY, Herbert, 81 
AuLD, Henry A., 301, 321 

Bankes, Eustace E., M.A., F.E.S., 48 
Barrett, Charles C, F.E.S., 18, 144, 

199 
Bartlett, Chas., 298 
Bedford, C. E., 123, 198 
Bedford, F. P., 49 
Beeching, Rev. R. A. Dallas, 221 
Bell-Marley, H. W., 48, 122, 198, 247, 

248, 270 
Bird, J. F., 144 
Bland, Francis D., 20, 176 
Bonaparte- Wise, L. H., 200 
Bonds, Rev. Albert, 248 
Briggs, F. G., 113 
Buckley, W., 298 
Burkill, Harold J., 140 
Burr, Malcolm, F.E.S., 28, 187 
Butler, Arthur G., Ph.D., F.L.S., 

F.E.S., &c., 170 
Butler, W. E., 145, 270, 297 

Christy, W. M., M.A., F.E.S., 76, 222, 

298 
Claxton, Rev. W., 15 
Cockerell, T. D. a., F.Z.S., F.E.S., 

12, 135, 305 
Conquest, G. Harold, 102 

Dale, C. W., F.E.S., 18 
Dannatt, W., F.E.S., 175, 312 
Doncaster, L., 162, 179 

Edblsten, H. M., 45 
Edwards, W., 298 



Elwes, Henry John, J. P., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., F.E.S., &o., 26 

Fitch, Edward A., F.L.S., F.E.S., 122 
Fountains, Margaret E., 4, 297 
Fowler, J. Hy., 18, 112 
Freeman, Rev. R., 322 

Goss, Herbert, F.L.S., F.E.S., cfcc, 348 
Graves, Spotswood, 144 
GuMMER, Cecil M., 270 

Hall, E. V., 272 

Harcourt-ISath, W., 16, 55, 77, 97, 123, 

157, 200, 240 
Harrison, J., F.E.S., 298 
Hart, George E., 17 
Harvey-.Iellie, Rev. B., B.A., 269, 322 
Harwood, Bernard S., 82 
Harwood, W. H., 143 
Hewett, William, 19, 119 
Hill, H. Ainslie, F.E.S., 174 
Hughes, C. N., 298 
Hunt, W., 82 
Hyde, J. T., 321 

Immage, Selwyn, F.E.S., 18, 221 
Imms, Augustus D., 123, 219, 249, 272, 
273, 295, 299, 320, 322 

Jacoby, Martin, F.E.S., 120, 168, 193, 

216, 220, 261 
Jefferys, T. B., 200, 323 

Kane, W. F. de Vismes, M.A., M.R.I.A., 
F.E.S., 17, 36, 58, 81, 100, 104, 128, 
212, 233, 286, 310 
Kirkaldy, G. W., F.E.S., 238, 258 
Knaggs, H. Guard, M.D., F.L S., 75, 
144, 256, 205, 313, 318 

Lambert, F. W., 248 
Leake, B. M., 78, 176 
Lewington, W., 298 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



LivETT, H. W., M.D., F.E.S., 75 
Lucas, W. J., B.A., 18, 29, 76, 125, 
142, 269, 277, 321 

Machonochie, Eev. J. A., B.A., F.E.S., 

269 
Maksden, H. W., 220 
Mathew, Gervase F., B.N., F.L.S., 

F.E.S., &c., 45 
Mathew, Gwendaline, 248 
Menshootkin, B. N., 80 
Meba, a. W., 200 
Meynell, E., 297, 299 
Mitchell, Alfred T., 318, 322 
Morris, J. B., 267, 271 
Moss, Eev. A. Miles, 290 

Nash, C. J., 15, 116 
Nevinson, E. B., 222 
Newbery, F. a., 24, 154, 329 
Newenham, Eev. A., 177 

Pierce, F. N., F.E.S., 93, 153 
Flatten, E., :H22 

Prout, Louis B., F.E.S., 140, 296 
Pyett, Claude A., 73, 123 

Eansom, Edward, 78, 260, 270 
Eaynor, Eev. Gilbert H., 269 
Eaynor, L. G. S., 269 
Eegnart, H. C, 18 
Renshaw, Graham, 272 
ElCKARD, J. C, 1, 270 
EOLLASON, W. A., o20 

Eothschild, theHonble.WALTER, F.Z.S., 

F.E.S., cfec, 165 
Rowland-Brown, H., M.A., F.E.S., 198 
EowNTREE, James H., 269 

Sabine, E., 77 
Shepheard-Walwin, H. W., 321 



Shipp, John W., 16, 62, 131, 166 
Sich, Alfred, F.E.S., 176, 271 
Sladen, C. a., 81 
Smith, G. W., 11, 127, 220 
Smith, John B., Sc.D., 50, 189 
Smith, W. W., F.E.S., 317 
Sooth, Richard, 74, 126, 140, 143, 
173, 174, 175, 176, 181, 196, 197, 
200, 220, 221, 222, 231, 242, 244, 
247, 264, 265, 266, 269, 270, 271, 
294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 316, 317 
Stares, Madaline J., 297 
Studd, E. F., M.A., F.E.S., 146 

Tait, Robert, Jun., 120, 123 
Tarbat, Rev. J. E., 221, 222 
Tetley, Alfred S., 82 
Theobald, F. V., MA., F.E.S. , 162 
Thornewill, Eev. Chas. F., 200 
Thwaytes, J. E., 250, 299 
Teemayne, Lawrence J., 96, 227 
Turner, Hy. J., F.E.S., 23, 87, 151, 

178, 203, 224, 275, 327 
TuTT, J. W., F.E.S., 184, 254, 284 

Verrall, G. H., F.E.S., 221 

Wailly, Alfred, 39 

Wainwright, Colbran J., F.E.S., 96, 

152, 252, 276, 328 
Walker, Eev. F. A., D.D., F.L.S., 

F.E.S., 122, 223, 267 
Wall, Geo., 75 
Warburg, J. C , 47 
Waters, Albert H., 48, 74 
Waugh, H. W., 180 
Wells, H. 0., 233 
Whittle, F. G., 114, 273, 321 
Wilde, E. H., 222 
Wilson, M., 247 
WOODFORDE, F. C, 222 



CONTENTS 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SUBJECTS. 



Aberrations of Epinephele hyperanthus 
(figs.), 49 ; of E. tithonus, 254, 292 ; of 
Lepidoptera, 79 

Abnormal Halticid beetle, 300 

Abraxas grossulariata, vars. (figs.), 25 ; 
vars. conspurcata and sinicaria, 814 ; 
var. varleyata, 85 ; bred in December, 
176; sylvata, 116, 216, 314, 325 

Abrostola. 170 

Acanthosoma hoemorrhoidale, variation 
in the colour of, 78 ; tristriata, 326 

Acherontia atropos in 1896, 18, 69, 75, 
84, 85, lii9, 113, 122, 176, 219, 223, 
269, 298, 322, 323 

Acidalia bisetata, 130 ; dimidiata, 130, 
326; emarginata, 73, 74, 111, 116; fu- 
mata, 213; imitaria. 111, 116, 14-3, 
213 ; immorata, 275 ; immutata, 131 ; 
inornata, 213, 270, 325; margine- 
punctata, 22, 115, 130, 249 ; ornata, 74, 
130; osseata, 74; promutata, 73; re- 
mutaria var. lactata, 212 ; rusticata, 
130 ; straminata, 1ij9 ; subsericeata, 
111 ; trigeminata, 225 ; virgularia, 130 

Aciptilia galactodactyla, 74 ; tetradac- 
tyla, 74 

Acontia luctuosa, 116, 273 

Acosmetia morresii, 256, 284, 296, 303 

Acridium ffigyptium, 188 

Acronycta aceris, 74, 110, 115, 321 ; alni 
20, 108, 145, 176, 298, 321 ; leporina, 
275 ; ligustri, 110 ; myricse, 275 ; psi, 
300 ; tridens, 48 

Actias luna, 43 

^Eschna borealis, 34 ; cyanea, 34, 273, 
274, 282 ; grandis, 34, 70, 251, 271, 273, 
275, ; juncea, 34, 70, 251 ; mixta, 282 ; 
rufescens, 34 

Agarista glycine, 154 

Aglais (Vanessa) urticie, 324, — var. ich- 
nusa, 149, 327 

Aglossa cuprealis, 114 

Agrion cyatliigerum, 35, 278, 283 ; mer- 
cmiale, 35, 275; puella, 35, 70, 251, 
271, 273, 282; pulchellum, 35, 279 

Agrophila sulphuralis, 275 

Agrotis ashworthii, 68, 95, 250 ; from ova, 
120 ; auxilaris, 84 ; cinerea, 81, 115, 
145 ; corticea, 249, 273 ; recorded in 
error, 145 ; exclamationis, 327 ; lucer- 
nea, 69 ; puta, 145 ; obelisca, 110 ; ra- 
vida, 249 ; saucia, 110, 113 ; subgothica, 
84; tritici, 114 
Alaptus fusculus, parasitic on eggs of 
Stenopsocus cruciatus, 177 ; minimus, 
probably male of fusculus, 177 
Alderney, Entomology of, 223 



Aleucis pictaria, 111 

Ammophila sabulosa, 275 

Amphidasys betularia var. doubleday- 
aria, 60, 69, 72, 222, 318 ; striataria, 
60, 69, 116, 178, 226, 250; prodro- 
maria, 107, 327 

Anaitis plagiata, 22, 314 

Anarta myrtilli, 69, 252 

Anax formosus, 14, 224, 278, 279, 281 ; 
imperator, 180 

Anchocelis litura, 113, 299 ; lunosa, 299 ; 
rufina, 113, 299 

Andrena from N. America, new species 
of, 305 

Andrena aliciarum, n. sp., 138 

Androconia of Pieris oleracea and P. 
rapaj, 2 

Anesychia decemguttella, 146 

Angerona corvlaria, 80 ; prunaria, 74, 
245, 318 

Anisolabis annulipes (fig.), 125, 323 

Anosia chrysippus, 94 ; menippe, 18 ; 
plexippus, 94 

Autipalocoris marshalli, 324 

Ants in Smyrna, a curious use of, 318 

Aporia crataegi, 9 

Antennae of Hybernia aurantiaria and 
H. defoliaria, 85 

Anthocharis cardamines, 22, 108 ; char- 
Ionia, 94 

Anticlea berberata, 111 ; rubidata, 146 

Antithesia salicella, 273 

Anthophora furcata, 275 

Apamea ophiogramma, 178, 180, 326 

Apanteles caiae, 122 ; difficilis, 122 ; for- 
mosus, 252 

Apatura ilia var. elytie, 210; iris, 94, 
102, 210 

Aphodius lividus, 180 

Aphomia sociella, 93 

Aphytoceros vagans, 126 

Apion astragali, 151 

Aplecta advena, 273 ; oculta, 85, 87, 329 

Apocheima pedaria, 247 

Apodia bifractella, 273 

Aporia cratsegi, 209, 230, 300, 327 ; hip- 
pia, 276 

Apterygida arachidis, 177 

Arctia caia, 23, 94, 95, 96, 326 ; fuligi- 
nosa, 110,275; mendica, 110; villica,23 

Argynnis adippe, 109, 119, 211, 249 ; ag- 
laia, 211, 249, 329 ; dia, 211 ; euphro- 
syne, 19, 95, 210, 323 ; hecate, 324 ; se- 
lene, 19, 79; latonia, 10, 211, 242; ni- 
obe, 8, 10, 211 ; pales, 211 ; pandora, 
8, 10; paphia, 108, 109, 123, 211, 248, 
300, (Dryac) 326 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



Argyresthia conjunctella, 71, 72; niti- 

della, 72 
Ascalaphus cocejanus, 202 ; maccarouius, 

202 
Asemum striatum, 224 
Asilus crabionit'oimis, 325, 328 
Asphalia diluta, i)5 ; flavicornis, 112, 

250 ; ridens, 225, 327 
Aspidiotus coloratus, 14 ; ficus, 14 ; uv£e, 

14 
Aspilates citraria, 108; gilvaria, 73, 215 ; 

ochrearia, 215 
Asteroscopus sphinx, 115, 116, 145 
Asthena candidata, 130 ; luteata, 72, 130 
Atractotomus inali, 274 
Attacus atlas, 43; aurota, 43; carpini, 

39 ; hesperus, 44 ; cynthia, 44 ; pyri, 

39 ; spini, 39 
Aventia Hexula, 111, 145 

Bapta bimaculata, 213, 245 ; temerata, 

218 
Batodes angustiorana, 73 
Beetle-wings in casts of rook, 177 
Belostoma niloticum, 188 
Bebkshire — Agrotis cinerea, 145 ; notes 

from Beading, 114, 145 
Boarmia abietaria, 113, 314 ; ciuctaria, 
105, 108, 178, 313 ; consortaria, 110,115, 
313 ; gemmaiia var. perfumaria, 104 ; 
repandata, 22, 61, 85, 313, — var. con- 
versaria, 145 ; rhomboidaria, 249, 251 ; 
roboraria, 108, 110, 202, 313 

Bombus latreillellus, 95 

Bombyx neiistria, 200, 323 ; otus, 39 ; 
quercus, 20, 68, 225; rubi, 20, 69, 71, 
122, 226, 249, -^50, 265, 291, 279, 299; 
trifolii, 87 

Bomolocha fontis, 36 

Botys hyalinalis. 111, 242 

Brachycerus apterus, 148 

Brachysomus hirtus, 323 

Brachytron pratense, 34, 282 

Brenthis (Argyunis) enphrosyne, 22, 23 

Brephos parlhenias, 37, 71, 117, 154,250 

Bryopliila glandifera, 110 ; muralis, 274; 
perla, 86 

Buculatrix boyerella, 71 ; ulmella, 71 

Bupalus piuiaria, var. tlavescens, 215 

Butalis fallacella, 22 

Butterflies, changes in the structure of 
the wings of, 203 ; of British, 325 ; 
and flowers, 144 ; on the Eiviera, 202 ; 
of Sicily, 4 

Butterfly destruction by birds, 202 ; hunt- 
ing in the Himalayas, 240 

Cabera exanthemata, 246 ; rotundaria,213 

Callicera tenea, 84 

Calligenia miniata, 110 

Callimorpha dominula, 108, 116, 294 
(yellow), 22, 294 ; hera, further notes 
on, 18, 22, 123, 178, 248, 274, 294 



Callosamia angulifera, 43 ; promethea, 

43 
Calocampa exoleta, 95, 299 
Calopteryx splendens, 34, 273, 279, 282 ; 

Virgo, 34, 273, 279, 282 
Calymnia diflinis, 145 
Cambridgeshike — Chcerocampa celerio, 

270, 328 
Camptogramma bilineata, 22, 85 
Capua ochraceana, 72 
Carabus lusitanicus, 83 
Caradrina ambigua, 325, 327 ; morrisii, 

256 
Carpocapsa pomonella, 73; saltitans, 87, 

328 
Carterocephalus palasmon, 103 
Cataclysta lemnata, 242 
Catocala adultera, 79 ; fraxini, 79 ; mipta, 
48, 73, 79, 115, 266, 320, 321 ; pacta, 
79; paranympha, 79; promissa, 79, 109 
Catoptria Juliana, 72 
Cepphis adveuaria, 246 
Ceratophora inornatella, 273 
Cerceris acanthophilus, n. sp., 135 
Cerura vinula, 319 
Chalcolepidius, a species of, 93 
Chalcophana, new species of, 169, 193, 

216 
ChalcoiDlacis gigas, n. sp., 168 
Charasas graminis, 67, 110 
Charagria ramsayi, 324 ; splendens, 324 
Charaxes jasius, 7, 10, 178, 202 
Chariclea umbra, 95 
Cheimatobia brumata, 45, 74 
Chelisoches morio, 201 
Cheshire — Sesia culiciformis, 200 ; notes 

from the Chester district, 67, 250 
Chesias rufata, 146 
Clrilo i:)hragmitellus, 114 
Cliilosia berganetammi, 152 
Chironomid larvie, 329 
Chcerocampa celerio, 328 ; elpenor, 116, 
247, 291 ; porcellus, 95, 116, 219, 270, 
292, 322 
Chortodes bondii, 284,303; morrisii, 284 
Christoph collection, the, 74 
Chrysiridia madagascarensis, 178 
Chrysogaster virescens, 152 
Chrysophanus dorilis, 209 ; gordius, 210 ; 
hippothoe, 2 )9 ; phliKas, 22, 23 ; virg- 
auretv, 209 
Cicada larva with fungus, 84 
Cicadetta montana, 148 
Cicindela germanica, 248 
Cidana associata. 111 ; dotata (pyra- 
liata), 67, 111 ; corylata, 71, — var. 
albocreuata, 22, 328 ; immanata, 109 ; 
miata. 111, ll"i ; prunata, 146 ; psitta- 
cata, 111; j^yraliata, 116; reticulata, 
153 ; russata, 67 ; silaceata, 23 ; suffu- 
mata var. piceata, 202 ; truncata, 326 
Cilix glaucata, 115 ; spinula, 73, 108 
Cimbex sylvarum, 152 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



Cionus scrophalariiB, 224 

Cirrhoedia xerampelina, 'Ji, !J6, 114 

Classification of insects, an essay on 
the, 189 

Cledeobia angustalis, 111 

Cleonus nebulosus, 93 

Cleora glabraria, 110, 113, 313 ; lichen- 
aria, 61, 110, 150, 2J4 

Glimatal conditions in deciding morpho- 
logical characters, subordinate influ- 
ence of, 97 

Clisiocampa castrensis, 233 

Cloantha solidaginis, 149 

Clythridaa and Eumolpidae, new species 
of, 261 

Cnethocampa pityocampa, 149 

Coccid, new British, 300 

Coccid.e, descriptive notes on two, 12 ; 
from Algeria, 21 ; of Ceylon, 20 

Coccinella hieroglyphica, 22 

Cockroaches, immigrant, 142 

Cocoons, South American, 328 

Ccenonympha arcania, 212 ; iphioides, 
324 ; iphis, 23 ; pamphilus var. 
lyllus, 8, 11; satyrion, 23; typhon, 
2:3, 251 

Coleophora albitarsella, 114 ; anatipen- 
nella, 71, 273 

Coleoptera, in 1897, 299 ; in January, 
82 ; from Cintra, 83 ; from the Tyrol, 
83 ; in the New Forest, 227 

Colias chrysotheme, 296 ; edusa, 8, 10, 
109, 209, 223, 248, 269, 298, 299, 321, 
322, — var. helice, 8, 10, — var. minor, 
10 ; erate, 153 ; hyale, 153, 178, 209 ; 
phicomone, 209 ; romanovi, 153 

Collection of insects and the elucidation 
of scientific problems, 78 

Colotois pennaria, 246 

Comma butterfly of America, the, 172 

Conchylis straminea, 72 

Conops vescularis, 226 

Cooked locusts, 84 

Cordulegaster annulatus, 70, 271, 273, 
280 

CorduHa aanea, 33, 278, 280, 281 ; arctica, 
33 ; curtisii, 33 ; metallica, 33 

Cordyceps entomorrhiza, 162 

Coremia designata (propugnata), 67 ; 
unidentaria, 180 ; quadrifasciaria, 72 

Corixa albifrons, 240 ; ovivora, 238 

Cornwall — Colias edusa, 269, 320 ; 
Dianthfficia barretti, 220 

Corycia bimaculata. 111 ; punctata, 74 ; 
temerata, 111 

Coamia aflinis, 73, 110 

Cossus ligniperda, 48, 319 

Crabro interruptus, 95 

Crambus chrysonuchellus, 72 ; falsellus, 
74 ; furcatellus, 153 ; inquinatellus, 
73 ; latistrius, 74 ; periellus var. 
rostellus, 317 

Crymodes exulis, 178, 179 



Cucullia chamomillae, 96, 178 ; umbra- 
tica, 20, 48, 116 ; verbasci, 110, 116 

Cyaniris (Lyciena) argiolus, 224 

Cymatophora flavicornis, 71 ; ridens, 
108, 111 

Cynomyia alpina, 328 ; mortuorum, 327 

Danais erippus, 18 

Dasycampa rubiginea, 110, 329 

Dasydia obfuscaria, 128 

Decadence of British Rhopalocera, the 

probable cause of the, 55, 102, 1 i9 
Decticus albifrons, 188 
Deilephila euphorbi;e, 180; galii, 270, 

328, — reappearance on the Lancashire 

and Cheshu-e coast, 290 
Deiuostoma dilatatum, 324 
Demas coryli, 110 
Depressaria alstroemeriana, 71 ; arenella, 

71 ; costosa, 73 ; heracliana, 72 ; 
yeatiana, 114 

Destroying insects by steam power, 265 

D?:voNSHiEE — Calliinorpha hera, 248 ; 
captures at Dawlish, 123 ; Colias 
edusa, 298 ; collecting at Sidmouth, 
222 ; Deilephila galii, 270 ; notes from 
South, 112 

Diamond Jubilee, the, 122 

Dianthoecia capsincola, 327 ; capsophila, 
85 ; conspersa, 86 ; luteago var. bar- 
retti, 220, 222, 224 ; nana, 274, 325 

Diastictis brunneata, 246 

Dicranura furcula, 299 

Dicrorampha pedverella, 72 ; plumbana, 

72 ; saturnana, 71 ; sequana, 114 
Dictyonota fuliginosa, 275 
Dilinia exanthemata, 246 

Diloba cieruleocephala feeding on cherry 
laurel, 198 

Distribution of Ehopalocera, geographi- 
cal and vertical, 206 

Ditula hartmanniana, 273 

Dragonflies, 29,70, 120, 272, 277, (late) 320 

Drepana binaria, 145 ; cultraria, 115, 
116, 145; falcataria, 145, 251; falcula, 
71 ; hamula, 48 

Earis chloraua, 110, (Halias) 322 

Early appearances, 123, 144 

Earwig new to Britain, an, 177 

Ectobia livida, 28 

Eggs of British Lepidoptera for figur- 
ing, 221 

Elachista rufocinerea, 71 

Elateridcv, 146, 148 

Electric lamp for sugaring, 180 

Electric light, moths taken at, 48 

EUopia fasciaria, 110 

Ematurga atomana, 22 

Emblethis verbasci, 300 

Emmelesia adasquata, 237 ; aftinitata, 
111, 222, 235 ; alchemillata, 108, 145, 
236 ; decolorata, 67 ; ericetata, 95 ; 



vm 



CONTENTS. 



minorata, 149, 237 ; tneniata, 23G ; 

unifasciata, 74, 236 
Empusa penuicornis, 188 
Emydia cribrum, 107, 108 
Enallagma cyathigeiura, 70, .'ol 
Endopisa nigricaua, 200 
Endotricha tiaminealis. 111 
Endromis versicolor. 114, 145, 154, 327 
EuDomos autumnaria, 2',l7, 317 ; erosa- 

ria, 100 ; f uscantaria, 73 ; tiliaria, 73 
Ennychia nigrata, 74 
Enodia (Epiuephele) hyperanthus, 23 ; 

portlandica, 23, 326 
Enoplops scapha, 325 
Entomological expedition to Himalayas, 

123 
Epacromia tamulus, 188 
Ephestia kiihniella, 146 
Eijhipphipliora brunnichiana, 72 
Ephyraomicronaria, 73; pendularia, 71 ; 

punctaria, 72 
Epiclmopteryx reticella, 114, 222 
Epinephele hyperanthus, 248, 275, — var. 

(tigs.), 49 ; iauira, 94, — var. hispuUa, 

10, 212 ; ida, 11 ; tithonus, 212, 295, 

323, 326,— var. (tig.), 253, 254 
Epione advenaria, 110, 116, 226, 246 ; 

apiciaria, 37, 67 ; parallelaria, 37, 317 
Epunda nigra. 111, 113 
Erebia ;vtiiiops, 149 ; blandiua, 96 ; epi- 

phron var. cassiope, 211 ; euryale var. 

euryaloides, 211 ; gorge, 211 ; ligea, 

149; manto var. cajcilia, 211 ; melas, 

211; nerine, 275; tyndarus, 211; 

zapateri, 324 
Eriocephala allionella, 201 
Eriogaster lanestris, 252 
Erirrhinus bimaculatus, 227 
Eristalis tenax, 274 
Erythromma najas, 35, 283, — (fig.), 29 
Essex — Captures in, 273 ; Colias edusa, 

269 ; Eijichnopteryx reticella, 222 ; 

Hadena dissimilis, 224 ; notes from 

Southend, 114; Streniaclathrata, 269 
Eubolia bipunctaria, 22; cervinaria, 111 
Eucerceris vittatifrons var. tricolor, 136 
Eucheira socialis, 44 
Euchl£ena prunaria, 245 
Euchloe cardamines, 19, 322, — var. tur- 

ritis, 6, 9 ; belia var. ausonia, 6, 9, — 

var. simplonia, 6, 9 
Eucosmia certata, 116, 315 ; undulata, 

315 
Eudffimonia argiphontes, 201 ; brachy- 

ura, 201 
Eudorea cembra), 72 
Eugonia angularia, 329 ; ahiiaria, 58, 

115; autumnaria, 271 ; erosaria, 59, 

67, 94 ; fuscantaria, 48, 59, 100, 318 ; 

quercinaria, 59, 318 
Eumolpidffi, new species of South Ameri- 
can, 168, 193, 216 
Eupisteria heparata, 227 



Eupithecia abbreviata, 112; albipunc 
tata, 145, 288 ; assimilata, 73 ; con 
signata, 85, 287 ; coronata, 73, 145 
190 ; debiliata, 2i)0 ; dodoneata, 289 
expallidata, 288; fraxinata, 145, 287 
helveticaria var. arceuthata, 238 ; in 
digata, 287 ; innotata, 287 ; isogram 
mata, 237 ; jasioneata, 286 ; lariciata 
74, 288, 320 ; linariata, 74, 237 ; ob 
longata, 74, 237 ; pimpinellata, 287 
plumbeolata, 72, 238; pulchellata, 69 
237, 251 ; pumilata, 270 ; pygmasata 
238 ; rectangulata, 108 ; satyrata var 
curzoni, 224 ; scabiosata, 237 ; sub 
ciliata, 145 ; subfulvata, 4s, 173, 237 
subnotata, 85, 288 ; succentaureata 
73,74,237; sobrinata, 73; togata, 22 
289 ; trisignaria, 287 ; valerianata, 287 
venosata, 145, 237 ; virgaureata, 74, 287 

Euploea core, 241 ; rhadamanthus, 241 
rogenhoferi, 241 

Eupcecilia angustana, 273 ; atricapitana, 
114 ; nana, 199 

EurhipidsB, 170 

Eurrhypara urticalis, 242 

Eurymene dolobraria, 38, 108, 110, 145, 
246 

Eustroma reticulata, 150 

Euteliidffi, 171 

Exhibition of insects, 179, 316 

" Experiences in Lepidoptera in 1896," 
87 

Forcing Acherontia atropos, 75 
Formicidae from St. Vincent, &c., 148 
Frenulum of the Lepidoptera, 300 
Fungi parasitic on butterflies (figs.), 1 
Fungi versus Androconia, 50 

Gelechia affinis, 72 ; dodecella, 74 ; do- 
mestica, 73 ; f ugitivella, 73 ; luculella, 
72 ; mulinella, 74 ; proximella, 72 ; 
spuricella, 22 ; taeniolella, 74 ; vulgella, 
72,73 

Genera of Lepidoptera, monograph of 
the, 297 

Geographical distribution and jjostglacial 
derivation of the Palajarctic and Ne- 
arctic Alpine Rhopalocera Fauna, 157 

Geographical varieties, on naming, 26 

Geometra papilionaria, 112, 129, 145, 
251, 327 ; vernaria, 116, 129, 226, 249 

Geometridie, Asiatic distribution of Bri- 
tish, 244, 312 ; from Europe andE. Asia 
compared, 150 

Geranomyia unicolor, 95 

Gloucestekshiee — Agrolis cinerea, 115 
[c.f. 115); Lycteua anon, 220; Setina 
irrorella, 247 

Glyptoscehs gigas, sp. n., 262; para- 
guayensis, sp. n., 263 

Gnophos obscurata, 109, 128 

Gnophria rubricoliis, 224 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



Gomphocerus maculatus, 28 
Gomphus vulgatissima, 34 
Gonepteryx cleopatra, 9, 94 ; rhamni, 9, 

16, 17, 107 
Gortyna flavago, 94 
Gryllotalpa africana, 188 ; gryllotalpa, 

188 ; vulgaris, 20 
Gymnopleurus, lUiger, on the genus, 

131 ; the genus, 62, 166 
Gynandromorphous earwigs, 201, 203 
Gynandromorphous Lepidoptera : — 174 ; 

Argyunis (Dryas) paphia, 178; Dicra- 

nura bitida, 2'J5 ; Lyciena segon, 179 ; 

Icarus ; 179, 296 ; Melanargia galatea, 

150 ; Saturnia pavonia, 22 

Habrostola tripartita, 116 ; triplasia, 
116, 145 

Hadena dissimilis, 116, 224 ; genistte, 
116, 221; glauca, 252; maillardi a 
form of Crymodes exulis, 178, 179 ; 
pisi, 275 ; thalassina, 23 ; trifolii, 271 

Halia brunneata, 214, 216 

Halias prasinana, 109 ; quercana, 109 

Halonota cirsiana, 72 

Halticid beetle, a remarkable, 147 

Hampshire — Cicadetta montana, 148 ; 
Colias edusa, 269, 299 ; collecting in 
New Forest, 224 ; Diptera at Bourne- 
mouth, 95 ; Ennomos (Eugonia) au- 
tumnaria, 271, 297 ; notes from King- 
wood, 107 

Hecatera serena, 110, 115, 116, 327 

Heliophobus hispidus, 321 

Heliothis dipsacea, 108; peltigera, 85, 
327 

Helophilus trivittatus, 328 

Helotropha fibrosa, 80 

Hemerophila abruptaria, dark var., 154 

Hemithea strigata, 129 

Hepialus daphnandri, 324 ; lupulinus, 
86, — -vegetable enemy of larva, 162 ; 
sylvanus, 110 

Herminia barbalis, 71 ; cribralis, 114 ; 
tarsipennalis. 111 

Hesperia acta3on, 7, 11, 212 ; lineola, 
114, 212, 329; nostrodamus, 7, 11; 
paniscus. 111 ; sylvanus, 19, 212 

Hessian tly, parasite of, 317 

Heterogamia £egyptiaca, 188 

Heterogenea limacodes, 275 

High-flat setting, 14, 15, 45, 76, 77, 
119,142 

Himera pennaria, 246 

Homueochromatism in butterflies, 201 

Homoeosoma cretacella, 273 ; seneeio- 
nis, 273 

Hybernia aurantiaria, 18, 73, 85, 153 ; 
defoliaria, 18, 234 ; dira, 246 ; leuco- 
phffiaria, 233, 246 ; marginaria, 178, 
234 ; progemmaria var. f useata, 320 

Hybrid Amphidasys strataria x A. betu- 
laria, 179 



Hybrid and mongrel Lepidoptera, 197 

Hybrids and mongrels, 176, 300 

Hydrelia uncula, 227 

Hydrilla palustris, 222 

Hydrocampa nymphiieata, 242 ; stagnata, 

74, 212 
Hydrocampinffi, 147, 242 
Hydruecia micacea, 48, 145, 319 ; nicti- 

tans, 20, 48, — var. paludis, 114 
Hygrochroa syringaria, 245 
Hymenoptera from New Mexico, 135 
Hypenodes costtestrigalis, 37, 74 
Hyperchiria io, 43 
Hypsipetes impluviata. 111, 227, 251; 

ruberata, 111, 312; trifasciata, 145 
Hyria muricata, 129 

Icerya rileyi, 14 

Ichneumon on young larva of Cucullia 
verbasci, 203 

Idia lunata, 95 

Ino geryon, 116 ; statices, 116 

Insects, the senses of, 11 

lodis lactearia, 129 ; vernaria, 108 
109 

Ireland — Catalogue of the Lepidoptera 
of, 36, 58, 104, 128, 212, 233, 286, 310 ; 
Aciptilia tetradactylus, 85 ; Larentia 
flavicinctata, 297 ; Leucania extranea, 
80 ; Leucophasia sinapis, 200 ; Platy- 
ptilia tesseradactyla, 74 ; Phothedes 
captiuncula, 85 

Ischnura elegans, 35, 70, 251, 282 ; pu- 
milio, 35 

Isle of Man — Colias edusa, 269 

Ismene helios, 152 

Ivy, captures at, 113 

Ixias birdi, 241 

Jumping beans, 23, 93 

Kent— Colias edusa, 269, 321 ; Endro- 
mis versicolor, 154 ; Pieris daplidice, 
299 ; Plusia moneta, 221 ; orichalcea, 
180 

Kermes gillettei, 14 ; variegatus, 300 

Labidura pugnax, 201 

Lancashire — Acherontia atropos, 298, 
322 ; Acronycta alni, 298 

Laphygma exigua, 327 

Larentia berberata, 108 ; cnesiata, 235 
flavicinctata, 297, 325 ; miaria, 74 
multistrigaria, 235 ; olivata, 235 
salicata, 235, 274 

Lasiocampa quercifolia, 48, 110, — num- 
ber of eggs, 24 

Lecaniodiaspis celtidis, 12 

Leioptilus (Alucita) scarodactyla, 22 

Lepidoptera, aberrations of British, 144 : 
Gynandromorphous, 174 ; in 1896 
107 ; in 1897, 176, 322 ; of Ireland 
catalogue of the, 36, 58, 104, 128, 212 



CONTENTS. 



233, 286, 310; of Middlesex, 198; the 

protection of, 229, 232 ; list of species 

to be protected, 198 ; uniformity in 

pinning and setting, 77, 174; phalajnte 

of the whole world, 264 
Lepidopterous pupie, questions con- 
nected with the formation of, 24 
Leptogramma scabrana, 146 
LeptoiDhyes punctatissima, 28 
Leptura livida, 224 
Lesles nympha, 35; sponsa, 35, 70, 201, 

282 
Leucania albipuncta, 327 ; comma, 116, 

145 ; extranea, 80; httoralis, 108, lOiJ; 

obsoleta, 273, 275; stramiuea, 114; 

turca, 110 ; unipuncta migrating, 78 
Leucoma salicis, 273, 327 
Leucoi^liica surinamensis (indica), 178 
Leucophasia sinapis, 58, 200, 209 
Leucorrhinia dubia, 70, 251, 296 
Leuctinodes longipalpis, 126 ; vagans, 

126 
Libellula depressa, 272, 273 ; fulva, 52 ; 

quadrimacula, 32, 180, 251, 272, 277, 

278, 2.S0 
Libythea celtis, 10 
Ligdia adustata, 72, 111, 216 
Limenitis Camilla, 10, 210 ; Sibylla, 102, 

108, 109, 202 
Limnobia replicata, 148 
LiNCOLNSHiEE — Spliiux convolvuli, 298 
Liparis dispar, effects of inbreeding, 24 
Lita intermediella, 83 
Lithocolletis messaniella, 72 ; querci- 

foliella, 72; scopariella, 71; sylvella, 

71 ; ulmifoliella, 72 
Lithosia aureola, liJ8, 222; caniola, 328 ; 

complana, 114; mesomella, 108, 115, 

226 ; sericea, 110 ; sororcula, 145 ; 

rubricoUis, 108 
Lithostege griseata, 275 
Lobesia reliquana, 71 
Lobophora carpinata (lobulata), 250, 

310; halterata, 310; hexapterata, 71 ; 

sexaUsata, 111, 310; viretata. 111, 

113, 145, 310 
Locusta peregrina, 23 ; undetermined 

species, 84 ; viridissima, 28, 326 
Lophopteryx camelina, 69, 297 ; car- 

melita, 180 
Lophyrus pini, 95, 297 
Lozogramma petraria, 246 
Luehdortia puziloi, 152 
Luperina cespitis, 67, 94, 96, 113, 116 ; 

testacea, 113 
Lycajna iiigon, 210 ; argiolus, 10, 108, 

112, 116, 180, 241, 248, 322 ; argus, 

210; arion, 57, 87, 103, 139, 210, 220; 

astrarche, 10, 114, 210; baton, 10; 

bellargus, 10, 80, 210 ; boetica, 9 ; 

corydcn, 81, 210; cyllarus, 6, 10; 

arcs, 210 ; escheri, 210 ; eumedon, 

210; hylas,210; icarus, 10, 210, 322— 



? hybrids, 95; minima, 210; orbitulas, 
210; semiargus, 210; webbiana, 94 
Lytra vesicatoria, 324 

Macaria alternata, 246; liturata, 74, 111, 

213, 250 : notata, 71, 72 ; shanghai- 

saria, 246 
Macroglossa bombiliformis, 108, 115, 

116, 179, 219, 225, 226; fuciformis, 

108, 115, 219 ; stellatarum, 116, 249, 

292, 323 
Mamestra abjecta, 114, 274 ; albicolon, 

249 ; anceps, 48, 72 ; persicarise 

(black), 23; sordida, 145 
Mantis, living in confinement, 202 ; re- 

ligiosa, 188 
Meconema varium, 28, 76 
Melampias melampus, 23 ; pharte, 23 
Melanargia arge, 6; galataa. 6, 10, 114, 

116, 150, 211,— var. procida, 8, 10; 

japygia, 6, — var. cleanihe, 8, 10 ; 

pherusa, 5, 10, — var. plesaura, 10 
Melalontha vulgaris, 154 
Melanippe galiata, 108, 1 53 ; hastata, 

150, 316 ; montanata, 266, 274 ; pro- 

cellata, 72, 146 ; rivata, 74, 146, 153 ; 

unangulata, 74, 111 
Melanism and climatic conditions, 127, 

197, 219 
Melanthia albicillata, 111 ; rubiginata, 

74 
Melinda formosa, 165 
Melissodes menuacha var. submenuacha, 

137 
Melitiea artemis, 94 ; athalia, 10, 103, 

210; auriuia, 57, 103, 116, 324; cinxia, 

10, 58, 223; dictyma, 7, 10, 210; 

didyma 7, 10, 210; parthenie, 210; 

phuebe, 210 
Merodon equestris, 227 
Metrocampa dolabraria, 246 ; pulve- 

raria, 245 
Micro-Lepidoptera from Dauphine Alps, 

22; fmrn Equatorial Africa, 22; in 

1897, 322 
Micropteryx sparmannella, 71 
Middlesex— Amphidasys betularia var. 

doubledayaria, 200 ; Lepidoptera of, 

198 ; Lycajna argiolus at Chiswick, 

248 ; Phorodesma pustulata, 222 ; 

Sphinx convolvuli, 270 
Miltogramma conica, 95 ; punctata, 95 
Mimesa bicolor, 275 
" Mimetic attraction," 177 
Mimicry, 201, 328 
Minoa murinata, 116 
Molorchus minor, 180 
Molophilus muriuus, 275 
Morgeni mercedouia, 165 
Moth-trap in 1896, illuminated, 145 
Mould, formaline as a preventive of, 

21 
MuUeriau mimicry, 201, 328 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



Muscular energy in a Tipula leg after 

death, 275 
Mymaridse, British, 26J: 
Myochrous curculionoides, sp. n., 263 
Myopa fasciata, 95 

Natural genera and the nature of species, 

151 
Nemeobius lucina, 116 
Nemeophila plantaginis, 116, 252, 329 ; 

russula, 20, 250 
Nemoria viridata, 110, 129 
Nephrocerus flavicornis, 8i 
Nest of Bombus latriellellus, of B. lapi- 

darius, and of Vespa rufa attacked by 

larvfe of Aphomia sociella, 27-k 
Neuration without removing scales, 

studying, 265 
Neuria saponariii?, 48 
Neuronia popularis, 67, 94, 116, 319 
Nisoniades tages, 19 
Noctua castanea, 145, 299; dahlii, 110; 

glareosa, 299 ; plecta, 73 ; sobrina, 23 ; 

umbrosa, 67 ; xantliographa, 67 
Noctuid moths, synonymy of, 170 
Nola confusalis, 72 ; cucuUatella, 110, 

226 ; strigula, 110 
Notiophilus rufipes, 324 
Nonagna arundinis, 326, 327 ; fulva, 110 ; 

lutosa, 114 ; neurica, 273 
Notodonta camelina, 73 ; dictrea, 48 ; 

dietieoides, 113; dromedai-ius, 69; 

treijida, 145, 327 ; trimacula, 145 ; 

ziczac, 299 
Notonecta glauca, 201 ; lutea, 201 
Notonectidffi, preliminary revision of 

the, 300 
Nottinghamshire — Sphinx convolvuli, 

270 
Nudaria mundana, 145 ; senex, 110 
Numeria pulveraria, 204, 245 
Nymphula stagnata, 242 
Nyssia hispidaria, 145, 152, 154, 225, 

250 ; lapponaria, 179 ; zonaria, 59, 68, 

86, 87 

Oberea oculata, 274 

Obituary — Hodgkinson, J. B., 124; Fry, 

Clarence, 156 ; Finlay, John, 228 ; 

Matthews, Andrew, 276 ; Dunning, 
■' Joseph William, 332; McArthur, 332 
Ochsenheimeria bisontella, 74 ; vacu- 

lella, 299 
Ocneria dispar, 153 
Odynerus livipes, 152 
CEcophora stipella, 22 
(Edipoda ceerulescens, 28 ; fasciata, 23 
<Edipodid:i', 148 
Onocera ahenella, 146 
Oodes helopioides, 180 
Ophion luteum, 122 
Opisthograpta ciathrata, 246 ; alter- 

naria, 246 



Opomala cylindrica, 188 

Oporabia autumnaria, 234 ; dilutata var. 

obscurata, 234 ; filigrammata, 234 
Oporina croceago, 94, 112, 113 
Orgyia antiqua, 115 ; dispar, 87 ; fasce- 

lina, 108, 109 ; gonostigma, 327 
Ornithoptera pompeus, 241 ; (Pompeo- 

ptera) irregularis, sp. n., 312 
Ornix anglicella, 71 
Orthetrum cancellatum, 281 ; Cferu- 

lescens, 271, 281 
Orthoneura brevicornis, 152 
Orthoptera, British, 28, 76 ; exotic, 23, 

187, 327 
Orthosia upsilon, 273 
Orthotfenia striana, 146 
Oxfordshire — Colias edusa, 248 
Oxylebius legolesius, 329 

Pachnobia hyperborea (alpina), 149 

Pachycnemia hippocastanaria, 111 

Ptedisca occultana, 146 

Paniscus cephalotes, 122 

Panolis piniperda, 117 

Pantilius tunicatus, 326 

Papiho ganesa, 241 ; machaon, 9, 23, 
95, 102, 208, — var. sphyrus, 9 ; mime- 
ticus, sp. n., 165; paris, 241; poda- 
lirius, 9, — var. feisthamelii, 95, — var. 
latteri, 95, — var. zanclreus, 9, 95 ; 
rex, 165 ; new species from Uganda, 
165 

Papilionidae of the Machaon group from 
N. America, 147 

Paragymnojileurus, gen.nov., 166 

Paraponyx stratiotalis (stratiotata), 67, 
73, 74, 242 

Pararge egeria, 10, 19, 112, 116, 123, 
212, 248, 319, 322 ; mtera var adrasta, 
211 ; megsera, 10, 19, 212,— var. tige- 
lius, 10 ; xiphia, 94 ; xii^hioides, 94 

Parasite in larva of Melit£ea aurinia, 
203 

Parnassius apollo, 208, 324 ; geogra- 
phical varieties of, 15 

Passalus, stridulating apparatus in, 151 

Pechypogon barbalis, 224 

Pelurga comitata, 73 

Pempelia palumbella. 111 

Penthina betulffitana, 146 ; gentiana, 273 

Pericallia syringaria, 20, 108, 110, 116 
245 

Perinephele lancealis, 242 

Periplaneta americana, 142 ; mono- 
chroma, 188 

Peronea cristana, 146; mixtana, 146; 
permutana, 220, 274 ; schalleriana, 146 

Petasia cassiuea, 112 

Phalera bucephala, 299 

Phibalapteryx lignata, 67; tersata, 95, 
107 ; vitalbata, 72, 95, 111, 116 

Phigalia pedaria, 145, 247; piiosaria, 
72 ; sinuosaria, 247 



Xll 



CONTENTS. 



Philosamia cynthia, 43 ; spleudidus, 

43 
Phloeodes demarniana, 199 ; immun- 

dana, 146 
Phorodesma bajularia, 202, 224, — larva 

(tig.), 801 : pustulata, 222, — larva 

(lig.), 301 ; smaragdaria, 202 
Photliedes captiuncula, 85 
Pliotography without shadow, 265 
I'hotopsis mesillensis, sp. n., 137 
Plioxopteryx lactana, 72 ; uucaiia, 199 
Pliycis betulffi, 199 
Pliyllocrania illudens, 300, 325 
Phyllodromia gernianica, 142 
Phytometra £enea, 108 
Pieris brassicffi, 9, 19, 50, 94, 108, 241, 

324 ; attracted by artificial flowers, 

197; callidice, 209; cheiranthi, 94; 

daplidice, 9 ; melete, 276 ; napi, 19, 

56, 209, 241; rapae, 9, 19, 56, 107, 

209, 241, 266 
Pigments of Lepidoptera, the probable 

cause and physical nature of the, 51 
Pionea strameutalis, 74 
Plagithiuysus from the Hawaiian 

Islands, species of, 21 
Platetrum depressum, 32, 278, 280 ; 

quadrimaculata, 70 
Platycleis brachyptera, 28, 76 ; roselii, 

28 
Platycnemis pennipes, 35, 282 
Platypezidfe, IJritisli, 221 
Platy^Jteryx lacertula, 108; uuguicula, 

108 
Platyptilia tesseradactyla, 74, 84, 86 
Platysamia ceanothi, 42 ; cecropia, 42 ; 

Columbia, i'i ; gloveri, 42 
Plebius (Lycajna) :tgon, 275 
Pleurota pyropella, 22 
Plusia bractea, 20 ; chrysitis, 67, 110, 

116: festucjE, 67, 110, 273; gamma, 

271 ; iota, 73, 110, 116, 145 ; moneta, 

221, 271, 298, 324; orichalcea, 180; 

pulchrina, 110 
Poecilocampa populi, 68, 72, 115, 116 
Poecilochroma ratzeburghiana, 74 
Polia chi var. olivacea, 22, 68 ; Havi- 

cincta, 95, 326 
Polygouia c-album var. hutchinsoni, 16 ; 

comma, 172 ; iuterrogatiouis, 172 
Polyommatus corydon, 274, 275; dis- 

par, 102 ; hippothoe, 80 ; phlceas var. 

eleus, 9 
Porthesia auriflua, 20 ; (Euproctis) 

chrysorrhcea, 20, 230, 232, 31(j 
Prays curtisellus, 73, 273 
Protection of insects, 18, 144, 146, 148, 

150, 198, 229, 232 
Prothoracic gland of D. vinula, 147 
Protopassus walkeri, 300 
Psamotis hyalinalis, 242 ; pulveralis, 

242 
Psecadia pusiella, 21 



Pseudopanthera bimaculata, 245 ; pe- 

traria, 246 
Pseudopontia paradoxa, 178 
Pseudoterj)na pruinata, 129, 250 
Psilura monacha, 108, 226 
Psyche cases, 327 
Pterostoma palpina, 48 
Ptocheuusa inopella, 273 
Pulvinaria innumerabilis var. occiden- 

talis, 13 • 
Pycnoscelus indicus, 21, 28 
Pyralis glaucinalis, 72, 74 
Pyrisitia proterpia, 2U2 
Pyrrhosoma minium, 35, 29 (lig.), 149, 

271, 273, 277, 283 ; tenellum, 35, 278, 

283 

Kanatra vicina, 188 
Eecent Litekatcke : — 

' The Hemiptera-Homoptera of the 

British Islands,' by Jas. Edwards, 

123 
' The Lepidoptera of the British 

Islands,' vol. iii., by Charles G. 

Barrett, 124 
' Economic Entomology for the 

Farmer and Fruit-grower, and for 

use as a Text-book in Agricultural 

Schools and Colleges,' by John B. 

Smith, 124 
'Proceedings of the Eighth Annual 

Meeting of the Association of 

Economic Entomologists,' 124 
' Bibliography of the more Important 

Contributions to American Econo- 
mic Entomology,' by Samuel Hen- 

shaw, 124 
' Proceedings of the South London 

Entomological and Natural History 

Society, 1896,' 154 
' Eeport of Observations of Injurious 

Insects,' by Eleanor A. Ormerod, 

155 
' Notes on Lepidoptera collected in 

the Edinburgh District,' by William 

Evans, 155 
' Preliminary List of the Neuroptera 

and Trichoptera of Yorkshire,' by 

G. T. Porritt, 155 
'Imaginal Discs in Insects,' by 

Henry S. Pratt, 155 
' A New Hypothesis of Seasonal Di- 
morphism in Lepidoptera,' by A. 

G. Mayer, 156 
' Ichneumonides d'Afrique,' by J. 

Tosquinet, 156 
'Le Cocciniglie Italiane,' by Antonio 

Berlese, 156 
' A Check-List of the Coccidte,' by T. 

D. A. Cockerell, 156 
' The Principal Household Insects of 

the United States,' by L. 0. Howard 

and C. L. Marlatt, 156 



CONTENTS. 



xin 



' Insects affecting Domestic Animals,' 
by Herbert Osborn, 156 

' Insects affecting the Cotton Plant,' 
by L. 0. Howard, 156 

' An Essay on the Development of the 
Mouth-parts of certain Insects,' by 
John B. Smith, 156 

' New Mallojihaga ' (Pt.II.), by Vernon 
L. Kellogg, 156 

'Die Schmetterlings fauna von Hildes- 
heim,' by A. Eadclift'e Grote, 203 

' The Young Beetle Collector's Hand- 
book,' by E. Hofmann and W. 
Egmont Kirby, 204 

'A Study in Insect Parasitism,' by L. 
Howard, 228 

' Harrow Butterflies and Moths,' 
Vol. II., by J. L. Bonhote and N. 
C. Rothschild, 228 

' Descriptive List of British Antho- 
myidaj,' by R. H. Meade, 252 

' The Asparagus Beetle,' by F. H. 
Chittenden, 276 

' Some Little-known Insects affecting 
Stored Vegetable Products,' by F. 
H. Chittenden, 276 

' The San Jose Scale and its Nearest 
AUies,' by T. D. A. Cockerell, 
276 

'Insect Control in California,' by C. 
L. Marlatt, 276 

' General Index to Insect Life,' 276 

' Life Histories of American Insects,' 
by Clarence Moores Weed, 330 

' Report of the State Board of Agri- 
culture on the Work of Extermi- 
nation of the Gipsy Moth,' 330 

' Proceedings of the Davenport Aca- 
demy of Natural Science,' 330 

' Biological Effects of Civilization on 
the Insect Fauna of Ohio,' by F. 
M. Webster, 330 

' The Protective Value of Action, 
Volitional or otherwise, in Pro- 
tective Mimicry,' by F. M. Webster, 
330 

' The Food Plants of Scale Insects 
(Coccidffi),' 330 

'Further Coccid Notes,' by W. M. 
Maskell, 330 

' Investigations on the San Jose 
Scale,' by John B. Smith, 331 

' Directions for Collecting and Pre- 
serving Scale Insects (Coccidfe),' by 
T. D. A. Cockerell, 331 
Reports of Societies:^ 

Birmingham Entomological, 152, 252, 
275, 327 

Cambridge Entomological and Natural 
History, 23, 93, 151, 178, 328 

City of London Entomological and 
Natural History, 179 

Entomological Club, 96 



Entomological Society of London, 20, 

82, 146, 177, 201, 300, 323 
Lancashire and Cheshire Entomolo- 
gical, 87 
Nonpareil Entomological and Natural 

History, 24, 153, 180, 329 
North London Natural History, 96, 

224 
South Londoxi Entomological and 
Natural History, 22, 84, 148, 177, 
202, 224, 274, 325 
"Representative species," 150 
Retinia buoliana, 74, 199; pinicolana, 
199 ; pinivorana, 200 ; resinella, 149, 
202 
Rhinonchus bruchoides, 180 
Rhodocera rhamni, 209 
Rhodophfea advenella, 146, 273 ; con- 

sociella, 146 
Rhynchota, synonymic notes on aquatic, 

258 
Rivula sericealis, 67 
Roxana arcuana, 71, 74 

Salius fuscus, 275 

Satacoma agrionata, 300 

Saturnia carpini, 20, 22, 110, 226, 249 ; 
ccecigena, 40 ; gelleta, 44 ; isabellse, 
40 ; laventera, 44 ; orizaba, 44 ; pa- 
vonia, 22, 202 ; vorulla, 44 ; zaca- 
teca, 44 

Satyrus alcyone, 211 ; ciree, 10 ; pri- 
euri var. uhagonis, 324 ; semele, 266, 
275, — in cop. with V. atalanta, 249, — 
var. aristffius, 7, 8, 10 ; statilinus var. 
alliouia, 10 

Sarrothripa revayana, 109 

Scerropinus fenestralis, 93 

Schistocera peregrina, 84 

SciLLY Isles — Colias edusa, 269 ; Lepi- 
doptera of, 82 

Scodonia belgiaria, 108, 214, 226, 252 

Scoparianse, British, 242 

Scoparia pallida, 73, 114 

Scoria dealbata, 215 

Scotland — Colias hyale, 178; Epione 
parallelaria, 317; Lepidopteria of xi vie- 
more, 149 ; Setina irrorella, 81 ; 
Sphinx convolvuli, 298 

Scotosia certata. 111 ; undulata, 111 

Seasonal dimorphism in African butter- 
ilies, 84 

Selenia illustraria, 110; lunaria, 38, 
110, 116, 145 ; tetralunaria, 39, 245 

Selidosema ericetaria, 215; plumaria, 
109 

Senta maritima var. bipunctaria, 114, — 
var. wismariensis, 275 

Sericinus telamon, 152 

Sericoris rivulana, 22 

Sesia culiciformis, 200, — yellow band, 
23 ; musciformis. 111, 222 ; tipuli- 
formis, injurious, 173 



XIV 



CONTENTS. 



Setina aurita 247 ; irrorella, 81, 95, 174, 

217 
Sigara (Rhynchota), notes on the genus,. 

238 
Silk-producing Lepidoptera, 39 
Sirex gigas, 252; juvencus, 21 
Smerinthus ocellatus, 22, 69, 299, 319 ; 
populi, 1!), G9, 72, 116, 274, 319; tilite, 
23, 71, 116, 319 
Some thoughts suggested by Mr. Har- 

court-Bath's paper, 184 
Soplironia semicostella, 22 
Sphecodes niger, 152 
Sphegida3 from Egypt, 202 
Spider catching Vauessffi, 21 
Spiders from the Canaries and Madeiras, 

95 
Spilosoma fuUginosa, 48, 68, 145, 250 ; 
pairing with A. caia, 247 ; lubricipeda, 
22, 84 ; ^mendica, 20, — var. rustica, 
205 ; menthastri, 274 
Spilomena foxii, sp. n., 136 
Spilomyia speciosia, 227 
Spilonota rosajcolana, 72 
Spilothyrus alcea, 11 ; althete, 11, 212 ; 

lavaterse, 212 
Sphinx convolvuli, 219, 223, 270, 298, 
321, 323; Ugustri, 95, 115, 116, 299, 
319 ; pinastri, 222 
Sphinigymnoiileurus, gen. nov. 166 
Stauropus fagi, 115, 270, 271, 297 
Stenia punctalis, 242 
Stenobothrus elegans, 28 
Stenoprocus cruciatus, 177 
Sterrha sacraria, 215 
Stilbia anomala, 109 
Strange resting-place of butterflies, 266 
Strangalia melanura, 224 
Strenia clathrata, 213, 246, 269 
Stridulating apparatus of Geotrupes, 

151 ; in a Passalus, 151 
Suffolk — Acherontia atropos, 122, 247, 
269 ; Choerocampa elpenor, 247 ; Lepi- 
doptera in, 70 ; notes from Eastern 
Counties, 73 ; Sphinx convolvuU, 270 
SuKEEY — Amyhidasys betularia var. 
doubledayaria, 222 ; Anosia menippe, 
18; Plusia moneta, 221, 271; Whit 
Monday at Oxshott, 299 
Sussex— Colias edusa and C. hyale, 269; 
Peronea permutana, 220; Pycnoselus 
indicus, 21 ; Velia currens, 148 
Swammerdamia ctesiella = spinella, 72 
Sympetrum flaveolum, o2 ; fonscolombii, 
32 ; sanguineum, 32 ; scoticum, 32, 70, 
280, 281, 321 ; striolatum, 280, 281, 321 ; 
vulgatum, 32 
Synchloe lacinia, 324 
Synonymy of the British species of Sco- 

paria, 243 
Syrichthus alveus, 212 ; carthami, 212 ; 

malvae ab. taras, 324 ; sao, 212 
Syrphida', 226 



Tabanus spodopterus, 93 
TiBniocampa gothica var. gothicina, 203 ; 
gracilis, 119; incerta, 23; miniosa, 
107, 225 ; munda, 71, 85, 117 ; in cop. 
with T. stabilis, 85 ; opima, 153, 327 ; 
populeti, 117, 176; rubricosa, 119 
Tal£e23oria pseudobombycella, 146 
Tapinostola elymi, 275 ; bondii, 75, 256, 
303, 318 

Teinopalpis imperialis, 242 

Telea polyphemus, 41 

Tellena angusticollis, sp. n., 261 

Temperature experiments, 175, 196, 300 

Tephrina brunneata, 246 

Tephrosia bistortata, 20, 148, 149, 300,— 
ab. abietaria, 20, — ab. consonaria, 20 ; 
biundularia, 20, 85, 95, 105, 108, 110, 
116, 250,— on the Irish, 140 ; biundu- 
laria and crepuscularia (bistortata), 
ova of, 149; consonaria, 105, 111, 
116; crepuscularia, 85, 95, 105, 107, 
110, 115, 178, 202, 203, 300, 313, 320, 
322 ; extersaria, 108, 111 ; punctularia, 
71, 128 

Tephrosia discussion. The, 140, 202 

Termites, remarks on, 152 

Tethea subtusa, 94 

Tettix bipunctatus, 28 

Thais cerisyi var. deyrolii, 149 

Thalpochares parva, 47 (Micra) ; paula, 
a British species, is, 17, 47 

Thamnotrizon cinereus, 28 

Thecla acaciffi, 9; betulfe, 108, 109, 123; 
ilicis, 209 ; pruni, 153 ; quercus, 225 ; 
rubi, 19, 108 

Thera firmata. 111, 312 ; juniperata, 149, 
311; simulata, 149; variata, 311 

Tholomigefe turfosalis, 37 

Thyatira derasa, 249 

Timarcha Itevigata, 272 

Tinea biselliella, 21, 72 ; cloacella, 71 ; 
cochylidella = ruricolella, 143 ; ferru- 
gniella, 73 ; fuscipunctella, 73 ; semi- 
fulvella, 145 

Tischera complanella, 71 

Tortrix piceana. 200 ; pyrastrana, 45 ; 
ribeana, 7'S ; viburniana, 114 

Toxocampa craccse, 274 

Trachea piniperda, 107 

Trichiura cratagi, 95, 112, 116, 145, 323 

Trichonyx sulcicollis, 324 

Triphffina comes, 85 ; fimbria, 84 ; inter- 
jecta, 110 

Tryxalis pharaonis, 188 

Urania rhipheus, 178 
Urapteryx sambucata, 245, 252 
Urodera lacordairei, sp. n., 261 

Vanessa atalanta, 10, 18, 56, 94, 210, 
241; antiopa, 48, 95, 210, 269; c-al 
bum, 10, 19, 82, 210 (Polygonia), 172, 
— var. hutchinsoni, 16, 87 ; callirhoe. 



CONTENTS. 



XV 



94; cardui, 7, 10, 56, 94, 210, 242, 299; 
huntera, 94; io, 19, 94, 107; poly- 
chloros, 7, 10, 108, 109; urtic*, C8, 
107, 210, 241,— var. ichnusa, 10 

Variation of Callimorpha dominula, 294 

Varieties. — Abraxas grossulariata, 21, 22, 
73, 111, 150, 271, 325 ; sylvata, 85, 325 ; 
Acronycta menyanthidis, 85; Agrotis 
segetiim, 85 ; Amphidasys prodro- 
maria, 93 ; Anchocelis rufina, 150 ; 
Angerona prunaria, 254 ; Apatura iris, 
94 ; Arctia caia, 94, 95, 150, 326 ; Ar- 
gynnis adippe, 326 ; (Dryas) paphia, 
23 ; Doritis apoUinus, 152 ; Campto- 
gramma bilineata, 179 ; Catocala nup- 
ta, 79, 266 ; Cerastis vaccinii, 152 ; 
Colias chrysotheme, 296 ; Epinephele 
hyperanthus, 328; ianira, 179, 326; 
tithonus,326 ; Erebia goante, 254 ; 
Fidonia atomaria, 96 ; Hemerophila 
abruptaria, 154; Hepialus humuli, 
67; Hybernia marginaria, 178 ; Leu- 
corrhinia dubia, 296 ; Limenitis Si- 
bylla, 179 ; Lycaena corydon, 81, 327, 
329 ; minima, 179 ; Melanargia galatea, 
323 ; montanata, 236 ; Nemeophila 
plantaginis, 266,300;Noctuac-nigrum, 
85; Odonestis potatoria, 22, 85, 322 ; 
Pararge egeria, 179, 254 ; Phigalia pe- 
daria, 147, 150 ; Pieris brassicse, 324 ; 
rap.ne, 294 ; Pyrameis cardui, 179 ; 
Saturnia carpini, 85 ; Spilosoma t'uli- 
ginosa, 95 ; Sraerinthus populi, 326 ; 
tiliffi, 295 ; Tasniocampa cruda, 85 ; 
gracilis, 151 ; munda, 85 ; Tripha?na 
pronuba, 85 ; Vanessa atalanta, 18, 
196 ; antiopa, 196 ; io, 196 ; levana, 
196 ; urticaj, 179, 295, 324 ; Xylo- 
phasia rurea, 85 ; Zygsena filipendulae, 
24 

Velia currens, 148, 176 

Velleius dilatatus, 324 

Venusia cambrica, 130 



Vespa britannica, 180 ; crabro, 123, 267 ; 

rufa, 274 ; vulgaris, 123 
Vespaj during hybernation, 152 

Wales — Acronycta alni, 176 ; Agrotis 
cinerea, 81 ; Bombyx neustria, larva 
abundant, 200 ; Colias edusa, 299 ; 
Dianthajcia luteago, 222 ; Entomology 
in Merionethshire, 248, 271 ; Macro- 
Lepidoptera of the Conway Valley, 19 ; 
Ehopalocera at Llandudno, 272 ; Va- 
nessa c-album, 81 

Waewickshire — Dragonfiies around Bir- 
mingham, 272 ; Sphingidas of Birming- 
ham district, 219 

Wicken Fen, 220 

Wiltshire — Sphinx convolvuli, 270 

Wingless moths, 44 

WoRCESTERSHiEE — Colcoptera in 1897, 
299 ; Sphinx convolvuli, 298 

Xanthia aurago, 95, 145, 320 ; citrago, 

73 ; gilvago, 116 
Xanthogramma ornata, 95 
Xanthosetia zagana, 74 
Xiphidium dorsale, 28 
Xylina ornithopus, 116 ; petrificata, 112, 

113 ; rhizolitha, 73, 110, 113 

Yorkshire — Sallows in 1896, 116 ; Sphinx 
convolvuli, 298 ; Vanessa antiopa, 269 

Zanclognatha grisealis, 67 
Zeugophora fiavicoUis, 83 
Zeuzera aesculi, 48, 110; pyrina, 115 
Zonosoma linearia, 129; pendularia,129, 

145 ; punctularia, 129 ; orbicularia, 

115, 129 
Zygffina exulans, 23 ; filipendulfe, 108, — 

var. hipijocrepidis (tig.), 181, 224; loni- 

cerfe, 116 ; ochseiiheimeri x with Z. 

filipeudulaj, 83 ; trifolii, 108, 116- 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Fungi paeasitic on Butterflies ....... 1 

Abraxas grossulakiata vars 25 

Epinephele hyperanthus vars 49 

Anisolabis annulipes, Lucas 125 

COEDYCEPS ENTOMOREHIZA (VEGETABLE EnEMY OF HePIALUS LUPU- 

LiNus Laev^) 162 

Zyg;ena filipendul.e vae. hippoceepidis 181 

Epinephele tithonus vae 253 

Ageion meecueiale (Male and Female) '\ 

Anax foemosus (Nymph) .... I Plate I. To face 277 

Calopteryx splendens (Nymph) . . ) 

Phorodesma pustulata (bajulaeia) Laev.e 301 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX.] 



JANUARY, 1897. 



[No. 404. 



FUNGI PARASITIC ON BUTTERFLIES. 
By J. C. RicKARD. 





On page 314 of the October number of the * Entomologist ' is 
a paragraph relating to this subject, entitled '* Fungi or Andro- 
conia?" by Prof. J. B. Smith. In referring to Mr. Scudder's 
great work on Butterflies he characterises it as " magnificent." 
I regret not having had an opportunity of reading it, but am 
aware of its comprehensiveness, and through the kindness of a 
friend have been able to consult some of the plates. In a work 
of this magnitude it is not surprising that errors should creep 
in, but in spite of some mistakes I shall continue to regard it as 
"most magnificent" until I meet with a better work on the 
subject. 

"Prof. Smith refers me to plate 47, figures 1 and 2, which he 
states represent something " as nearly like a spore-formation 

BNTOM. — JAN. 1897. B 



^ THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

in some kinds of fungus as can well be imagined." As those 
figures do not present any very striking fungoid characters, I 
think he must have meant plate 46, where figures 1 to 4 
represent organisms similar to those found on some Satyrids. 
Prof. Smith goes on to say that he has " found his (Mr. Scudder's) 
pictures in every case absolutely correct." 

Figure 4 on plate 44 represents a portion of the wing of 
Speyeria idalia ; the objects in this figure that Mr. Scudder 
terms " feathered androconia " are really the rhizoids of a 
fungus, either represented from the under side, or ehe showing 
through the transparency of the overlying scales. Figures 39 
and 40 of plate 46 are said to represent the androconia of Pieris 
oleracea and P. rapce, but both figures are taken from mutilated 
or imperfectly developed examples. Of figure 40 (rapce) I can 
speak positively from my own observation ; whilst the oleracea 
example so closely resembles the parasite of P. napi, that I have 
not the least doubt of its imperfect condition ; certainly, many 
examples, both of the rapce and napi forms, minus their sporo- 
carps, have come under my notice ; but I have invariably found 
some on every slide examined in which this organ, the most 
important part, was developed and in situ. Figure 42 of the 
same plate is said to represent the androconia of Laertias 
r)hilenor ; this form differs from all the others figured by Mr. 
Scudder, and, speaking with reserve, I must say that in my 
opinion it represents an imperfect example. One would hardly 
suppose the vertical lines represented the stride of an ordi- 
nary scale ; neither do they ; one of these lines represents the 
stem that bears the sporocarp, the remaining four are the ribs 
or paraphyses (figure 1). I have very little doubt that the figure 
represents the basal portion * of the peridium, the stem and 
sporocarp of a fungus nearly allied to that found on P. afiathina 
(see a7ite, p. 171). Similar mutilated examples of the agathina 
fungus have come under my notice (figure 2). 

My efforts to learn something of the later phases in the 
development of the rapc^ fungus were only partially successful ; 
the first male of this species procured this year had never used 
its wings in flight, its fungi presented some abnormal appear- 
ances. Nearly all possessed the sporocarp ; some had no lobes, 
some only one, but the greater number had both. The most 
numerous and most instructive examples were those which 
possessed horn-like processes arising from the apices of the inner 
sides of the lobes ; these " horns " varied in length, from a mere 
point to about one-third the breadth of the fungus ; they are 
probably re-absorbed, as there was no indication of their dehis- 
cence ; their function undoubtedly being to afford protection to 
the growing sporocarp. The examination of the wings of an 
example immediately after emergence, and of several dissected 
^- Figured upside down. 



FUNGI PARASITIC ON BUTTERFLIES. O 

from the chrysalids, showed the fungus to be more developed 
than they were in the first specimen examined, in which the 
butterfly seems to have matured more rapidly than its parasite. 

On page 171 I remarked that the lobes of the najn fungus 
had probably become distorted in drying ; this is not an exact 
explanation, the time the butterfly had been dead having little 
or nothing to do with the contraction of the lobes, which seems 
to be characteristic of this and some other forms — the oleracea 
fungus for instance. The contraction of the lobes affords an 
interesting case of the production of mechanical effects by a 
slight physical modification (shrinkage) of the parts concerned ; 
the function in this instance being to facilitate the dehiscence of 
the sporocarp ; this follows from the circumstance that the lobes 
on contracting overlap each other, so that they no longer occupy 
the same plane, but are deflected somewhat from the central 
line ; thus one lobe presses in one direction on one side, and the 
other lobe in the opposite direction on the other side, imparting 
to the central organs a sort of twist, which tends to cause a 
rupture at the weakest part of the structure, which in the case 
under consideration is usually at the junction of the stem and 
peridium, where, as I pointed out (ante, p. 230), there is a 
"hilum." Exceptional examples are met with in which the 
lobes have contracted before the sporocarp has developed suffi- 
ciently to receive the pressure on what may be termed its " equa- 
torial"* region. In these cases the lobes are found pressing the 
sporocarp down to the bottom of the notch formed by the lobes, 
where it may be seen firmly clasped in their embrace. Why the 
very similar fungus of rajjfe and others do not exhibit the like 
phenomena is difficult to explain ; for some unknown reason it 
seems that the function performed by the contracting lobes is not 
required in such species. 

No reference has hitherto been made to the sexual organs 
which must necessarily have existed prior to the development of 
the fungus. I acknowledge that I have not even sought for these 
objects, believing that both my optical and manipulative powers 
would prove insufficient for a successful investigation ; but 
certain structures that are probably of this nature have been 
described by others. A German biologist, whose name even is 
unknown to me, has described and figured in a German scientific 
journal what he calls "mother-cells"; he discovered them 
between the membranes of the wing. An eminent entomologist, 
in describing these bodies to us, sketched a rough section of a 
wing, and then proceeded to represent the "mother-cells." I 
noticed he gave a spiral twist to his figures. " Are those glands 

- This is hardly the right term to use ; what it was intended to convey 
was, that the pressure being apphed in opposite directions on either side of 
an imaginary vertical axis caused a partial rotation or "twist" of the central 
organs. — J. C. R. 

b2 



4 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of some kind ?" I asked. " No," was the reply ; " their function 
is unknown, but they are said to communicate with the exterior 
of the wing." If we turn to the illustrations generally found in 
books on cryptogamic botany, we will probably find figures 
representing the conjugation of certain fungi, that bear so close 
a resemblance to these "mother-cells," that I am tempted to 
regard the latter as the sexual organs of the fungi found on the 
wings of certain butterflies. The conjugating cells of Erysiphe 
and Eurotiuni are cases in point; but all this is conjectural. 

In the last sentence of Prof. Smith's paragraph (Entom. xxix. 
314) he remarks, "except for their greater delicacy of structure, 
these androconia do not differ from the other wing-scales." On a 
previous occasion (Entom. xxix. 230) I pointed out that certain 
differences do exist ; but if we compare the fungi with admittedly 
androconial scales as, for instance, those of Callidryas JioreUa 
(Entom. xxix. 302), we shall find that there is not even a trace 
of similitude between them. 

In conclusion, I beg leave to offer my best thanks to Prof. 
Smith for his courteous remarks. 

Explanation of the Figuees. 

Fig. 1. — Sketch of Mr. Scudder's fig. 42 (pi. 46), representing 
the "androconia of Laertuis philenor;" this object is shown upside 
down ; its asymmetry is probably due to pressure. 

Fig. 2. — Basal portion (for comparison with the above) of the 
Pieris ciiiatJiina fmigus ; at. stem ; p. paraphyses. 

Fig. 3.— The P. agatldna fungus, from which the entire stem has 
fallen out. 

Fig. 4. — Fungus of P. af/athina ; pe. peridium ; p. paraphyses ; 
b. border or coping ; r. rod-like structures on upper part of peridium ; 
St. stem, extending the whole length of the peridium ; sj). sporocarp ; 
s. black spot on the apex. 



NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES OF SICILY. 
By Margaret E. Fountaine. 

Having had some idea of spending the summer in Sicily, 
with a view to collecting butterflies when I heard that I should 
probably be the first English lepidopterist who had ever visited 
the island, and also that a certain amount of danger might be 
incurred thereby from brigands, &c., any hesitation I might 
previously have had, before making up my mind, was quite at 
an end ; I decided to go. 

It was about 4 a.m., and a glorious summer morning, on the 
10th of May last, wlien I first beheld the mountains round 



NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES OF SICILY. 5 

Palermo, tbrough a port-Lole of the ' Cristofero Colombo,' and 
thought, as I looked out, of all the little sleeping insects 
dispersed over those mountains, as yet innocent of the hand of 
the spoiler. But as I particularly desired to obtain specimens 
of the genus Melanargia, for which I knew Sicily was most 
famous, and being aware of their local habits, before com- 
mencing to work the neighbourhood I thought I might as well 
allow my head to save my heels ; so, having discovered that 
Siguor Enrico Eagusa, whose writings on the entomology of 
Sicily I had been reading with much interest during the winter 
months in England, was no other than the proprietor of the 
Grand Hotel des Palmes, I lost no time in repairing thither. 
His reply to my question as to the best locality for M. pherma 
was, "You'll have to look sharp; the time to take fresh speci- 
mens of the phenisa is generally the end of April or quite the 
beginning of May!" adding, however, that as this was a late 
season I might find it at the foot of Monte Cuccio, distant about 
four or five miles from Palermo. 

The next day I was there ; but it seemed a long walk from 
Bocco di Falco, and I had begun to despair, more especially as "il 
tempo faceva un po' brutto ! " and the sunshine was becoming more 
and more dim every minute. At last, when I had ascended a 
short distance up from the foot of the highest peak of Monte 
Cuccio, I suddenly saw, blown by the wind, one solitary speci- 
men of the butterfly for which I was on the look-out. There 
was no mistaking it, and, in spite of the unpropitious foothold 
on the sloping sides of the mountain, covered with loose stones, 
I at once gave chase, trembling with excitement, and slipping 
and falling more than once. But the i:)herusa was fast getting 
the best of it ; flying with the wind, it seemed to have no 
intention of settling, or of doubling in its rapid flight. My 
heart sank within me, when, lo ! there was another, and yet 
another ! I then found that this wanderer, though itself now 
quite lost to sight, had guided me to the spot where several of its 
companions soon fell an easy prey to my net. In spite of the 
strong wind and the misty sunshine, they were out on the wing, 
and not at all difficult to take, as they had a great predilection 
for settling on a kind of dwarf thistle, which grew there in some 
abundance. 

After three days' collecting, between the dates of May 12th 
and 18th, inclusive, I had succeeded in taking over sixty speci- 
mens, nearly all in perfect condition, but out of which^ only 
thirteen were females ; and six males and one female distinctly 
belonging to the variety plesaura, though several other male 
specimens approached it very nearly. 

I scarcely ever saw this butterfly other than in this one 
locality, where it was extremely plentiful. And though the walk 
from Bocco di Falco to San Martino was perhaps more beautiful 



6 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

than anytbing I had ever seen, with the hedges on either side 
of the road for miles far out into the country of garden roses 
covered with bloom, at the roots of which Convolvulus major and 
sweet pea grew in extravagant luxuriance ; and though the 
meadows were golden with orange marigolds, in this perfect 
wilderness of flowers butterflies of all kinds were conspicuous 
by their absence ; indeed, I scarcely saw any, except one fine 
male specimen of Lyccena cyllarus, and a few Euchloe belia var. 
ausonia, or rather what appeared to me more nearly to approach 
the var. simplonia, being identical with some specimens belong- 
ing to that variety I had taken on the Becca di Nonna, near 
Aosta, about this time last year. 

At Morreale I found a stream where E. cardamines var. 
turritis was common, but manj'' of the specimens were rather 
worn. It is supposed to be entirely represented by this variety 
throughout Sicily, but I must confess my inabihty to see that it 
differed very materially from the type. 

Before I left Palermo Signor Eagusa kindly gave me some 
information respecting other Sicilian species, notably those 
of the genus Melcmargia. M. arge, he stated, did not occur at 
all in Sicily, but seemed to represent lyherusa on the mainland, 
i. e., the mountains in Calabria, occurring about the same time. 
M. jajnigia and the var. cleanthe, he said I would find common in 
several localities during the months of June and July. 

After having paid a hurried visit to Girgenti, to see the 
ruined temples, the next place in which I found myself was 
Syracuse ; but windy weather made it most unfavourable for 
collecting. 

I have since heard that a local variety of M. galatea occurs 
about five miles from Syracuse, and I am fully persuaded that it 
was my luck to sec this butterfly on the wing, at a place called 
Euryelos (about five miles inland). It was flying over about the 
most inaccessible ground I have ever yet encountered. I only 
saw from three to four specimens, always on the wing; moreover, 
I was not alone that morning, but limited to the time Herr 
Giiterbock was pleased to occupy in looking at some old Grecian 
remains in the irumediate vicinity, and, to make a long story 
short, I did not succeed in netting one single specimen; thinking 
also tbat it was only the typical galatea, and, indeed, had I known 
otherwise, I fear Herr Giiterbock would have been obliged to 
find a more prolonged interest in his Grecian remains. 

After five days at Syracuse, I next visited Taormina, where 
I had some idea of settling for the summer. For, that so 
beautiful a spot could fail to produce good collecting-ground 
seemed to me impossible ; my experience having ever led me to 
seek for these insects of hght and sunshine in haunts the most 
beautiful and attractive, from the stern grandeur of the high 
Alps of Switzerland to tbe sunny, flowery valleys of the Eiviera. 



NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES OF SICILY. 7 

It was now early iii June, but every expedition I made was, from 
an entomological point of view, always more or less a dis- 
appointing one. It was too early to attempt to make the 
ascent of Mount /Etna, as it was still covered with snow, and 
always enveloped with clouds even on the brightest days. Had 
I stopped at Catania I might have visited some of the less 
elevated parts of that wonderful mountain (said to measure 
ninety miles round the base), but from Taormina it was not very 
accessible even to do that. So I gave it up. 

On the rocks above the station of Giardino-Taormina I found 
S. semele var. aristceus freshly emerged and in perfect condition. 
This insect in Sicily seems to differ slightly from the Corsican 
form ; it is decidedly larger, but the fulvous colouring on the 
upper side of both wings is rather less broadly suffused. I also 
found here H. nostrodaimis and H. actaon, the latter quite 
common ; and a few other butterflies of little importance. 

But as I only spent one week at Taormina, I should not 
condemn the locality so much from my own experience, as from 
the fact, that on one occasion an entomologist (I think a 
German) had taken a house in the neighbourhood, but found so 
little of interest in his entomological researches that he gave up 
his house and went away elsewhere. So I too followed his 
example, and moved on to Messina, where, through a letter of 
introduction I had to Signor Polimeni, I became acquainted with 
two local naturalists, Signor Vitale (a coleopterist) and Signor 
Eugenie Amenta, both of whom knew the neighbourhood well. 
And as the latter accompanied me in nearly all my expeditions, 
I wasted no time here in trying unproductive localities. 

At first we nearly always went to Gravitelli, not a mile out of 
the town, but on the low arbutus-covered hills we generally did 
soDie "good business." M. didyina var. meridionalis was now 
on the wing, the female of which was very large and handsome, 
the ground colour of the fore wings being entirely suffused with 
olive green, and on the hind wings the black markings were often 
exceedingly broad, in some specimens extending over quite two- 
thirds of the surface. The male was, perhaps, rather brighter 
fulvous than the type, with the black markings more scanty. C. 
iasius, which does not occur in the west of the island, was quite 
common on the arbutus slopes of Gravitelli. There was also a 
remarkably fine form of V. polychloros. M. Bellier, speaking of 
this species, says : — " La imhjchloros di Sicilia e bellissima !" 
And in this he said truly. V. caixlid was very abundant. Signor 
Amenta stated that on one occasion he had seen a perfect 
invasion of this insect, blown over from Africa, but they did not 
remain in the district, and in two days had all passed over and 
gone elsewhere. 

But I was still anxious above all things to obtain the remaining 
species of Melanargia, and having heard that M, arge had been 



8 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

seen and taken in this neiglibourbood, imagined that it was just 
possible Signor Ragusa (who had admitted that he knew little or 
nothing of the Messina district] might have been mistaken in 
his assertion that it only occurred on the mainland, especially as 
the Straits are so narrow that it seemed more than probable 
that it might also inhabit the immediate neighbourhood of 
Messina ; but as I never received an altogether satisfactory 
account of its capture, or saw one of the specimens said to have 
been taken, I am inclined to think that Signor Eagusa's state- 
ment was quite correct. In fact, almost the only Mclanargia I 
saw here was M. galaica, a very large and dark form, some 
specimens decidedly belonging to the var. i)rocida, while most of 
them nearly aj^proached it. 1 believe in some seasons M.jcqnjgia 
and the var. cleantlie would occur here ; but this was a bad one, 
and all I succeeded in getting of this butterfly was one specimen 
of the var. cleantlie, taken by Signor Amenta at Gravitelli, 
and another (much damaged), on the summit of Monte Ciccia. 

The latter locality, about two hours' walk from Messina, was 
well worth several visits ; on the south-eastern slopes of the 
mountain, where the orange marigolds grew to a great height, 
and in some profusion, beneath the meagre shade of a forest 
of umbrella pnie trees, A. ixindora were literally tumbling over 
each other, so plentifully was that glorious butterfly represented, 
male and female alike common, and all fresh out towards the 
end of June. It was here too that we found A. niobe, var. eris, 
hitherto not included amongst the butterflies of Sicily ; it was a 
fine form, and the specimens differed slightly from those of 
Switzerland, the under side of the hind wing in the male being 
more suffused with green, and the broad submarginal band on 
the same wing in the female being so dark, that in many 
specimens the markings were almost black, and always very 
broad and distinct. S. semele var. aristceus was very common 
on Monte Ciccia ; also C. cdiisa, the var. hdicc occurring not 
unfrequently with the type ; w^e took several specimens of it, and 
I had also caught one at Syracuse ; possibly the absence of C. 
liyale from the island, thereby enabling one to know that every 
light-coloured Colias must necessarily belong to this variety, had 
something to do with it. There was also in Sicily another slight 
variety of C. edusa, described by Signor Ragusa, and called var. 
minor on account of its exceednigly diminutive size ; I took one 
male specimen (measuring only 1*25) during a few days 1 spent 
again at Palermo in June. The weather was wmdy, and i was 
again disappointed in my hope to find M.japygia ; nideed I took 
little of any importance, except, perhaps, some very line specimens 
of C. i^amyhilus, var. lylliis ; and I was glad to return to Messina, 
as, so far as my superficial experience goes, I certainly consider 
that district to be the most productive of any I have visited in 
Sicily. I much regretted not being able to explore the Madonie 



NOTES ON THE BUTTERFLIES OF SICILY. 9 

mountains, where, doubtless, I would have found many other 
species, though no crchia has as yet been seen in Sicily; but as I 
heard the hotel accommodation was exceedingly bacl, or more 
likely none at all, and as I was alone, I fear I was not sufti- 
ciently enterprising to attempt it, more especially as I heard it 
was not improbable that in a year or two there might be a good 
mountain hotel at Castelbuono. And now it but remains for me 
to add, that throughout the two mouths I spent in Sicily I met 
with nothing but courtesy and hospitality from all the inhabitants 
of tbe island, rich and poor alike ; and those who fear to visit a 
country so exceedingly interesting and intensely beautiful may 
take my word for it that " il n'y a pas de quoi !" 

All the butterflies observed by me in Sicily were : — 

F. podaliiius, L. Fairly common everywhere ; the ground colour 
on all tbe wings in most specimens paler and more washed out, The 
var. zancleus, Z., in which the body iu botii sexes is white, does not 
appear till August, so that I did not see it, except in Signer Eagusa's 
collection. — P. machaon, L. Generally distributed, but rather less 
common than the preceding. It is said that the viachaou of Sicily 
belongs exclusively to the ab. sphynis, Hiib., but I did not see more 
than a specimen here and there that seemed to me to differ in colour 
from the typical continental form. 

A. cratcc<ji, L. Fairly common round Palermo in June. 

P. biassiae, L. Common everywhere. — P. rapa, L. An exceed- 
ingly diminutive form of this species occurs in Sicily, with the type ; 
I took a male specimen at Taormina in June measuring only 1-21. — 
P. dapUdice. (Jommon everywhere. I took a female specimen at 
Taormina with an exceedingly diminutive pink mark next the outer 
margin of hind wings, appearing on either side, but more distinct 
above. 

E. belia var. ausonia, Hilb. Common at Palermo, Syracuse, &c., 
in May ; some of the specimens were very small, and some seemed to 
me more like siwplonia, Fxi\ than ausonia. — E. cardamines var. turritis, 0. 
At Palermo, in the middle of May, rather worn ; very much so, later, 
at Taormina and Messina. 

C ednsa, F. Common everywhere. — Var. minor (Ragusa). An 
exceedingly diminutive form, rather paler than the type, seemed 
common on Monte Pellegrino, near Palermo, in May. I took a male 
specimen measuring 1-25, at San Martino, in June. Of the var. helice, 
Hiib., one specimen at Syracuse in May; several near Messina iu 
June. 

G. rhamni, L. Fairly distributed. — G. deopatra, L. Common at 
Taormina in June, but 1 only remember once seeing one at Messina ; 
all the rest belonged to tbe preceding species, which at Taormina I 
did not observe at all. 

2\ acacicB, F. Fairly common at Gravitelli, near Messina, in June. 

P. pJiUeas var. eleiis, F. Examples of the second brood seemed 
generally to belong to this variety, but in the spring I could not find 
any that were not typical. 

L. bcetica, L. Two specimens, male and female, taken near 



10 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Messina in June. — L. telUanus, Lang. Seen rarely, near Messina, in 
June. — L. baton, Berg. A few damaged specimens at Messina in 
June and July. — L. astrarclw, Bgst. Common. — L. icanis, Eott. 
Very common in every locality. — L. hellarfjns, Rott. Not at all 
common. — L, anjiulus, L. I saw a good many specimens of this 
butterfly, all females, near Messina, in June and July. — L. semiargus, 
Rott. One male example at Zafferia, near Messina, in June. — L. 
ci/Uarus, Eott. One male on the road to San Martino in May. 

Libijthea celtis, L. One very damaged specimen seen at Taormiua 
in June. 

C.jasius, L. Common at Gravitelli, near Messina, in June. 

L. Camilla, S.V. Not unfrequent in the neighbourhood of Messina 
in June and July. 

V. egea, Cr. At Messina in June. — V. c-albuw, L. At Taormina 
and Messina, in June. — V. polychloros, L. A remarkably fine form 
near Messina in June. — F. nitica var. ichnxisa (?), Bon. Said to have 
been taken in the Madonie Mountains ; all the specimens I saw were 
typical, and in no way resembling the ichniisa of Corsica. — V. atalanta, 
L. Common throughout the summer months. — F. cardui, L. Very 
abundant round Messina in June and July. Some of the examples 
were very small and washed out ; others especially large and deeply 
coloured. 

M. cinxia, L. Not very common. I took one very dark female 
specimen at Taormina, the rest I had observed being identical with 
those of North Italy, &c. — ili. diiUjma var. meridionalis, Stgr. This 
butterfly is entirely represented by this variety throughout Sicily. I 
took several specunens at Messina in June and July. — M. athalia, 
Rott. Fairly common near Messina in June and July. 

A. latonia, L. Occurring somewhat sparingly in various localities. 
— A. niobe var. eris, Meig. Very common on Monte Ciccia in June 
and beginning of July. — A. iiandora, S.V. Exceedingly abundant on 
Monte Ciccia in June and July. 

M. galatea, L. A very large, dark form, some of which were 
of the var. procida, Hbst., occurred at Messina in June; specimens 
taken near Palermo in the same month were much lighter. — M. 
japygla var. clcanthe, B. Two male specimens near Messina ; one 
taken at Gravitelli, and one (damaged) on the summit of Monte 
Ciccia ; both in June. — M. pherma, B. Very common on one special 
spot at the foot of Monte Cuccio, near Palermo, in May. One worn 
female taken at San Martino in June; the yhv. plesaura, Bell, occurring 
with the type, but not more than about one in ten. 

S. circe, F. Occasionally seen on the wing on Monte Ciccia. — 
S. semele var. arisiaus, Bon. Exceedingly abundant in rocky, stony 
places in June and July. — ^S'. statllimis var. allionia, F. I took one 
fresh male specimen at Cirpi, near Messina, in July. Signor Amenta 
said that a week or two later this butterfly would appear in great 
abundance in this and other localities. 

P. meijaia, L. I saw many typical specimens of this butterfly, but 
none seemed at all to approach the var. tigelius of Corsica. — P. egeria, 
L. Fairly distributed. 

E, ianira var. hispuUa, Hiib. Common everywhere. Signor 
Amenta took a male specimen on Monte Ciccia on which the right 



THE SENSES OF INSECTS. 11 

lower wing was very much diffused with white ; several of the 
specimens in that locality, though fresh out, were rather pale and 
washed out, especially on the under side of hind wings. — E. ida, Esp. 
At Taormina, Messina, and Palermo, in June. 

C. pamphilus var. lyllus, Boisd. This variety occurs in the 
summer brood. I found it between Bocco di Falco and La Rocca, 
near Palermo, in June; though after 5 p.m., and a stormy evening, 
with the sirocco blowing, it was still on the wing and in perfect 
condition. 

S. alcecB, Esq. I took two male specimens at Syracuse in May, and 
had observed it also at Palermo. — 8. althece., Hiib. I took one male 
specimen at Palermo in May, and observed others. 

H. thaiunas, Hufn. One male specimen at Taormina in June. — 
H. act(Eon, Esp. Common at Taormina, Messina, and Palermo in 
June ; female rare. — U. nostrodamus, F. Not very common at Taor- 
mina and Messina in June. 

Bath, November, 1896. 



THE SENSES OF INSECTS. 
By G. W. Smith. 

May I express some of my views on this subject in connection 
with the interesting papers of Mr. Arkle and others that have 
appeared from time to time in the 'Entomologist"? 

It has struck me in the first place that if Mr. Arlde had 
discovered organs of hearing in insects he would have achieved 
a great anatomical success ; but since he has not done so, I do 
not think we should accept his failure as a proof of their non- 
existence, granted even that his search has been exhaustive. The 
anatomical search has been made thoroughly for actual organs of 
hearing, and naturally or unnaturally enough the search has not 
been successful. But this does not lessen the importance of a 
large body of facts which have been adduced from quite a 
different point of view. 

Eomanes justly remarks,* that we have no actual (anatomical 
here) evidence of objective intelligence in the world; but his next 
statement is as just, namely, that we may presume the presence 
of that quality in an organism that responds to a certain 
stimulus in an original and uninstinctive manner. 

And to take a different case : when a dog growls, in most 
cases it is not rash to presume that the dog is angry ; and when 
a cat purrs, we may safely deduce that the cat is pleased, 
although the terms are comparative. 

The facts that are to be collected, therefore, with regard to 
the senses of insects, must take this form rather than the form 
of evidence obtained from the dissecting table. Now the facts to 
which I refer have been conveniently compiled in the second 

•'' ' Introduction to Animal Intelligence ' (Science Series). 



12 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

part of Darwin's book on the * Descent of Man ' (pp. 280-300, 
2nd edit,, 1894). 

There is no need to accept the hypothesis of sexual selection 
for our purpose, since the observations of several naturalists, 
including Dr. Hartman, Frit?- Miiller, Dr. Scudder, Mr. Bates, 
and Mr. Marshall (Entom. xxix. 42), coincide to prove that the 
females of certain insects, notably the Cicadas, are actually 
brought together by the stridulations of the males. 

Of course it would be more conclusive if we could actually 
find these organs of hearing that must be present to the females ; 
but the failure of anatomy in this direction is not sufficiently 
important to obliterate any just conclusions we have previously 
gained from the deductive point of view. 

With relation to the stridulating organs of insects a word 
may not be out of place. Among the Diptera, the Eeduvidae, 
the Homoptera, the Orthoptera, with the Locustidse, and cer- 
tain Coleoptera, possess this power of stridulating ; and it is a 
noteworthy fact that these organs must have been exclusively 
modified to their present pitch of perfection by natural selection 
for the sole purpose of stridulation ; (though in this last state- 
ment Mr. Arlile can use my own arguments with some effect 
against me). 

Mr. Arkle, no doubt, justly complains_of the senses of touch 
and hearing being confounded, but this hardly influences the 
subject from a general point of view. Sir John Lubbock points 
out that several supposititious, animal instincts and senses 
would imply no meaning to us at all, since their parallels are 
not experienced subjectively; but in our present state of know- 
ledge it will be less awkward to employ the term " hearing " 
where " sound" is concerned. 

College, Winchester, Dec. -itli, 1890. 



sT 



DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON TWO COCCID^. 
By T. D. a. Cockerell. 



(1.) Lecaniodiaspis celtidis, CklL, Psyche Suppt. p. 19. 

At the place cited are only a few lines of preliminary descrip- 
tion ; the lull details are herewith given for the first time. 

2 . Length 3, breadth 2h, height 1| mm., broad-oval, convex, 
above very light ochreous, conspicuously frosted with white secretion. 
Under side pale orauge-yellow ; forming a complete ventral scale, but 
of thin papery texture. Contents of body dark crimson. Eggs pale 
pink. Antenufe pale brown, 8-jointed ; joints 8, 4, and 5 longest and 
subequal, 4 a little the longer and about as broad as long ; 6 a little 
shorter than 5, and about as broad as long ; 7 shorter than 6 ; 8 
shortest, with several hairs ; 2 much broader than long, equal in 



DESCRIPTIVE NOTES ON TWO COCCID^. 13 

length to 7 ; 1 very broad, about as lonp: as 6. Formula 4 (35) (61) 
(72) 8. Total length of antennae about the same as widtli of mouth- 
parts. Mouth-parts brownish, large and well developed. Derm colour- 
less after boiling, thickly beset with double glands and rod-like struc- 
tures. Anal area with a brown chitinous armature, consisting of an 
upper portion shaped like a slug's jaw, and a broad transversely elon- 
gate lower portion, with apparently a large central aperture, but really 
consisting of two large lateral plates, connected by a strong isthmus. 
Anal ring moniliform, with several hairs. 

On Celtis occidentalis, San Antonio, Texas, Nov. 27th, 1895 
(C. H. T. Townsend). Recently, Prof. E. E. Bogue has found a 
Lecaniodiaspis in Oklahoma, which is like the above, but a little 
larger. I have not yet made a detailed study of it, but have no 
doubt it is the same species. 

"^ (2.) PuLviNARiA iNNUMERABiLis, Rathv., Variety? 
2 . Dark brown, when boiled and flattened under cover-glass, 
Q^ mm. long, 5i broad. Antenna long, slender, pale brown, joint 3 
longest ; 2, 4, and 5 subequal in length, 8 a little shorter ; 6 and 7 
equal and shortest. Formula 3 (245) 81 (67). 2 and 5 each with two 
hairs near the end. There is quite a constriction at the suture between 
7 and 8. Legs pale brown, slender ; coxa large, trochanter with a 
long hair, femur about as long as tibia, tarsus about half as long as 
tibia. Digitules of claw fairly stout, with large knobs, that of one 
round, of the other oval ; both extend considerably beyond tip of 
claw. Tarsal digitules unequal, one not much longer than those of 
claw, with the terminal half bulbous, the other longer and slender, 
with an obliquely placed knob. Derm with large round and oval 
gland pits. Stigmatal spines in threes, one very long, two short. 
Margin with small simple sharp spines, in two rows, not near to 
each other. 

The above description relates to the Pidvinaria which Prof. 
C. V. Piper finds " so common a pest in Western Washington 
[State];" found on currant, hawthorn, plum, pear, mountain 
ash, willow, poplar, gooseberry, and alder. Prof. Piper remarks: 
" Of one thing I am certain ; it is not native to Western Wash- 
ington." Formerly Prof. Piper referred it to P. innumerahilis, 
but was criticised for so doing, more especially as its food-habits 
seem different from those of that species. The question was 
raised, whether it might he the European P. rihcsia, intro- 
duced ; but that is a much smaller insect. On the whole, it 
must be confessed that it is at any rate not very different from 
P. innumerahilis ; and since we have no adequate information 
about the variation of that insect, it seems premature to separate 
the Washington species as distinct. I will suggest, therefore, 
that provisionally we call Prof. Piper's insect, above described, 
P. innumerahilis var. occidentalis. The ovisac resembles that of 
inniimerabilis. 



14 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

While writing on Coccidfe, I may as well put the following 
items on record : — 

Kermes fiillettei, Ckll. I found this last year on oak at 
Monument Rock, Santa Fe Canon, New Mexico, 8000 ft. altitude. 
New to New Mexico, and the highest record for any Kermes. 

Lecanium {Bernardia) sp. On fruit of Cereus trianfinlaris, 
Jamaica (W. Harris). Mentioned on account of the unusual 
food-plant. The specimen arrived in fragments, and could not 
be determined. 

Aspidiofus ficw^, Ashm. Many on both sides of leaves of 
Ccjeloqyne cristata in greenhouse at Ottawa, Canada. Sent by 
Mr. J. Fletcher. 

A. coloratus, Ckll. Described as a variety of A. uvce, but 
doubtless a distinct species. I found it lately in abundance at 
Eincon, New Mexico, on Chilopsis. At Las Cruces I noted, on a 
badly-infested Cliilopsis, numbers of predatory coccinellids of 
the genus Chilocorus ; these Mr. Wickham, to whom I sent 
specimens, identified as C. cacti and C. bindneras. The Chilopsis 
in question was the one that yielded the original types of A. 
coloratus. 

Icerya rilei/i, Ckll. Hitherto this has only been known from 
Las Cruces. On July 10th I found it on mesquite at Colorado, 
New Mexico. Colorado is the name of a small village, and has 
nothing to do with the State of that name. 

Mesilla, New Mexico, U.S.A., Aug. 29th, 1896. 



NOTES AND OBSEEVATIONS. 

High-Flat Setting. — The numerous writings and opinions of corre- 
spondents in late numbers of the ' Entomologist' on the most important 
question, " Are we to adopt the continental mode of setting ?" must 
have intensely interested and aroused all whose feelings are at all keen 
on this subject. Surely there is no need to go to this the farthest of 
far extremes ? I indeed hope not. Looking at Mr. Dannatt's note 
(Entom. xxix. 330), I am of one mind with his remark that perfectly 
flat-set insects have the effect of producing an objectionably wooden 
appearance, and thus become ungainly and stiffto most eyes, excluding, 
of course, continental collectors, who are prone to think otherwise. I 
cannot, however, agree with another remark of Mr. Dannatt's — that 
flat setting is contrary to the laws of nature ; indeed, 1 am inclined to 
consider our own setting more averse to these laws, seeing that the 
costa of most, and I fancy of all, Lepidoptera is constituted in a 
rigidly straight plane, in the living state. On our rounded boards the 
costa becomes curved in accordance with the curvature of the setting 
board, which produces an utterly unnatural attitude. In fact, many 
held that the much -rounded insect is as objectionable, or more so, than 
the flat- set one. Being one of those who wish to bring the wings of 



NOTES AND OBSERVA.TIONS. 15 

their specimens more level, I have always found that by setting the 
insect on a board one or two sizes above that of its own, an entirely 
satisfactory and inoffensive elevation is attained without going to the 
extreme of using the foreign board. I can only conclude these simple 
suggestions with the sincere hope that unadulterated continental 
settiug may never come to be it la mode in England. — C. J. Nash; 
Pitnacree, Culver Road, Reading, Dec. 9th, 1896. 

Entomologist v. Collector. — It will probably be considered by 
the editor, and by the unhappy " collector," if by no one else, to be 
about time that this discussion ceased. As I initiated it, and seem to 
have been elevated into a land of champion of the class, I may, 
perhaps, be allowed a few words before the matter drops. It does not 
seem to me that anything of much value has been elicited, beyond the 
courteous and considerate tone which, with one exception, has marked 
the correspondence ; but still one point appears to come out pretty 
clearly, namely, that collectors themselves may be divided into two 
classes, or, as the anti-collector would probably put it, that beyond the 
lowest depths there is a lower depth still. In the first class would be 
placed those who, while not trying to obtain scientific rank, yet do, 
through their collecting, gain some knowledge of general principles. In 
the second class would come those, probably not many, who regard 
their collection simply as an aggregation of specimens, and have 
no intention beyond the desire of making it as complete as possible. 
Well, no doubt the whole question was more a matter of sentiment 
than of practical significance from the first, but still there is satis- 
faction in knowing how one stands, and so I submit that the position 
may be exhibited in a tabular form thus : — 

I. — Entomologist Studies scientifically from the outset. 

II.-Sub-Entomologist ] Collection his first object, but gains some 
1 scientiiic knowledge in the process. 
III. — Collector Has no object beyond amassing specimens. 

Now I maintain that all these classes are interdependent, and form 
parts of one great Avhole, and that no one of them has the right to 
express or feel contempt for the others, but that all may and should 
work harmoniously together. — Rev. W. Claxton ; Sunnyside, Wool- 
ston, Southampton. 

[This discussion is now closed. — Ed.] 

The Geographical Varieties of Parnassius apollo. — Mr. Elwes 
(Entom. xxix. 856) does not coincide with my suggestion that the 
geographical varieties of the above-named species are worthy of dis- 
tinctive cognomens. At the same time he does not furnish any clear 
argument in support of his objection. Although I consider paltry 
aberrations — such, for instance, as the slightly deviating form of 
Ijijccena icarus, known as ivarbms unworthy of a special name, well 
marked geographical varieties (such as those I have defined of P. 
(ipollo), as well as seasonally dimorphic forms, are surely of sufficiently 
elevated rank. If they were mammals, they would, indeed, according 
to the modern tendency of zoologists, most likely be made to rank as 
species. Witness, for instance, the recent re-classification of the North 
American VrsidcB (cf. ' American Naturalist,' 1896). Mr. Elwes's 



16 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



ideas are, as is well known, in the opposite direction ; and I should 
be glad if he would state his views on the subject, as to what degrees of 
variation, in his opinion, are worthy of the dignity of distinct names, 
and which are not. In my humble opinion the geographical varieties 
of P. a polio, which I have described, are of more importance in their 
relation to the type than the forms of many other species of European 
Rhopalocera I could name which have already received distinctive 
recognition. Until I can be convinced to the contrary I shall continue 
to pursue the orthodox course. — W. Harcourt-Bath, Birmingham, Dec. 
8th, 1896. 

The Synonymy of Polygonia c-album var. hutchinsoni. — As a 
great deal of controversy has been going on regarding the var. hutchin- 
soni of P. c-album, it may be useful to see the synonymy. Eobson 
(' Young Naturalist,' ii. p. 110) gives the name hutchinsoni to the pale 
form occurring in the summer brood. Harcourt-Bath ('Entomologist,' 
xxix., 1866, p. 257) proposes the name luicscens for the same form, and 
states that it is the typical form of the continental first brood, but 
only occurs as an occasional aberration in this country. Tutt (' British 
Butterflies,' p. 344, 1896) says that there are two distinct forms in the 

ground colour, one decidedly with more orange in the red The 

paler form appears to be common in the summer brood (June and 
July), although it occurs in the autumnal one. This he calls ab. 
pallida. The synonymy would therefore read — 

Polygonia, Hb. 
c-album, Linn. 

var. hutchinsonii, Robson, Young Nat., ii. p. 110. 
= lutescens, H. Bath., Entom., 1896, xxix. p. 257. 
= pallida, ab., Tutt, Brit. Butt., 1896, p. 344. 
I hope in a succeeding paper to correct other synonyms, which recent 
authors have disregarded, owing to the fact that they have not made 
themselves thoroughly acquainted with all the previously described 
varieties and aberrations. — John W. Shipp. 

[As the priority of the name hutchinsoni for the form in question 
has been clearly established, there does not appear to be any necessity 
to further discuss the matter. — Ed.] 

GoNEPTERYX RHAMNi IN Ireland. — The reported successful introduc- 
tion of Gonepteryx rhamni into some locality in the Co. Tipperary by 
Mr. Purefoy is extremely interestiug (Entom. xxix. 363). Colonel 
Cooper, of Markree Castle, Co. Sligo, contemplated, some years ago, a 
similar experiment, and was planting buckthorn for that purpose, but 
I am not aware whether he has carried out his intention. It seems, 
however, passing strange that Mr. Purefoy should have proceeded so 
recklessly as not to ascertain whether either the food-plant or the 
insect was indigenous, as he might know the serious injury that might 
be done to science by tampering with the distributional conditions of 
our fauna recklessly. His publication of the fact, however, will 
prevent Tipperary being accidentally included as one of the natural 
habitats of G. rhamni. It is to be hoped that he will further complete 
his notification by distinctly indicating the locality of this colonisation. 
It is astonishing to hear that he has not been able to learn whether 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 17 

any species of Rhammis is native in Ireland, wliile it is abundantly and 
widely spread over the adjoining territories of Galwayand Connemara, 
together with the butterfly in question, and reaches southward through 
Clare to Kerry, northward to Longford and Cavan, where I saw a fine 
tree of IL cathartii'm myself this summer on the shore of L, Oughter. 
A reference to ' Cybele Hibernica,' which I have not at hand to refer 
to, will reveal, doubtless, a wider distribution. But it is more 
bewildering to read his supercilious treatment of the records of com- 
petent authorities as to the existence of G. rhamni in Ireland ! " It has 
been reported from Killarney, but it is more than doubtful " ! I trust 
he will not consider it as impertinent if I say that unless he accom- 
panied his MS. with specimens of the butterflies he has introduced, I 
do not think his ipse di.vit will carry more conviction than the records 
of the veteran entomologist Birchall, and myself ; or than the 
testimony of the Hon. Miss Lawless, Mr. Ussher of Cappagh, Mr. 
Neale (the Secretary of the Limerick Naturalists' Field Club), or 
others who have published their captures from time to time, and have 
reported its abundance in the neighbouring county of Galway, and its 
existence in several others, which records were embodied in my notice 
of the insect in the Catalogue of Irish Lepidoptera (Entom. xxvi. 120). 
— W. F. DE V. Kane ; Drumreaske House, Monaghan. 

Mr. E. D. Purefoy is not accurate in stating that Goneptenjx rhamni 
does not occur in Ireland ; nor is he right in saying that neither kind 
of buckthorn grew in this country. If he will turn to the ' Cybele Hiber- 
nica,' he will find that Ilhamnus catlutrticus is found in seven out of 
the twelve botanical divisions of Ireland, and B. frani/ula in five of 
those divisions ; and if he refers to Entom. xxvi. 120, he will find 
Mr. Kane's report of the butterfly's occurrence in Kerry, various parts 
of Galway, and in Longford. Last year Miss Bewley took it in the 
Queen's County (' Irish Naturalist,' vol. viii. p. 87), but possibly her 
specimens may have strayed from Mr. Purefoy's domains. Mr. 
Purefoy is, however, to be congratulated on his very successful 
attempt to establish this pretty insect among us ; for, though not alto- 
gether a stranger, its appearances have been too few and far between. — 
George E. Hart ; 14, Lower Pembroke Street, Dublin, Dec. 5th, 189G. 

Is Thalpochares (Micra) Paula, Hlibn., a British Species ? — In 
the recent sale of Mr. Briggs' collection was a specimen named as 
above. It is certainly very different to any foreign specimens of 
T. pcnda which I have seen. It far more resembles foreign specimens 
of T. parva, the sexes of which arc by no means alike. In the sale 
catalogue reference was made to the Ent, Mo. Mag., vol. ix. p. 19, 
where, in the description of T. panla, the second fascia is stated to be 
a mere brown line, once angulated, and before it is a crescent-shaped 
upright white streak on the inner margin, occasionally becoming a 
fascia, and reaching the costa. " Micra" parva is stated to have both 
the fasciae straight and oblique. Now, as I understand from Mey rick's 
Handbook, it is T. paiila which has both the fascire straight and 
oblique, and T. parva which has the second fascia crooked. The larva, 
too, of T. pnula feeds on Gnaphalium arenarium, which is not a British 
plant. As it is more than twenty years since Mr. Barrett wrote the 

ENTOM.— JAN. 1897. C 



18 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



article in the E. M. M., perhaps he will kindly give us his opinion 
afresh.— C. W. Dale ; Glanvilles Wootton, Dec. 4th, 1896. 

Committee of the Entomological Society of London for the 
Protection of Lepidoptera. — At a meeting held on November 25th, 
it was resolved to invite the co-operation of local Societies throughout 
the United Kiugdom, and to ask them to furnish information as to 
proceedings likely to cause the extermination of local species of Lepi- 
doptera. Communications will be received by the Hon. Secretary, 
Chas. G. Barrett, 39, Linden Grove, Nunhead. 



CAPTUEES AND FIELD EEPOETS. 

Acherontia atropos in 1896. — I took a fine larva of A. atropos last 
August in New Barnet, ten miles from London. — H. C. Regnart-; 
CHnthill, Park Eoad, New Barnet. 

Variety of Vanessa atalanta. — Tlie variety of V. atalanta, referred 
to Entom. xxix. 371, appears to be similar to tlie aberration of the species 
recorded bv me, Entom. xxiv. 31. — J. Hy. Fowler; Poulaer, Ringwood, 
Dec. 5th, 1896. 

Anosia menippe, Hiibn. (D. erippus, Or.)— x\fter seeing the note, 
ante, p. 365, it seemed only right that I should report the following : — On 
July 12th last, at Newland's Corner, Surrey, a young friend who was out 
with me collecting saw at rest on the trunk of an oak a well-marked speci- 
men of Anosia menippe, Hiibn. In his baste to make a capture he made a 
mis-stroke, and the insect escaped. As he knew the insect, and there is 
no doubt as to his hona fides, it seems that Surrey may fairly be credited 
with having been favoured last summer with the presence of a specimen of 
this grand butterfly. — W. J. Lucas ; Kuight's Park, Kingston-ou-Thaiues. 

Hybehnia aurantiaria and defoliaria in mid-London. — On Nov. 
20th last at mid-day I captured a specimen of Hyhenda aurantiaria in 
good condition at rest outside a ground-floor window on the street iu 
Chancery Lane. The next day, Nov, 21st, on the flag-stones between the 
gates of the British Museum and the building itself I found a i-pecimen of 
H. defoliaria. It had been trodden upon by some passer-by, but the upper 
wings were sufficiently perfect to show that the insect bad been iu good 
condition. — Selwyn Image ; 6, Southampton Street, Bloomsbury, W.C. 

Further Notes on Callimorpha hera. — To my remarks on this 
species in the ' Entomologist ' for 1895 (vol. xxviii. p. 290), I should like to 
add the following: — Seventy-seven out of some hundred and twelve larvae 
of C. hera successfully hybernated on ground ivy, and fed up rapidly on 
white dead-nettle; three were lost by drowning (these I bad preserved); 
whilst some two or three specimens died wlieu full-fed. Most of the rest 
spun a slight cocoon between the moss at tlie top of the pot and the soil, 
none pupating underground. Six or seven spun together two or three 
leaves of the nettle, and then turned into the chrysalis state. I reared in 
all forty-nine beautiful specimens and nine cripples, the latter I believe 
caused by my having kept tlie pup:T3 too dry. JMost of the imagines 
emerged between 3 and 4 p m. indoors. The first emerged on June 30th, 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 10 

and the last July 19th. Of the forty-nine specimens reared, twenty-six 
were males and twenty-three females: nineteen males and seven females 
had red hind wings; seven males and ten females had orange hind wings; 
and six females had vfllow hind wings, Let me strongly advise those who 
have larvne this year not to feed them on dandelion or groundsel. — 
William Hewett ; Howard Street, York. 

Notes on the MACRO-LEPiDoprERA of the Conway Valley, North 
Wales, — The clitf-like line of hills which form the boundary of the Vale 
of Conway on the west side is broken at intervals by various valleys and 
glens, down which rush the tributary rivers and streams from the lakes and 
pools of Eastern Snowdonia. In most of these insect life seems more 
abundant than in the wider strath of Conway itself, which I attribute to 
their freedom from the floods which occasionally submerge the low-lying 
Conway vale ; and as I was living at the bottom of one of the most 
picturesque of these little valleys the greater part of last spring and 
summer in order to fish the Conway, and the Cwlyd and Crafnaat lakes, I 
made the following notes on some of the I^epidoptera that I met with during 
walks and hours not devoted to angling. The glen in question, though only 
about two miles in length from where the stream rises out of one of the 
larger lakes to where it ruslies down by a series of cascades into the Conway, 
presents a diversity of physical features, as the water runs from a moun- 
tainous and moorland region at the top of the valley through thickly-wooded 
dells of fir, oak, birch, and alder, into the meadow-land at the bottom; and 
this would naturally be favourable to a variety of lepidopterous insects, as 
the altitude varies also from 00(3 feet at the lake, with the hills on either 
side rising to 1000 feet, to nearly sea-level at the tidul reach where the 
stream jonis the Conway. Among the Rhopalocera I found Pieris rapcc 
and P. napi both abundant; but 1 did not observe many P. brassicte until 
late in the season, when they became very numerous. On July ;31st a small 
meadow of uncut grass and wild flowers was full of them, mostly at rest on 
the flowers. — Euchloe canlamiiies was abundant. — Argijnniseuphrosijne more 
or less common all over the central and woody portion of the glen ; but as 
long as they were "out" they were always collected in vast numbers in a 
little glade covered with small furze and alder bushes, where I could obtain 
any quantity without moving from one spot ; here on May 8th they literally 
swarmed. — A.sclene, common, but nothing like the numbers of the preceding 
species. — Vanessa io, hybernated specimens very plentiful in the spring, and 
most of them in excellent preservation. I did not see many of them in the 
autumn ; but the continuous rainfall would account for that, as it did for the 
scarcity of V. atcdanta, of which I only saw two. — V. urtica, common. 
— V.c-album, plentiful, especially hybernated specimens; but I took five 
splendid ones in two adjoining meadows on Sunday, August 2nd. The rich 
velvety gloss of the black spots on the wings seem to fade soon after death. 
— Pararrje e<jeria, common everywhere in the valley during the latter part of 
the season, but the earlier broods were very local; for weeks I only found 
them in one spot. — P. mcgara swarmed everywhere; it was without doubt 
the commonest butterfly in the valley. — Epinephele ianira, common ; 
E. tilhonus, E. Iiyperanlhns. I took a few specimens of each. — Cceno- 
injmpha pCDiiphiliis, Polyommatus phlccas, Lyccena icarus, all abundant. — 
Tliecla rubi, common on the moors at the top of the glen. — L. aryiolus, one 
or two. — Niso7iiades tages and Hesperia sylvanus, both very common. 
Heterocera. — Smerinthus popuU, found four: one on a path, May 5th; 



20 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

two ill copula on June 5lh ; and one 0!i June llili. — Zi/gcciia filipcndula, 
abundant. — Spilosonia viendica, S. Inbricipcda, S. menthaatri, common. — 
Hepialus Jiwiiuli, abundant in the meadows ; the fishermen in tliese parts 
call it the night-moth. — Nemeophila russula, abundant in one spot, where I 
obtained over a dczen specimens on two successive afternoons; I never saw one 
elsewhere. — Arctia caia, several. — Porlhcs'ui aiirijlna and P. chrysorrhcca, 
took specimens of hoih.—DasycJiira jnidibunda, found one larva — Bomhijx 
quercus, B. rnhi, and Odonestis potato) ia , all abundant: as well as Salurnia 
carpini on the moorlands. — Phalera hncepthala, abundant. — I found lots of 
the larvae of Diloha cdrideocepluda ; and was lucky enough to obtain one 
of Acronycta aim exposed on an alder leaf. It has pupated in a piece of 
old wood, and I hope that it has not been ichncumoned. Among other 
Nocture I obtained Acronycta psi, Hadena monoghjplia, Mania maura, 
Hydrcecia 7iiciitons, Xylocainpa UthorJiiza, Agrotis exclamaiionis, Phlogo- 
fhora meticulosa , Ciicullia untbraiica ; and lots of the common Geometrse, 
such as Runiia liUeolata, Pericallia syringaria, Crocallis elinguaria, 
Amphidasys betiilaria, Bupalus piniarlus, as well as Tephrosia hiundularia 
and B. crepuscularia. — Francis Davison Blakd ; Trefin, North Wales, 
November 22nd, 1896. 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. — Xovunber ISiJi, 189G. — Pro- 
fessor Baphael Meldola, F.E.S., President, in the chair. Mr. Malcolm 
Burr, of "Bellagio," East Grinstead, Sussex; Mr. G. H. Gale, of the 
Public Works Department, Hong-Kong ; and Mr. A. E. Wileinan, of 
the British Consular Service, Yokohama, Japan, were elected Fellows 
of the Society. Mr. Tutt exhibited a series of the ochreoiis form of 
Tephrosia bistortata, Goetze, known as ab. abietaria, Haw., captured by 
Mr. Mason in March, 1895 and 1896, near Clevedon, Somerset; also 
a series of tiie second brood of the same species (ab. consonaria, St.), 
bred from ova laid by the Clevedon specimens. He also exhibited a 
series of Tephrosia crepuscularia, Hb. (hixindidaria, Esp.), taken by 
Dr. H. Corbett at Doncaster ; a peculiar variety of Hijiparchia semele, 
captured by Mr. H. S. Clarke near Bamsey, Isle of Man; also a series 
of Plusia hractca bred from ova laid in July last. The eggs and larvre 
had been subjected to forcing treatment, with the result that the 
moths emerged in October. Mr. Tutt also exhibited a very dark 
specimen of Polia chi ab. oUracea, captured at Meldon Park, Morpeth, 
by Mr. Finlay. Dr. Sharp called attention to Mr. Ernest Green's 
'plates of the Coccidre of Ceylon, which were exhibited on a screen in 
the room, and said that he was inclined to consider the Coccid^ as a 
distinct order of insects, but at present the evidence was hardly suffi- 
cient to warrant this. He asked Mr. Green if he could give him any 
information with regard to the development of the wings in the male. 
Mr. Green said that in the males of the Coccida3 the wings first 
apDpeared in the penultimate stage as small projections on the sides of 
the thorax. These wing-pads grew to a certain extent without any 
further ecdysis. Though the insect was then quite inactive, and took 
no food during this stage, the rudimentary wings and legs were free 
from the body, and were capable of some slight movement. After the 



SOCIETIES. 



21 



final ecclysis the wings of the imago were fully expanded, and assumed 
their natural position before the insect left the sac, or pupai'ium, in 
which the resting stage had been passed. Mr. McLachlan and others 
continued the discussion. Mr. Jiethune-Baker exhibited a yellow 
spider from Orotava, which was of the exact colour of the flowers that 
it usually rested upon, and which had been observed to catch Vanessa^ 
which settled on these flowers. Mr. Barrett said he had noticed a 
spider with the same habit on the ox-eye daisy in Surrey. Mr. 
Bethune-Baker also exhibited a very curious dark variety oi Arctia caia, 
bred by Mr. Moore. Professor Meldola stated that it had been of late 
found difficult to store bristles in the City owing to the ravages of a 
moth, of which he exhibited living specimens of the larvte and pupa?. 
Mr. Barrett said that the moth was Tinea bisclHeUa. Mr. Blaudford 
stated that the bisulphide of carbon treatment might be found to be of 
advantage if it were practicable, but more would have to be ascertained 
with regard to the extent and character of the ravages before anything 
could be determined upon. Mr. Merrifield, Mr. Green, and others 
took part in the discussion which followed. Mr. Blandford called 
attention to the use of formalin as a preventive of mould, and said 
that it would probably be found of use in insect collections ; an object 
once sprayed with this substance never became mouldy afterwards. 
Professor Meldola said that formalin was another name for a solution 
of formic aldehyde : it is now much used in the colour industry, and 
is, therefore, produced on a large scale. Mr. Newstead communicated 
a paper entitled " New Coccidje collected by the Eev. A. E. Eaton in 
Algeria." 

December 2iid. — Dr. David Sharp, M.A., F.E.S., Vice-President, in 
the chair. Dr. Sharp exhibited the series of Longicorn Coleoptera of 
the genus Plagithmysus from the Hawaiian Islands, of which a j)re- 
liminary account had recently been given by him elsewhere. He said 
that these examples were the result of Mr. Perkins' work for the 
Sandwich Island Committee, and afforded a fair sample of his success 
in the other orders, which would be found to have completely revolu- 
tionised our knowledge of the entomological fauna of these islands. 
He stated that Mr. Meyrick had recently informed him that the 
GeometridfTo would be increased from six species to forty-four, and 
that the genus Plagithniijsiis showed an almost equal increase ; and 
that the Avorking out of the specimens was very diflicult, owing to 
the variability of the species and to their being closely allied. Mr. 
Malcolm Burr exhibited a specimen of a cockroach, Pycnoselus indicus, 
Fabr., taken in a house at Bognor, Sussex. He said this was the first 
record of the occurrence of the species in England. According to 
De Saussure, it was distributed throughout India, Ceylon, Mexico, 
and the United States. Mr. P. Crowley exhibited a remarkable 
variety of Abra.ms (/rossnlanata taken in a garden at Croydon last 
summer. Mr. Tutt exhibited some Micro-Lepidoptera from the Dau- 
phine Alps. Several specimens of Psecadia pusiella, Rom., showing 
considerable difference in the width of the bhick zigzag band crossing 
the centre of the fore wings longitudinally. The species was taken at 
La Grave, in a gully at the back of the village. A large number of 
specimens were secured, chiefly resting on the trunks and branches of 
two or three ash and willow trees growing on the bank at the side of 



22 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the gully. A few specimens, however, were obtained drying their 
wings on the grass on the bank, but Mr. Tutt stated that he failed to 
find pupa-cases. The captures were all made on the mornings of 
August 7th and 8th. In spite of the striking conspicuousness of the 
insect when set out for the cabinet, it was by no means easy to detect 
at first on the tree trunks. Mr. Tutt also exhibited specimens of a 
"plume" which had been named Leioptilus [Alucita) scarodactyla. It 
was exceedingly abundant on the Artemisia growing on the roadside 
just below La Grave. There could be little doubt, he thought, from 
the habits of the insect, that the Arteinisia had been its food-plant. 
He also exhibited specimens, from Le Lautaret, of Scricoris riviilana, 
Lielechia spiiridla, Soplironia siiiiicostella, I'leiirota pyropeUa, CEcophora 
stipella, and Biitalis fallaccUa. The latter were chiefly interesting 
from the fact that they were taken at an elevation of about 8000 feet. 
Lord Walsingham made some remarks on the specimens. Lord 
Walsingham read a paper entitled " Western Equatorial African 
Micro-Lepidoptera." A discussion ensued, in which Dr. Sharp, Herr 
Jacoby, and others, took part. — H. Goss, Hoii. Secretary. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
November 2Gth, 1896— C. G. Barrett, Esq., F.E.S., Vice-President, in 
the chair. Mr. Barnett, of Royal Hill, Greenwich, was elected a 
member. The meeting was devoted to a special exhibition of varieties, 
and was largely attended. Mr. Mansbridge shoAved series of Abraxas 
grossulariata, including the Leeds smoky forms ; of I'ulia chi, including 
var. s7iffusa and var. oliracea, with the beautiful West Riding form ; 
and of Hibernia aurantiaria, with many melanic forms. Mr. Uldham, 
Breiithis [Argynnis) cnphrnsync, with few markings on upper wings in 
contrast to well-marked hind wings; a xanthic tJpinephele ianira, and 
putty-coloured and yellow females of Odonestis potatoria. Mr. Adkin, 
the various forms of Boarmia repandata, Camptoyramma bilineata 
(including black Irish specimens), B. cinctaria and Thcra jiniiperata, 
with beautiful specimens of Cidaria corylata var. albocrenata, Abraxas 
yrossulariata, black Acidalia maryincpunctata, black-banded Eubolia 
bipu7ictaria, banded Anaitis playiata, and unicolorous Ematuryia 
atomaria. Mr. Mitchell, specimens of Saturnia pavonia (carpini) — 1, 
dark female ; 2, gynandromorphous form bred from Wicken ; and an 
example of Chrysophamis pldaas with large and elongate spots nearly 
forming a band. Mr. Dollman, a series showing the variation of 
C. potatoria ; a dwarf Anthocharis cardamines ; and an example of the 
same species with the dark tips of the primaries suffused and extending 
inwards. Mr. Ashdown, a series of Coccindla hieroylyphica varying 
from entirely testaceous, through spotted forms to entirely black, all 
from Oxshot. Mr. Barrett, series of the following species, from very 
many localities: — Mclanippe hastata, M. tristata, 21. Jhictuata, Buarmia 
repandata (including some very fine black forms), Knpitliccia toyata 
(including the very dwarf race), E. extciisaria, E. sobrinata, and E, 
stevensata. Mr. Auld, the first known bred British Callimorpha Iiera 
var. lutescens ; series of !>julosoma lubricipeda, with its var. zatima and 
yax.fasciata, together with a number of intermediate forms ; a broad- 
banded A. playiata; and vars. of Dicycla oo, Abraxas nrticcc (without 
dorsal spots), and Lomaspiiis maryinata. Mr. Levett, vars. of Calli- 
morpha dominula, bred from Deal, three of which were of the yellow 



SOCIETIES. 23 

form. Mr. Mera, three vars. of Arctia caia : 1, with inner half of fore 
wings ahnost completely white; 2, with white markings of fore wings 
only slightly indicated ; 3, white almost covering fore wings and black 
on hind wings much diminished ; a CUlaria silaceata, pale brown, 
with paler lines, reminding one of C. reticulata; Hadena thahtssina, 
with absence of usual markings and of almost uniform smoky 
grey ; an Arctia viUica with smoky hind wings, and one with black 
suffused over all the wings ; and a Brenthis [Anjijnnis) euphrosi/nc with 
confluent spots across the centre of both wings. Mr. Turner, the 
most distinctive forms of liibernia leucophmiria, Gnojjhos uljucuraria, 
and Oporahia dilutaria ; a Ctenonympha tijplion with a series of well- 
developed ocellatious and a large white patch on the upper side of the 
hind wing, from Carlisle ; and on behalf of Mr. Wilkenson, of Carlisle, 
a very variable series of Alelitaa aurinia (artemis), including several 
good aberations. Mr. H. [Moore, Exotic Orthoptera, including: 1, 
Locusta perefjrina from several localities, showing great variation in 
density of colour ; 2, Pachytylus miyratorius var. cinerascens ; 3, a long 
series of (Edipoda fasciata, from many places, and varying with the 
soil upon which it rests; and some ten species of American (Edi- 
podid^e. Mr. T. W. Hall, conspicuous varieties of the following 
species : — Arctia caia (one almost black secondaries), Hpilosoma luhrici- 
peda (one of var. zatima taken at Wicken), Sesia culiciforiids (yellow- 
banded), Polia xanthomista (var. statices), Demas coryli (banded), Ma- 
mestra persicarice. (unicolorous black), Xylina conspicillaris, and many 
other species. Mr. Frohawk, a grand series of under sides of Enodia 
(Epinephele) hypcranthus, varying from extreme var. arete to the 
beautiful var. lanceolata ; and vars. of Papilio machaon, including a 
very dark tawny form bred from Wicken. Mr. Tutt, specimens of 
Melampias melampus and M. pluirte, upon which he bases his opinion 
that they are only forms of one species ; and a series of the hitherto 
supposed distinct Cmionynrpha ipliis and G. satyrion. Mr. Dawson, a 
dark male of Dry as {Aryynnia) paphia, somewhat approaching var. 
valesina of the female ; Shetland forms of Camptuyravuna hilineata ; a 
var. scJt.midtii of Chrysophanus phlceas ; and a I'aiiiiocajiipa incerta, with 
much intensified transverse lines. — Hy. Turner, Hon. Report Sec. 

Cambridge Entomological and Natural History Society. — Novem- 
ber 13th, 1896.— The President, Dr. Sharp, in the chair.— Mr. Fleet 
exhibited a copy of the first number of a work by Thomas Denny, 
entitled ' Illustrations of Lepidopterous Insects found in the Vicinity 
of Cambridge ' ; it contained several coloured plates, and was printed 
and published at Cambridge, but bore no date ; also some specimens of 
Zyymia exulans from Braemar, and Noctua sobrina from Eannock. Mr. 
R. Farren showed some "jumping beans " ; the " bean " is the seed of a 
Mexican euphorbiaceous plant inhabited by a Tortrix larva, whose 
movements cause the seeds to roll about, and even to make short 
jumps. Mr. Rickard, some British beetles and a common earwig with 
very long forceps ; this latter gave rise to some discussion on the wings 
and flight of this insect, Dr. Sharp expressing his opinion that it 
seldom resorts to flight. Also some puptis of Oryyia antiqua. 

November 27th. — Dr. Sharp in the chair. — Mr. Jones exhibited a 
local imago of Smerinthus tilice with both its wings deformed and 
correlative variation of marking. Mr. Eickard read a paper dis- 



24 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

cussing some questions in connection with the formation of lepido- 
pterous pupae, makin<? reference to the so-called " Poulton's line," 
and the criticisms of Dr. Chapman and Mr. J. W. Tutt thereanent. 
He said that the proboscis of the pupa of Acherontia atrtipos is 40 mm. 
long ; that of the imago is but 14 or 15 mm. He suggested that 
the brevity might be in connection with the habit of extracting 
honey ; and also that the reason why the moth was so rarely found 
in beehives in this country might be found in the construction 
of the hives. The object disclosed by the last moult of a lepido- 
pterous larva resembles neither a caterpillar nor a pupa, but is 
much more like the imago. There is also present a thick coating 
of gelatinous -looking material enveloping the entire organism ; the 
external surface of this material rapidly hardens and takes on the 
special form of the pupa. As the lower portion of it solidifies it 
shrinks away from the enclosed imago, with the result that the pupal 
imago is left loose inside the pupal envelope, the only organic connec- 
tion seeming to be the trachejie that connect the imaginal wnth the 
pupal spiracles. Proof of the accuracy of this statement is afforded 
by the presence of wing-cases on the pupjB of wingless female moths. 
Thus the female of the Ortiya atdiqua, fox instance, possessed imaginal 
wings of average size at the last larval moult, such wings being sub- 
sequently reabsorbed. The contradictory statements of Prof. Poulton 
and Mr. Tutt are easily reconciled if we suppose that the Professor's 
observations were made at an early stage of pupal existence, while 
Mr. Tutt's were made immediately before emergence of the imago. 

NoNPAKEiL Entomological and Natural History Society. — Xovember 
5th, 1896. — Exhibits : By Mr. J. A. Clarke, a specimen of the rare 
sawfly (Sirex juvencus) captured at Eltham on Oct. 5th. Mr. Huckett 
said he had no doubt it was an imported species, Mr. Clarke, 
however, added that he had one given him some years ago by Mr. 
Eddols, taken on the Hackney marshes. By Mr. Lusby, two species 
of Zyiioina filipendnlic, one example showing pretty variation of the 
hind wings, which were rosy orange in colour and minus the dark 
margins. He remarked that he had bred some numbers of this 
species, and that any variation that occurred had always been in the 
hind wings ; this was considered to be merely a curious circumstance, 
members having bred specimens in which both fore wings were 
aberrant. Mr. Lusby also showed a very pretty specimen of Cceno- 
nijinpha pamphUus, the inner ground of the wings being paler than 
usual, with heavily developed dark borders, and minus the spot on tip 
of fore wings. Likewise two male specimens of Liparis dispar, 
illustrating the darkening by interbreeding. With reference to L. 
dispar, Mr. Norman, who has bred numbers of this species, remarked 
that the males of the successive broods get darker each year, and the 
females degenerate ; and he was of opinion that if interbreeding was 
continued, the female would in time become apterous. A discussion 
on " The Preservation of Species (local and otherwise) from Exter- 
mination by Overcollecting, &c.," was fixed for the next meeting 
(Nov. 19th), and any suggestion will be welcome. , Mr. J. A. Clarke 
drew attention to the extraordinary iecnndity ol Lasiocainpaqiierci/olia, 
he having obtained 1050 eggs from one female. — F. A. Newbery, 
Reporting Secretary. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX.] 



FEBRUARY, 1897. 



[No. 405. 



VARIETIES OF ABRAXAS GROSSULARIATA. 




The two specimens of Abraxas grossulariata figured above 
represent the most suffused examples bred by Mr. H. McArthur 
from about three thousand larvee collected in the neighbourhood 
of Fnlham last spring, from garden euonymus {Euomjmus ja- 
poniciis), and fed up on the same plant. The majority of the 
imagines were rather undersized, measuring only about 1^ in. 
in expanse; but some few were fully up to If in. across the 
wings, and were of the most ordinary forms, with the exception 
of about thirty specimens. The prevailing form of variation in 
these was the increase of the dark markings, more particularly 
of the basal two-thirds of the fore wings; but two examples, 
although by no means strongly marked, convey the impression 
of the whole of the wings being in "water-mark," giving the 
insects a very remarkable appearance. 

EoBT. Adkin. 
Lewisham, January, 1897. 



ENTOM. FEB. 1897. 



26 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



ON NAMING GEOGEAPHICAL VARIETIES. 
By H. J. Elwes, F.L.S., F.E.S., &c. 

Mk. Harcourt-Bath {ante, p. 15) asks me to state my views 
on this subject, as he thinks that the names he suggested for 
supi30sed forms of Parnassins apollo, in ' Entomologist,' 1896, 
p. 331, are "of more importance in their relation to the type 
than the forms of many other species of European Ehopalocera" 
he "could name which have already received distinctive recogni- 
tion." It is quite impossible to lay down any hard and fast rule 
on this subject. In every case as it arises one must be guided by 
experience, and especially by the amount and character of the 
variation which occurs. In some very wide-ranging species, as 
Vanessa cardui or V. antiopa, no one has hitherto thought it 
worth while to separate supposed geographical varieties, though, 
as shown by Mr. Kirby's recent note (Entom. xxix. p. 318), it 
might be done by those who wish to multiply such names as 
much as possible. Other species, such as Melitaa dklyma and 
M. jjhcehe, show such comparatively constant local variations in 
certain districts that it is perfectly possible for anyone having a 
sufficient knowledge of their variations to say where a very large 
proportion of the specimens have come from ; but, in order to do 
this, one must have such a collection as, I am sorry to say, is 
hardly to be found in England at present. 

The experience which I have gained during many years of 
collecting in Europe, Asia, and America, and a personal know- 
ledge of the best collections of Lepidoptera in Europe and the 
United States, inclines me to think that the larger the series of 
varieties one examines from many different localities and the 
greater the knowledge one acquires of them, the more difficult it 
becomes to define local races accurately. And this applies to 
birds and plants as much as to Lepidoptera. It is the local 
collectors who are always most in favour of named local 
varieties ; and though Dr. Staudinger's collection, which 
perhaps is unequalled for its richness in local varieties by any 
other collection of natural-history specimens in the world, may 
be cited in opposition to my opinion, yet I have often found that 
his personal inclination is against the undue multiplication of 
varietal names, and that he is as ready as anyone to admit that 
local races are often impossible of exact definition. 

I will now proceed to deal with these particular forms about 
which I think Mr. Harcourt-Bath is wrong. First of all, there 
is no reason why he should take "the prevailing form found in 
the alps" as the type of P. apnllo because Linnaeus described 
the species, presumably from specimens of his own country, and, 
if so, the form named by Mr. Harcourt-Bath scand'mavica would 



ON NAMING GEOGKAPHICAL VARIETIES. 27 

be the type. I have four males and five females from Sweden 
and Norway, which are, it is true, larger than the average from 
the Swiss alps, but do not show the submarginal wavy band of 
dusky scales in the hind wing in either sex more strongly than 
many alpine specimens. Thus his only character for defining 
scandinavica falls to the ground. Secondly, as to the variety he 
calls 2'^y^''^naica. I have only kept two pairs, which I took at 
Vernet in the Eastern Pyrenees, and which I am certain no one 
could pick out from my alpine specimens if I took the labels off; 
but if a variety occurs in the Pyrenees showing the characters 
given by Mr. Harcourt-Bath, namely, a lighter colouring of the 
male and a darker colouring of the female, then it would stand 
under the name of heseholus, Nordm., from Central and Eastern 
Siberia, which is defined by Staudinger as follows: — "v. major, 
3' albidior, ? obscurior." This definition, however, is not 
applicable to all the Siberian specimens ; and, so far as my own 
specimens go, is more applicable to those from the Ural than to 
those from the Altai mountains. Now we come to the variety 
siher'ica, of which Mr. Harcourt-Bath simply says — ** The speci- 
mens from Siberia are larger, according to various authorities, 
but I do not know in what other particulars they differ from the 
type." Clearly his knowledge of this form, if it is one, is abso- 
lutely insufiicient to justify him in naming or defining it. 
Lastly, he says that "all the specimens of cqjollo from the Alps, 
the Pyrenees, and the Jura, may be divided into two sets 
according to their tints, in one of which it is of a delicate 
cream colour, although in the majority of specimens it is white." 
For the cream-coloured form he would like to suggest the name 
jmlchella. Now as he has already suggested the name pyrenaica 
for the Pyrenean insect, and as pulcliella implies something 
smaller, this name is clearly inappropriate, even if two forms 
from the Alps and the Jura could be defined at all. In most of 
the species of Parnassius very freshly-emerged specimens are 
cream coloured, fading to white when they have flown for a day 
or two. 

Having thus given reasons for my opinion that these parti- 
cular names cannot be accepted, I would tell Mr. Bath that the 
forms of P. apollo from the Carpathian and Ural mountains and 
from Spain, which he does not appear to know, and probably 
many other local varieties which I do not know, show differences 
as great or greater than those he has mentioned ; so that if these 
names are admitted several others will have to be added ; and if 
this is so in a species like apollo, the result of a similar treatment 
of some much more variable species would be to bring the whole 
system of scientific nomenclature, already quite difficult enough, 
to a hopeless state of confusion. 

Colesborne, Gloucestershire. 

d2 



28 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

NOTES ON BKITISH ORTHOPTERA. 

By Malcolm Bukr, F.E.S. 

The kindness of Mr. Guermonprez, of Bognor, has recently 
allowed me to inspect some of the specimens in his collection of 
British Orthoptera. Some of the localities are new ; and the 
capture of Pycnoscclus indicus and Qildijjoda ccerulescens is very 
interesting. The former bids fair to become cosmopolitan, and, 
like other cockroaches, will perhaps be some day naturalised in 
England. Our claim of the latter as a British species is based 
on the capture of two, many years ago, at Southampton, most 
probably, as Mr. Dale suggests, imported with vegetables from 
Jersey, where it is common. There are two now in the British 
Museum collection, which I believe are the original pair. The 
following list includes the more interesting species : — 

Ectohia livida, Fab. Pupse. Charlton Forest, in North Sussex, 
and at Bognor. — E. lapponica, L. A male from a wood near Cocking, 
Sussex; and two, which I have not seen, similar individuals, from 
Wood Eartham and Dane Wood, in Sussex. 

Pycnoscclus indicus, Fab. Two specimens, taken some time ago in a 
house in Bognor ; evidently imported from abroad. This species is 
indigenous to India and Ceylon, and has spread with trade to the 
United States and Mexico. I am not aware that it has been taken 
before in this country. (At p. 21, line 13 from bottom, for Pi/ciioselus 
read Pycnoscclus.) 

Stenobothrus elerjans, Charp. Pagham Marsh, Sussex. 

Gomphocerus maculatus, Thunb, Heyshott and Cocking and 
Eartham, in Sussex ; also Tonbridge Wells. 

G^dipoda canilcscens, L. One mutilated specimen. As to data, 
Mr. Guermonprez says that his recollection of its locality is "decidedly 
hazy," but he thinks near London. It was taken many years back, 
probably before 1870. 

2'ettix bipunctatus, L. Dorking ; Hayling Island ; Dale Park. 

Leptophycs punctatissima, Bosc. Dorkiug ; Blear Wood, near 
Heme Bay, in November (imago) ; Bognor, at sugar at night, and on 
palings. 

Meconema variutn, Fab. Dale Park; near Bosbam ; Bognor, at 
night, on palings and at sugar. 

Xipliidimn dorsale, Latr. Pagham Marsh. 

Locustn viridissima, L. Bognor. 

Platycieis brachyptera, L. A male from Broadwater Down, Ton- 
bridge Wells. — P. roeseUi, Hagenb. A male from a field at Heme 
Bay ; probably the same locality where Mr. Saunders took this rare 
species (Ent. Mo. Mag. n. s. i. (1890) ). One pupa from Par, Cornwall, 
seems to be referred to this species, the pale border on the lateral lobes 
of the pronotum showing up distinctly ; but this border is more or less 
visible in the first stages of P. yrisea, Fab., in which species it is lost 
before arriving at the nymph stage. 

Th(uitnotri::on cincreus, L. A female was taken at Aldwicb, in 



DRAGONFLIES IN 1896. 



29 



North Sussex, in October, laying its eggs in an elm trunk at night, 
vnth the ovipositor firmly fixed into the trunk. 

Gryllotalpa vulgaris, Latr. By Chichester canal. 

Bellagio, East Grinstead. 



DEAGONFLIES IN 1896. 
By W. J. Lucas, B.A., F.E.S. 



—^ 




J' 





Fig. 1. — Ptjrrhosoma miniuiii, Harr. 



Fig. 2. — Erythromma najas, Haus. 



Kemarkable in many ways has been the season of 1896. 
After an almost frostless winter in the South of England, the 
end of April and beginning of May, when dragonflies commence 
to appear, was cold and ungenial, and the early species were a 
few days later than usual in coming on the wing. The season, 
however, as it grew older, improved continually, and must pro- 
bably be set down as a good one until summer suddenly collapsed 
in the middle of August. But even after that, on the few scattered 
fine days that occurred, some species were to be taken, and in 
good numbers, until the latter end of September. 

What, however, constitutes the most striking feature of the 
season was the long summer drought, and it will be interesting 
to note during the next three years its effect, especially on those 



30 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

species which had oviposited early in the year before the drying 
up of the ponds and smaller streams. Information is unfortun- 
ately scanty with regard to such periods of drought, but what 
little there is seems to point to the fact that they have but slight 
harmful effect on odonate existence. The eggs probably remain 
imbedded in the mud, where sufficient moisture remains to keep 
alive the little speck of protoplasm, and it is not too much to 
suppose that the nymphs may maintain their existence under 
the same conditions. In this connection Mr. McLachlan's ob- 
servation of Agrion mercuriale, ovipositing in mud in Savoy in 
1884 (Ent. Mo. Mag. 1885, p. 211), and of Pyrrhosoma minium 
doing the same in the New Forest in 1895 (Ent. Mo. Mag. 1895, 
p. 180), are most useful. My own observation duriug last autumn 
of the eggs and freshly hatched larvae of Sympetrum vulgatum 
tend to shew their hardiness. For, about the 15th of September 
last a female laid in a collecting-box a large number of eggs 
(some two or three hundred perhaps), which were elliptical in 
section, the major axis being about | mm. On reaching home 
I placed them in water, and about a month later the young 
larvae commenced hatching out, and others continued to appear 
for a month or so longer. Though many of them were hatched 
in a porcelain evaporating dish about four inches in diameter, 
and could have had practically no food for weeks, their vitality 
did not seem to be impaired, and few, if any, died. They have 
now been removed to better quarters, where they may perhaps 
thrive, in which case some of them, in three years or so, may 
produce imagines in spite of their early fast ; for dragonfly 
nymphs do not seem to sustain any permanent harm from being 
kept for weeks without food in the smallest quantity of water and 
that of a very stagnant nature. 

It is in connection with the immature state of these insects 
that the odonatist has most opportunities of opening new ground, 
and it is a distinct advantage that he is able to carry on his 
observations and do most useful work during the winter and 
early spring. Of course some kind of vivaria will be required to 
contain the nymphs that are being bred. Mine consist of glass 
fish-globes filled with uater, mud, and weeds, with a few sticks 
or reeds projecting about a foot above the surface of the water, so 
that no misfortune may happen when the time for the emergence 
of the dragonflies arrives. In these, last year, I reared JEschna 
cyanca, Agrion piiclla, Ischnura elegans, PyrrJiosonia miniiim, and 
Erythromma najas, the last two of which I have described and 
figured. 

Nymph br Pyrkhosoma minium, Harr. (fig. 1). — lu shape it is long 
and slender, though less so than some others of the Agrionidcn: length, 
including the caudal lamellae, 19 mm., greatest breadth about 2-5 mm. : 
general ground colour dark sepia-brown. The head is somewhat 
rectangular, about 3-25 mm. by 1-75 mm. ; tbe sides, however, slope 



DRAGONFLIES IN 1896. 31 

considerably backwards : eyes large, pear-shaped, situated at anterior 
corners of head, and each extending a third of the way across, in 
colour dark : between the eyes are three whitish spots as well as some 
dark markings : the occiput (for the shape of which see figure 1) bears 
centrally a palish rectangle with dark boundary and crossed by two 
small parallel lines : the posterior corners of the occiput bear con- 
spicuous spines : antenna! 7-jointed, the third from the base darker 
than the rest, and all joints darker anteriorly : mask spoon-like, tri- 
angular, the base of the triangle, which is anterior, a convex curve, 
and the apex truncated ; it extends to the insertion of the first pair of 
legs; the two moveable portions bear a row of hairs along the margin, 
and terminate in a pair of hooks, which interlace when the mask is 
drawn back and at rest. The prothorax is small, rectangular with the 
four corners removed, and bears some whitish markings, notably a 
streak in the middle line of the animal. Wiug-cases long and straight. 
The legs are long, paler than the general ground colour, and are 
marked on the femora with two dark riugs, and on the tibiffi with one 
rather faint one : the tarsal joints of all the legs are three in number, 
the basal one being very small. The abdomen tapers posteriorly, the 
segments being fairly equal : each except the tenth bears along its 
posterior margin a row of small white dots, and there is a whitish 
lateral line along each segment : in the mid-dorsal region is a pale 
line, having on each side of it a black dot in each segment except the 
tenth. The caudal lamellae are 5'5 mm. in length; they have a sharp 
point at their extremity and a strong median vein : in colour they are 
pale, much blotched with brown and spotted with still darker brown. 
The end of the tenth segment of the abdomen is surrounded with 
small points, and between the dorsal and each of the lateral lamellae 
is a small conical projection. 

One specimen that could not find its way out of the water 
developed the crimson colouring under the pupal skin before 
being drowned. An imago, a great part of whose emergence 
I watched about 9 a.m. on April 26th, got its immature — 
yellowish— colouring during the day ; but I have never kept 
one alive long enough for it to put on its full crimson dress. 

Nymph of Erythromma najas, Hans. (fig. 2). — In shape it is very long 
and slender. Length, including the caudal lamellte, 30 mm., greatest 
breadth about 3.75 mm. : general ground colour dark sepia-brown. 
Head rectangular, very narrow from front to back, 4-75 mm. by 2 mm. : 
eyes rather small, somewhat hemispherical, situated at anterior corners 
of head, dark in colour ; between the eyes are a few dark dots and 
markings : on the central part of the occiput, which is very narrow, 
are also some dark markings, while its posterior corners bear con- 
spicuous spines as in the last species ; antennte six-jointed, basal two 
stout and dark, next long, slender and dark, with a pale ring round 
centre, the rest short, pale and slender : the mask is scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished from that of P. ininim)i. The prothorax is small and 
pentagonal, the base being towards the head ; on it are one or two 
dark lines. Compared with those of P. )niinum the wing-cases are 
short. The legs are rather long, paler than the general ground colour, 
and each carries two dark rings, one on each side of the junction of 



32 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

femur and tibia; there are three tarsal joints to each leg, the basal 
one being very small : all the legs have several longitudinal rows of 
small dark points. The somewhat hairy abdomen tapers gradually to 
the posterior extremity, and is irrorated with small black dots : the 
segments are fairly equal, and each, except the tenth, is bounded 
posteriorly by a line of about eight white dots : each segment except 
the tenth has a lateral spine : a medio-dorsal pale line may just be 
distinguished, and on each side of it, rather nearer the hinder edge of 
each segment, is a pale mark : there is also a pale lateral line, but not 
showing so distinctly as in P. minium. Very different from those of 
the last species are the caudal lamellae : they are 8 mm. long, and of 
much the same width throughout, about 2 mm. : the tip is rounded, 
and each lamella is divided into two parts ; the basal half has the 
margin toothed, especially on the upper edge of the central one and the 
lower edge of the other two (for the outer ones are reversed in position) : 
the decided nick on the more toothed margin is very noticeable : the 
apical half of the lamella has an entire margin, '■= and bears three trans- 
verse brown bands, and a longitudinal one along the median vein, 
which is stout : the venules have their smaller branches conspicuously 
dark in colour and arborescent in structure. The points and conical 
projections at the end of the abdomen resemble those of P. minium. 

If these two descriptions are compared, it will be seen that 
the species are closely allied, but, just as in the perfect insects, 
the resemblances, though striking, are accompanied by numerous 
points of difference. 

In the Libelluline group of dragonflies {Lihellulidce) are to 
be found ten British species — Leucorrhinia dubia, Lind., Sympe- 
triim vidgatum, Linn. {= striolatum, Charp.), S. Jiaveolum, Linn., 
S. sanguiueum, Miill., S. scoticum, Don., Platetrum deprcssum, 
Linn., Libellula quadrimacidata, Linn., L.fidva, Miill., Orthetrum 
C(Eridescens, Fabr., 0. cancellatum, Linn., and one occasional 
visitant, S.fonscolombii, Selys. Of these, during the season, I 
secured six — S. rulgatum, S. scoticum, P. depressum, L. quadri- 
maculata, 0. cceridescens, and 0. cancellatum. 

S. vulgatum I took commonly in Surrey and in the New 
Forest. One I probably saw as early as June 28th, near Pyrford, 
Surrey ; but my first capture was a female on July 5th in the 
New Forest; and the last I saw were on Sept. 20th, at the 
Black Pond, in Surrey. They were very plentiful near Wisley, in 
Surrey, in the middle of the month last named. Specimens 
vary considerably in size and in the amount of red in their 
colouring : the wings, too, are sometimes very dark, age probably 
being the cause of the darkening. S. scoticum I captured in two 
localities only (both in Surrey), where, however, they were very 
plentiful. The first one was met with on July llth, at the 
Black Pond, and it was still on the wing there on Sept. 20th. 
This species also varies considerably in size, a female taken 

-■' When a lamella is prepared in canada-balsam for viewing with a com- 
pound microscope, the apex is found to be fringed with fairly long, but very 
slender, colotu'less hairs, not shown in the figure. 



DEAGONFLIES IN 1896. 33 

on Sept. 9tli being very small. Darkening of the wings does 
not occur, but the females show a varying amount of orange 
colouration at the base. A remarkable point in connection with 
this dragonfly is the striking difference between the yellow colour 
of the immature insect and the almost black tint of the adult. 

Whether P. deprcssum was scarcer than usual last season I 
cannot say, but I noted it on four occasions only, three being in 
Surrey — a female on May 10th ; another on June 1st, on the 
wing, between 5.30 and 6 p.m.; and a third on June 14th; 
while as late as Aug. 2nd I took yet another female, in the New 
Forest, with the blue colouration on the abdomen as in the 
male. This one was very late in the summer ; can it be that the 
blue colour was due to age '? 

This season I did not meet with L. quadrimacidata till 
May lOlih, when it was out in good numbers at the Black Pond. 
By June 14th its numbers were fewer, and it was almost over 
on July 19th. I also found the species near Brockenhurst on 
July 5th ; in good numbers over ponds near Wisley on May 17th 
and 23rd ; and in smaller numbers at the Basingstoke Canal on 
May 23rd and June 20th. The Four-spotted Dragonfly is given 
to vary in two directions. Sometimes a dark cloudy colouration 
is developed on the four wings in the region of the pterostigma, 
while again (and often in the same individual) the saffron tinge 
found at the base of the wings may spread along the costal 
region almost to the tip of the wings. There seemed to me to 
be more instances than usual of both varieties last season, and 
I took three very nice specimens of the former {lorceniihilia, 
Newm.), which are usually scarce. At the Black Pond, on 
June 21st, a male was secured eating a P. minium : this is the 
first time I have observed cannibalistic tendencies in a dragonfly, 
as well as the first time I have seen one of these insects fall a 
prey to another animal. 

0. ccsrulesceiis I met with only in the New Forest, where in 
several localities it was plentiful at the beginning of August. 
The males appeared to be less common and more difficult to 
catch than the females, which are very liable to be confused 
with S. vulgatiuii : the former, however, were not usually secured 
over water, as were the latter. 0. cancellatiun was just coming 
on the wing on May 17th near Wisley, and I took an immature 
female. On July 26th I spent some time trying without success 
in Eichmond Park, to catch what could scarcely have been 
anything else than a fine male of this species. 

Four of the Cordidiidce are found in Britain — Cordidia arctica, 
Zett., C. metallica, Lind., C. csnea, Linn., and C. curtisii, Dale. Of 
these I came across one only — C. cenea — in 1896, and but few 
specimens of this. The dates were, at the Black Pond on May 10th, 
May 31st, and June 14th ; at the Basingstoke Canal on May 23rd. 

Of the Gomphidce but two species are natives of Britain — 



34 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Gomphus vulgatissimus, Linn., and C ordideg aster anmdatus, Latr. ; 
and of these two I met with only one last season, C. annidatus. 
On July 5th I secured three males in the New Forest, and also 
had one brought to me that was taken the same day near Otter- 
shaw, in Surrey. On Aug. 6th and 12th I took, in the New 
Forest, sis specimens in all, only one of which was a female. 
This dragonfly, in the Forest, in almost every instance was 
flying backwards and forwards along the streams close to the 
surface of the water, and it was usually not difficult to intercept 
it in its course and effect a capture. None of the Odonata give 
greater satisfaction than does this one, for, if ordinary care is 
used in abstracting the contents of the abdomen, the insect in 
the cabinet looks almost as bright as when it was freshly caught. 

Coming now to the Mschmda, we find eight species inha- 
bitants of our islands : — Anax formosus, Lind., Brachytron 
pratense, Mlill., /Eschua mixta, Latr., y®. horealis, Zett., 
yS. jimcea, Linn., .E. cijanea, Miill., M. grandis, Linn., 
jE. rufescens, Lind. ; and of these I met last season with all 
except three — M. mixta, M. horealis, and M. rufescens ; but 
with the exception of A. formosus, which was common at the 
Black Pond, they appeared to me to be in smaller numbers 
than usual. 

Of A. formosus I secured a good number of specimens, all but 
one being males ; several, however, were in poor condition, the 
cause perhaps being that they cut their wings when flying 
amongst the reeds. They were taken on June 14th, 21st, 27th, 
and July 11th and 19th, all at the Black Pond. On June 20th I 
saw one taken at the Basingstoke Canal near Byfleet. At the 
Black Pond, when not on the wing during the day, they seem to 
rest down amongst the reeds ; but as their time for retiring 
approaches they fly higher, amongst the firs, where probably 
they roost. It is surprising at what a distance this dragonfly 
can see a comparatively small insect, which, nevertheless, it 
often turns away from when within a few inches of it. B. pra- 
tense I saw at Wisley Ponds on May 17th, and near Byfleet on 
May 23rd. Of .E. juncca I took but two — one, a female, at the 
Black Pond on Sept. 15th, as she was resting on the surface of 
the water ovipositing ; and a male on Sept. 16th at Wisley Ponds. 
^E. cyanea was seen on several occasions, notably at Bagley Wood, 
Berks, in the middle of August, but no captures were made. I, 
however, bred a female on April 26th, and another on May 25th. 
One .E. grandis fell to my net on August 20th at Hincksey near 
Oxford. I probably saw it first on July 11th, and last on 
Sept. 9th. 

Both British species of the Calopterygidce I met with in large 
numbers last season — Calopteryx virgo, Linn., in the New Forest; 
and C. splendens, Harr., at many places in Surrey. C. virgo was 
observed on July 5th, and again during the first fortnight in 



DRAGONFLIES IN 1896. 35 

August. It haunts the banks of streams, especially where there 
is plenty of vegetation. On July 5th I secured a male with its 
right fore wing wanting in the blue pigment. This is not an 
uncommon aberration ; sometimes all the wings are similarly 
deficient, and this brown-winged form was named by Stephens 
anceps. In Surrey C. splendens seems also to like the banks of 
streams and canals where the vegetation is luxuriant. I found 
it last season in large numbers, my first specimen being seen on 
May 17th, and the last on June '28th, when, however, the insect 
was probably by no means over. I met with a few stragglers at 
the Black Pond, where I bad not observed it before. 

Amongst the Agrionidce are to be found twelve British 
species : — Lestes nympha, Selys, L. sponsa, Hans., Platycnemis 
pennipes, Pall., Erythromma najas, Hans., Pyrrhosoma minium, 
Harr., P. tenellum, Vill., Isclniura pumilio, Charp., /. elegans, 
Lind., Agrion pulchellum, Lind , A. puella, Linn., A. mercuriale, 
Charp., and A. cyatldgerum, Charp. Of these I took last season 
all except L. nympha, I. pumilio, and A. mercuriale. 

Three male L. sponsa were netted in the New Forest on 
Aug. 10th, over a tiny pond from which the water had gone, 
leaving only weeds and mud. 

Of P. pennipes I took two in the New Forest on July 5th, and 
a good number near Pyrford, in Surrey, on June 28th. Most of 
those in Surrey were caught along a ditch about a couple of 
yards wide, where they flew close to the water, the bluer speci- 
mens looking like A. puella or A. cyathigerum. Two or three 
were taken over grass. The colour of the female, which is con- 
siderably more robust than the male, is yellowish, sometimes 
with a greenish tinge : the male varies from yellowish white to 
pale blue, the head being of a blue with a slightly green tinge. 
The markings are black, and they vary to a much greater extent 
than does the ground colour. The feathered legs are very 
distinctive. 

Early in May I bred a few examples of E. najas from nymphs 
taken from the Basingstoke Canal on April 25th. On May 17th 
two were taken near Wisley, and on May 23rd and June 20th 
I took them in plenty over the Basingstoke Canal. Most of the 
mature insects were flying, often at a fair pace, over the water, 
and kept out of reach, seeming to be timid of one's approach. 
They often settled on Potamogeton or some similar floating weed, 
if not sometimes on the water itself. The immature insects 
seemed to keep away from the water. On the wing the male 
somewhat closely resembles a rather bulky I. elegans. 

P. minium began to emerge indoors as early as April 7th, but 
the first outdoor specimens I saw occurred at the Black Pond on 
May 2ud. The last specimen noticed was in the New Forest on 
Aug. 3rd. P. tenellum was coming on the wing at the Black 
Pond on June 14th, and I took my last specimen at the same 



36 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

place on Sept. 15th. On Aug. 4th I came across it in the New 
Forest. 

On May 24th I first met with I. elegans on Wimbledon Com- 
mon, and the last I saw was in the New Forest on Aug. 4th. 
I also found it near Byfleet ; near Pyrford, and in Richmond 
Park, in Surrey ; and in Bushey Park, in Middlesex. On 
June 20th I took by the Basingstoke Canal two with orange 
markings on the thorax, which perhaps belonged to a variety 
parallel with ruhellum of Curtis in the case of /. pumilio. 

Of A. pidchellum I took one on May 6th at Wisley Ponds, and 
a few on May 23rd and June 20th in a very restricted spot by 
the Basingstoke Canal. A. imella was first seen at the Black 
Pond on May 3rd, and last at the same place on July 19th. 
I took it also in several other spots in Surrey. It is doubtless 
true that this insect seldom inhabits the same locality as its near 
relative A. cyathigerum ; nevertheless it was in fair numbers 
amongst the swarms of the latter at the Black Pond last season. 
A. cyathigerum was noted as occurring in the New Forest and in 
several localities in Surrey, my first date for it being May 10th, 
and the last Sept. 20th. The distinguishing mark on the second 
segment of the abdomen varies considerably. 

Of the thirty-nine species of British dragonflies it will be seen 
that I met last season with no fewer than twenty-four, and those 
in three districts only — Mid- Surrey, the New Forest, and Oxford, 
the last of which might almost be omitted. 
21, Knight's Park, Kingston-on-Thames. 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTEEA OF IRELAND. 
By W. F. de Vismes Kane, M.A., M.R.I.A., F.E.S. 

(Continued from vol, xxix. p. 235.) 

RivuLA SERicEALis, Scop. — Everywhere abundant. 

Zanthognatha grisealis, Hh. — Widely distributed. Kings- 
town (5.), Belfast (TF.) ; Cromlyn, Westmeath ; Armagh (J.); 
Kenmare ; Markree ; Farnham, &c. 

Zanthognatha tarsipennalis, Tr. — Fairly common. Galway 
{B.) and Clonbrock ; Cromlyn [Mrs. B.) ; Markree, and near 
Sligo (/x*.) ; Banagher ; Farnham; Castle Bellingham (27?.), &c. 

(Pechypogon barbalis, Clerck. — Stated to have been taken 
near Belfast (IF.) ; but I have not authenticated the record.) 

BoMOLOcHA fontis, Thuh. — Not rare in Kerry about Killarney 
and Kenmare ; shores of L. Foyle near Derry (IF. E. H. and C.) ; 
Ardrahan, Co. Galway ; Cappagh, Co. Waterford. 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF IRELAND. 37 

Hypena proboscidalis, L. — Everywhere abundant. 
Hypenodes cost^strigalis, St. — Cork {S.) ; Markree Castle, 
Sligo ; Ardtully, Co. Kerry. 

Tholomiges turfosalis, Wk. — Common at Killarney (B.). 
Brephos parthenias, L. — Westmeath {Miss R.). 

GEOMETR.E. 

Uropteryx sambucaria, Lr — Widely distributed, but very 
variable in numerical distribution. Often abundant in the 
suburbs of towns, as Kingstown and elsewhere near Dublin ; 
and in some country districts, as near Kenmare, and at Drum- 
reaske. A few localities are appended to illustrate its range of 
occurrence. Sparingly about Inishowen and Derry {W. E. H. 
and C.) ; Armagh and Carlingford (J.) ; near Belfast, common 
(IF.); Westmeath, occasional ; Cappagh, Co. Waterford; Ban- 
don and Doneraile, Co. Cork. 

Epione paralellaria, Schiff. — Erroneously recorded from 
Powerscourt. The only Irish locality seems to be Clonbrock, 
Co. Galway, where Mr. Dillon has bred a few, and captured a 
number in flight. 

Epione apiciaria, Schiff. — Very widely distributed, and 
locally sometimes rather numerous, as at Belfast {W.) ; Derry 
(C.) and Donegal ; it occurs also at Markree Castle and 
Lissadell, &c., near Sligo ; Enniskillen ; Favour Koyal, Tyrone ; 
Armagh {J.); Farnham, Cavan; Castle Bellingham (Th.) ; 
Killynon, Westmeath {Miss R.) ; Clonbrock and Ardrahan, Co. 
Galway ; Bray, Powerscourt, and Greystones, Wicklow ; 
Mallow, &c. 

Rumia luteolata, L. — Everywhere abundant. 

Venilia macularia, L. — Very local, but numerous where 
found, and variable in marking ; but I have seen no specimens 
of var. qiiadrimaculata. Powerscourt {B.) and Devil's Glen 
{Bw.), Wicklow ; Cappagh, Co. Waterford, and Ardtully 
{Miss v.), and Cloonee, Co. Kerry; near Cork {Sanclford) ; 
Clonbrock {R. E. D.), Castle Taylor {Miss N.), and near Galway 
{A.) ; Rockwood, near Sligo. I have no northern localities. 

Angerona prunaria, L. — Apparently confined like the pre- 
ceding to the S. and W. of Ireland, where locally numerous. 
The banded form of both sexes occurs. Clonbrock {R. E. D.), 
Galway ; Cratloe near Limerick ; Glengarriff {Carpenter), and 
about Killarney; Cappagh, Co. Waterford {Miss V.). 

Metrocampa margaritaria, L. — Throughout Ireland. Often 
common. 

Ellopia prosapiaria, Tj. — This pine-feeding Geometer, if 
strictly restricted to that food-plant, must have (like Panolis 



38 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

piniperda) been introduced into this country during the last few 
hundred years, when settlers began to import and plant conifers, 
the indigenous pine having become extinct about the time of 
Elizabeth. According to ' Cybele Hibernica ' there is no satis- 
factory proof of the survival of our native Pinus sylrestris. The 
forests of Wicklow, in which some 900 years ago the King of 
Leinster cut a tribute of fir masts for Brian Boru, survives only 
in oak and other trees which spring from the stools, or the free- 
seeding birch. Nevertheless this moth is now very widely distri- 
buted, and sometimes not uncommon. The green variety 
prasinaria, Hb., has not yet been observed ; but one or two 
dingy examples, in which the pink tint is scarcely to be traced, 
have been taken at Castle Bellingham {Thornhill) and near 
Sligo (R.). Pale specimens also occur, and the transverse bars 
vary in strength of marking. Localities : abundant near Derry 
(C.) a,nd Belfast (TF.) ; Newcastle, Co. Down (Bw.) ; Stranorlar, 
Donegal ; Markree, Hollybrook, and Sligo ; Tempo Manor near 
Enniskillen {Langham) ; Favour Koyal, Tyrone ; Cromlyn 
{Mrs. B.) and Killynon {Miss R.), Westmeath ; Toberdaly, 
King's Co. ; Castle Bellingham {Tk.) ; Howth, Balbriggan, and 
one at the lighthouse at Eockabill three miles off the Dublin 
coast; Powerscourt {B.), Killarney, Bray {S.), and Greystones, 
Wicklow; Portarlington (Z>.) ; Dromana, Cappagh, Co. Water- 
ford {Miss V.) ; Markree, Hollybrook, and Sligo ; Moycullen 
{Miss E.), Clonbrock {R. E. D.), and Woodlawn {A.) ; in Cork, 
abundant; and at Killarney, Cloonee L., Glenflesk, Glengarriff, 
the shores of Bantry Bay and Crookhaven, Kerry, &c. 

EuRYMENE DOLOBRARiA, L. — Eccorded as Irish by the late 
Alex. R. Haliday. Single examples have been captured by 
Dr. Cosgrave at Swords, Co. Dublin ; Mr. Donovan at Mucross ; 
Mrs. Battersby at Cromlyn and Killynon {Miss R.), Westmeath; 
Rockwood, Sligo {McC.) ; and Tempo Manor, Enniskillen {Lancj- 
liam). I have taken several at Drumreaske, Monaghan, and 
Merlin Park, Galway ; and at Clonbrock it is fairly numerous, 
Mr. Dillon having taken both the imagines and larvae freely ; 
and these specimens are unusually large and fine. 

Pericallia syringaria, L. — One at Cappagh, Co. Waterford 
{U.) ; several at Clonbrock {R. E. D). 

Selenia bilijnaria, Esp. — Very widely spread ; from Derry 
{W. E. II.) and Ballycastle, Co. Antrim, to Cork. In some 
places, as at Favour Royal, Tyrone, and Castle Bellingham, 
Louth, very plentiful. Irish specimens of the spring emergence 
seem to me remarkable both in richness of colour and size, often 
being nearly two inches in expanse. The summer form, jidiaria, 
also occurs. 

Selenia lunaria, Schiff. — Very local. First recorded from 
Powerscourt, Co. Wicklow, by Mr. Barrett, where in 1889 I 



SILK-PRODUCING LEPIDOPTERA. 39 

again met with a few specimens. It is also to be found at 
Hollybrook, Co. Sligo (Missff.) ; Kiliynon, Westmeath {Miss R.) ; 
Favour Eoyal, Tyrone ; and Enniskillen ; but except at Clon- 
brock, Co. Galway, where several have been captured by 
Mr. Dillon, single specimens only have been taken. The 
summer form, delunaria, has not been yet noticed in Ireland to 
my knowledge. 

Selenia tetralunaria, Hufn. — Not known, except at Clon- 
brock, whence Mr. Dillon reports numerous captures. 

Odontopera bidentata, Clerck — Everywhere numerous. 
Very dusky brown forms occur with the outer margin external 
to the elbowed line darkly shaded. Every gradation of paler 
forms, some tinted with ferruginous, are also to be found, with 
the markings sometimes strongly and sometimes slightly repre- 
sented. A very remarkable aberration, with speckled ochreous 
ground colour and very dark transverse lines and discoidal 
spots, occurs rarely, which I have not seen in English col- 
lections. Some specimens have the two transverse lines of the 
fore wing joined by a longitudinal streak beneath the discoidal 
spot, formed by the darkening of that portion of the median 
nervure. 

Crocallis elinguaria, L. — Very widely met with, but not 
usually in any numbers. It varies somewhat in the tint of the 
median band, which sometimes is strongly coloured. 

(To be continued.) 



SILK-PRODUCING LEPIDOPTERA. 

By Alfred Wailly, 

(Concluded from vol. xxix. p. 356.) 

European Species. 

Of the six species I am going to name, only one produces silk 
of any value, that is Lasiocampa otus, found in Turkey, Hungary, 
and Asia Minor. Saturnia isabella has a thin cocoon of rather 
fine silk ; the others produce coarse silk. 

Attacus pyri, S. v., Godart {Saturnia pavonia major, Linn.). 
Central and Southern Europe. The larva feeds on peach, 
almond, pear, apple, plum, elm, ash, and other trees. In 
France the larva reaches its full size in August. It forms its 
cocoon on walls, between branches or at the foot of trees. 

Attacus carpini, S. V., God., Dup., Bdv. {Saturnia pavonia 
minor, L.) All over Europe, even in the North of England. 
The larva feeds on elm, hornbeam, birch, willow, blackthorn, 



40 THE ENTOMOLOGIST, 

bramble, heath, &c. This species is earher than the preceding 
one, the moths emerging generally in April. The larvse hatch 
in May, form their cocoons, of a pear-like shape, about the 
middle of July, in the bushes. 

Attacus spini, Borkhausen (Saturnia pavonia media, Fab.). 
Germany, Austria, Hungary. This species, it is said, can only 
pair in the open air. I could never obtain the reproduction of 
this species in captivity after several years' trial. In 1881, with 
forty cocoons, I only obtained seven or eight moths ; the pupse, 
like those of A. pijri and A. carpini, remaining two and some- 
times three years before the emergence of the moths. The spini 
moths, in 1881, commenced to emerge on April 17th, the carpini 
on the 30tb. From this, spini would appear to be a still earlier 
species than carpini. The larva feeds on the blackthorn {Primus 
spinosa). The cocoon is larger and more silky than that of 
carpijii, and it has an oval shape. The moth, somewhat similar 
to that of pyri, but of course much smaller, is of the same 
colour and size in both sexes ; whereas, as is well known, there 
is a striking difference in size and colour between the male and 
female carpini. 

Saturnia ccecigena, Hiibner. Dalraatia, Turkey, Asia Minor. 
From information just received, I learn that this species byber- 
nates in the ovum state, and the larva feeds on oak. 

Saturnia {Actias) isabell.e. Central Spain. Splendid 
species, discovered by M. Meig, described and figured in the 
* Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France,' 1850, p. 241, 
pi. viii., by Professor Graells. The moth is of a deep green, with 
brown nervures. The larva is green, the head and the middle of 
the segments brown, and there are two long red spots bordered 
with white along each segment; it feeds on the forest pine {Piniis 
sylvestris). 

BoMBYX {Lasiocampa) otus, Drury. This silk-producing 
Bombyx is, it is said, that from which the Greeks and the 
Romans obtained their silk before the introduction of the 
mulberry silkworm from China. What has become of this 
famous silkworm ? One of my correspondents in Sicily, M. J. 
Pincitore Marott, of Palermo, in an article which appeared on 
August 1st, 1873, in the 'Petites Nouvelles Entomologiques,' 
speaks of the discovery and propagation of this remarkable 
silkworm in Italy, and in a passage of his report he says : — 
" The Bomhyx otiiH is of great importance, for its silk-producing 
caterpillar may perhaps replace that of the Bomhyx niori; the silk 
obtained from this species is almost as fine as that produced by 
the Yama-ma'i. The true country of B. otus being Asia Minor, 
its discovery in Italy proves that our climatic conditions and 
flora, at least in part, are somewhat similar to those of the East, 
and that the rearing of B. otus could be done successfully. 
M. Correale, of Scandole, near Crotoue in Calabria, was the first 



SILK-PRODUCING LEPIDOPTERA. 41 

to discovered the otus moths in Italy, and his attempts to rear 
this species on a large scale, up to the present, have been 
crowned with success." These remarks were published by 
Professor Cornalia, in the ' Annali di Storia Naturale,' vol. viii., 
1865. M. Marott adds that the B. otus was not rare in 1873 in 
southern parts of continental Italy, and that he found it also in 
the environs of Monte-Cuccio (Palermo). The larva of B. otus 
feeds on the lentisk {Pistacia lentiscus), a shrub which grows 
naturally on the coasts of the Mediterranean, in Africa, Syria, 
Greece, Turkey, and other parts. Live cocoons of otus can now 
be easily obtained, and in 1889 I bad a quantity of them sent to 
me by a naturalist of Zara, Dalmatia, who reared tbe larvas on 
a species of evergreen oak {Quercus ilex). The cocoons are white, 
very rich in silk, and very large, the female cocoons being about 
three inches in length and wide in proportion. The difficulty in 
rearing this species would, I think, be that of keeping the insect 
during the winter, as it hybernates in the larval state, like all 
species of the same genus. Besides lentisk and oak, the otus 
larva can also live on ash and cypress. 

American Species. 

In my various reports, English and French, I have spoken of 
the rearing in Europe of the principal wild silkworms of the 
United States of North America. With respect to the others, I 
shall only be able to give their names according to the list given 
by Aug. R. Grote, President of the Entomological Club of New 
York, and published in 1882. 

Telea POLYPHEMUS {TcUa, Hiibner; polyphemus, Cramer). 
The best wild silkworm of the United States, with a closed 
cocoon like those of the genus Anthercea, of which it has all the 
characteristics. The silk of T. polyphemus is white, and in 
quality it fully equals that of A. pernyi, but the cocoon is 
generally smaller. In Europe this species has been reared in 
the open air with the greatest success on oak. It is difficult to 
obtain the pairing of the moths in captivity, and the best thing 
to do is, as with Yama-ma'i, to place the cages containing the 
moths in the open air. T. polyphemus is very polyphagous, and 
is found on birch, beech, willow, hazel, chestnut, &c. The larva, 
which is one of the handsomest, has five stages. It is white in 
the first ; in the other four stages it is of a beautiful green. The 
head is light brown, but it has no dots like that of Anthercea 
pernyi. The base of each tubercle is silvery white, with metallic 
rellection. The following are names of trees and shrubs given 
as food-plants of T. polyphemus by American entomologists : — 
Quercus, Ulmus, Tilia americana, Rosa, Acer, Salix, Populus, 
Corylas, Betula, Vaccinium, Juglans nigra, J. cinerea, Cratcegus, 
Quercus virens, Prunus virginiana, Platanus, Castanea resca, 
Fagus, Tilia europcea, Carya tomentosa, Alnus incana, &c. 

. ENTOM. FEB. 1897. E 



42 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Platysamia cecropia {Attacus cecropia, Linn.). Platysamia is 
the generic name given to this species and the three following 
ones, which are all closely-allied species. P. cecropia is the 
largest silk-producer in the United States. The cocoon, open 
like those of the same genus, is surrounded by a large irregular 
envelope, which is often of an extraordinary size. The larva has 
six stages (some authors say it has but five) ; is more difficult to 
rear in the open air in northern countries than T. polypheimis. 
It feeds on a great number of fruit and other trees, especially 
wild plum, willow, &c. The moths pair easily in captivity. 
Brodie, in ' Papilio,' February, 1883, gives a list of forty-nine 
species of plants belonging to the following genera : — THia, 
Acer, Pimnus, Spircea, Cratcegus, Ptjrus, Amelanchier, Ribes, 
Samhuciis, Ulmus, Quercus, Fufius, Conjlus, Carpinus, Betula, 
Alnus, Salir, and Popidiis. Other authors give the following 
genera : — Berheris, Liriodendron, Syringa, Carya, Gleditschia, 
Ruhus, Ceanotliiis, Ampelopsis, Ceplialanthus,Fraxinus, Vaccinium, 
and Rosa. 

Platysamia ceanothi, Behr {calif ornica, Gr.). A species 
smaller than P. cecropia. The envelope, which is iron-grey and 
pyriform, is much larger in proportion than the true cocoon 
inside, the space between the two being rather considerable. 
The larva of this species has been reared in Europe on plum 
and willow. Probably it would live on several of the same 
food-plants as P. cecropia and P. gloveri. The name of ceanothi 
is derived from one of its principal food-plants, Ceanothus ameri- 
canus. The larva, as well as that of P. gloveri, is very similar to 
that of P. cecropia, especially in the first two stages. From the 
third stage the difference, the most striking, is that the dorsal 
tubercles of ceanothi and gloveri are of a uniform colour, orange- 
red or yellow, whilst the first four tubercles on the back of the 
cecropia larva are red, and the others yellow. The lateral 
tubercles are blue on the three species. The ceanothi moths 
have the background of the fore wings of a reddish brown ; on 
the contrary, the colours vary in the other two species. The 
moths do not pair so easily as those of cecropia. 

Platysamia gloveri, Streeker. A species which is inter- 
mediate between P. cecropia and P. ceanothi in size and colouring 
of the wings. The envelope of the cocoon is silvery grey ; the 
true cocoon is dark brown. The outer envelope adheres to the 
cocoon, leaving no space between the two. This species was 
discovered in Utah, where cocoons were found on a small leaf 
sallow. It is also found in Arizona. 

P. cecropia, P. ceanothi, and P. gloveri, being closely-allied 
species, pair readily among themselves, and very interesting 
hybrids have been obtained by the crossing of cecropia with 
ceanothi and cecropia and gloveri. 

Platysamia Columbia, Smitb. This species, somewhat 



SILK-PRODUCING LEPIDOPTERA. 43 

similar to P. gloveri, is found in various states and parts of 
Canada. 

Callosamia promethea (Attacus promethea, Drury). Callo- 
samia is the generic name given by Packard. The cocoon of this 
species somewhat resembles that of Attacus cynthia, but is smaller 
and more elongated ; the species altogether is smaller. The larva 
can easily be bred in the open air on lilac or cherry, if the larvse 
do not hatch too late in the summer. In America the larva feeds 
on the Sassafras (wild cherry), Cephalanthus, Lauras, Benzoin, 
Syringa, Berheris, Betula, Acer, Quercus, Pinus, Fagus, Lirio- 
dendron, Populus, apple, pear, peach, &c. According to W. H. 
Edwards, the larva of C. proiuethea has but three moults or four 
stages in Western Virginia. 

Callosamia angulifera, Walker. A species which is said to 
feed on the tulip tree ; is very similar to C. prometliea, but the 
colours on the wings are the same in both sexes, whilst in 
proiuethea they are very dissimilar. 

Philosamia CYNTHIA, Grote (Attacus cynthia, Drury). This is 
the Attacus cynthia mentioned before, a native of China, and now 
naturalised in the United States. 

Attacus splendidus, B. {Saturnia galhina ; Satarnia, Krank ; 
galbina, Clem. ; Saturnia mendocino, Behrens). 

AcTiAS LUNA [Attacus luna, Linn.). Actias, generic name, 
given by Leach. A species smaller, but resembling the A. selene 
of India. The cocoon, closed like those of the same genus, is 
irregular, and has but little silk. In the United States the 
species is double- brooded. The larva, which is green, with red 
tubercles, has often been reared in Europe, where it seems to 
prefer walnut; it is, however, very polyphagous. The food- 
plants mentioned by American entomologists on which the 
larvae are said to be found are the following : — Juglans cinerea, 
Carya porcina, Quercus, Plantanus, Liquidamhar, Fagus, Betula, 
Salix, Ostrya virginica, Castanea, and plum. 

Hyperchiria 10, Fabricius. The larva of this species forms 
its pupa in a light cocoon or shell on the surface of the ground ; 
it is covered with tufts of stiff hairs, which sting like nettles. It 
is easy to rear in captivity. The moths, which are very hand- 
some and differ in the sexes, pair easily. The larva, which has 
six stages, has been reared in Europe on oak, willow, plum, 
apple, &c. In America it is found on Populus halsamifera, 
Uimus, Zea mays, Cornus, Sassafras, Quercus, Eobinia viscosa, 
Cornus florida, Liriodendron, Humulus, Gossypium, Acer, Salix, 
Populus tremuloides, Eobinia pseudo-acacia, Cerasus virginiana, 
Betula, Fraxinus, Rabus villosus, Trifolimn pratense, &c. 

Attacus aurota, Cramer. Large and fine species, somewhat 
resembling Attacus atlas, being sometimes called the South 
American atlas. It is found in the Guianas, other parts of 
Central America, and Brazil, where there is a variety bearing 



44 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



the name Attacus speculifer. The cocoon, which is very thick 
and rich in silk, has the same form as that of A. atlas. A. 
aurota, according to a former correspondent, Mr. A. Michely, 
who has been dead some years, has six generations each year in 
Frencli Guiana. Tlie motlis emerge a montli after the formation 
of tlie cocoon ; the eggs hatch a week after they have been laid ; 
and twenty days after, the formation of the cocoon takes place. 
This is one of the species which it would be advisable to rear on 
a large scale in its native country for manufacturing purposes. 
The silk, although rather coarse in appearance, is brilliant and 
abundant. A. aurota has been reared by Mr. Michely in French 
Guiana on the orange tree and on Eucalyptus ; it can also be 
bred on Ailanthus, liicinus, Casearia ramiflora, manioc {Jatropha 
manihot), bamboo, and other plants. 

Attacus hesperus. Another species the moth of which is 
magniheent. The cocoon is firm, smooth, without any floss, of 
a dark brown, and about the size of Attacus ciinthia, but it is 
more perfect in shape than cijnthia. Mr. Michely says the larva 
can live on the same plants as A. aurota, and that it forms its 
cocoon fifteen days only after its hatching. There are, he says, 
five species of silk-producing Bombyces in Guiana. 

Among other American species we must quote the following, 
described in the ' Transactions of the Entomological Society of 
London' in 1884, by Westwood (T. I., p. 38) : — 

Saturnia ORIZABA, Westwood. Mexico. 

S. voRULLA, Westwood. Mexico. 

S. LAVENTERA, WcstwOod. MoxicO. 
S. GELLETA, WcstwOOd. McxicO. 

S. ZACATECA, Westwood. Bogota. 
EucHEiRA sociALis, Wcstwood. Mexico. 

Tudor Villa, Norbiton, Surrey. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

" Apple Trees and Wingless Moths.*' — The " case that the males 
do carry up the wingless females " (Entom. xxvi. 20) is not mine. It 
is that of the ' Standard ' correspondent. But it had my respect from 
the first, for it was entirely fi-ee from hypothetical language. And I 
must confess that, as I go farther into it, my respect ripens into faith. 
Mr. Mitchell may think this a state of things with which " few 
practical entomologists will agree," Then let us go to the practical 
entomologist! Let us consult that charming book of Miss E. A. 
Ormerod's — a book which should be in the hands of every farmer, 
fruitgrower, gardener, and entomologist — * A Manual of Injurious 
Insects, and Methods of Prevention.' Turning to page 319, under the 
head of Cheimatobia brumnta, Miss Ormerod says : — " Another point is 
the transportation of the ivingless female icinter moths to the trees by the males 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 45 

tvhilst pcdruif/. This point was not sufficiently observed, until within 
the last two or three years, to be taken into practical consideration ; but 
it bears to a very important extent on presence of attack." We may 
depend upon it this observation represents a consensus of opinion 
from practical people who have to deal seriously with insect pests, and 
whose knowledge of such insects is not inferior to that of the brethren 
of the net. Whether it refers to fruit or forest trees, of course, 
matters not. The "case," then, is simply this: — greased bands, 
properly prepared, are very effective in dealing with wingless moths, 
but not entirely so. Mr. Mitchell is a little hard, and too general, I 
think, in his criticism of "newspaper entomology." In a journal 
like the ' Standard,' correspondence is passed through a discriminating 
sieve by experts. And here is another testimonial to the press, from 
Miss Ormerod, It appears at page xii, in the preface to her book : — 
" I should fail in what is a duty as well as a pleasure if I did not 
mention, with many thanks, the encouragement and help ever heartily 
and courteously accorded to me by our agricultural, and often by our 
general, press." — J. Arkle ; Chester. 

ToRTRix PYEASTRANA. — One day last June I bred a female of this 
species which I killed and pinned to a sheet of cork whereon there 
were a number of other insects waiting to be set. The window of my 
room was open; and while I was engaged setting, a male T. pyrastrana 
flew in and came towards the table, and fluttered backwards and 
forwards over the piece of cork, and at last settled down in the midst 
of the group of moths, and ran to and fro until he had discovered the 
dead female, whereupon he immediately attempted nuptial rites. 1 
blew him away, but he came back again ; and again I blew him away, 
but he persisted in returning ; so I got a pill-box ready and tried to 
box him as he was flying round, when all at once, to my surprise, he 
went right into the box, and was promptly secured. It is very 
probable that this box had contained the female, and was therefore 
an attraction in itself. Eventually he joined his wished-for mate on the 
setting-board. — Gervase F. Mathew; H.M.S. ' Hawke,' Dec. 23rd, 1896. 

Cheimatobia brumata. — As there seemed a large number of males 
of C. brumata about at the end of November, my brother and I went 
to search in our kitchen garden for the females. We got fifty- four in 
five days ; so there ought to be a good many larvse less next spring. 
We found the best time was between 6 and 7 o'clock. They were 
nearly always in cop., and generally beneath the first branch. I do 
not think the males carry up the females, as on two or three occasions 
we saw the male fly away after copulation ; the female then ran up the 
tree some way, remained still, but we never saw any laying eggs. 
They varied very much both in size and colour, some being quite 
black.— H. M. Edelsten; The Elms, Forty Hill, Enfield, N., Jan. 1st. 

High-flat Setting. — What should they know of England who 
only England know? May I be allowed to prolong the discussion on 
high setting of Lepidoptera ? It is a question which affects me more 
than most of your correspondents. Mr. Sabine writes (Entom. xxix. 
359), "It seems to me that we collectors of British insects are desired 
to set our specimens flat, simply for the benefit or convenience 



46 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of those who go in for foreign insects as well." This is correct, but 
the inconvenience to the collector of extra-British insects under the 
present system is so great that it is hardly right to pass over it as un- 
wortiiy of attention. I have for many years collected British and 
foreign insects. As it is impossible, without exchanging (or buying) 
specuneng, to obtain anything like a good collection, I naturally 
resort to exchange on a fairly large scale. What is the result ? My 
collection is a heterogeneous mixture of high, medium, and low-set 
specimens, witli wings curved or fiat, sloping up or down or arranged 
horizontally. Short of resetting everything this is unavoidable. Now, 
if it be Mr. Sabine's intention (and that of those who argue with him) 
to discourage the collection of any but British Lepidoptera, he is 
undoubtedly right. But does he realise that the excellent worli done 
in Britain, by the comparison of local varieties with one another, is but 
half complete if they are not compared with the continental forms of 
the same insects ? We are blessed with such a wide variety of climate 
and weather in our happy isles, that a very large range of variety, in 
many species, may be found without crossing the Channel ; but why 
throw obstacles in the way of those who would complete the series by 
adding, say, polar or southern forms of the same species ? It is im- 
material, in my opinion, whether entomologists set insects high or 
low ; both ways have advantages ; high-set are safer to pack for 
posting, and extremely convenient for putting locality and other labels 
beneath. Personally, though I admire a well-set English specimen, 
curved wings are to me the 7ie plus ultra of artificiality ; it is, however, 
very material that lepidopterists all the world over should adopt a 
uniform system ; and as we are hardly likely to convert the rest 
of Europe, America, the colonies, in fact all the world, except our own 
little islands, to our method of setting, the sooner we abandon it for 
the universal one the better. As to English setting being the " hall- 
mark" of a British insect, if the hall-mark is not written on the 
insect by Nature's hand it is not worth much, except perhaps from a 
pecuniary point of view. If an English specimen differs in any way 
from a foreign one, the hall-mark is not needed ; if it does not so 
differ, a locality label meets the purpose equally well. As Mr. 
Jacoby points out, setting is no guarantee against fraud. One distinct 
and immediate advantage of uniform setting would be the greater ease 
with which good specnnens which are common abroad [Cinxia, for 
instance) could be obtained, which would help to save many of our 
rarities from extinction. In conclusion, let me state that I am not 
arguing on the merits of the two opposing systems of setting, as I 
have, alas ! hundreds of both in my collection, but simply on the ad- 
visability of the general adoption of the uniform system obtaining all 
over the world. The following are the advantages I claim : — It would 
facilitate foreign exchange, and increase the knowledge of the distri- 
bution of British species outside Britain, if not of extra-British species. 
It would give greater facilities for the determination of new British 
species, the guesswork handling of which at present is rather woeful. 
It would give collectors of Europeans fair play, both in regard to the 
beauty of their collections and in exchange abroad (the continental 
collector objects to English-set specimens as much as the hardened 
Britisher to high-set ones). It would bring us in line in this matter 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 47 

with the rest of the civilized world. Foreign setting-boards generally 
slope a trifle upwards. — J. C. Wakbubg ; Cannes. 

Thalpochares PAULA, Hb., IN Britain. — Mr. C. W. Dale asks (ante, 
p. 17) whether this species is British, and since I can answer his 
question in the affirmative, and am the owner of the specimen to 
which he alludes as having stood as T. paula in Mr. C. A. Briggs's 
collection, I am writing these lines to dispel his doubts. The moth 
referred to is unquestionably T. paula : and although Mr. Dale says 
"it is certainly very different to any foreign specimens of T. paula 
which I have seen," and " it far more resembles foreign specimens of 
T. parva," I can assure him that it agrees absolutely with all the 
British and continental examples of T. paula, and differs essentially 
from those of T. parva which I have examined. It is the actual 
specimen captured by Mr. J. Moore, at Freshwater, Isle of Wight, in 
June, 1872, and alluded to by Mr. Barrett in Ent. Mo. Mag. x. 19 
(Mr. Dale by a slip gives the reference as " ix. 19 "), and by Dr. H. G. 
Knaggs in Ent. Ann. 1874, p. 156. Mr. Moore, whose initials 
Mr. Barrett {loc. cit.) gives as " E. G." in mistake for " J.,'' was per- 
sonally known to the late Mr. Howard Vaughan and to Mr. C. A. 
Briggs, and was thoroughly reliable, though I believe that his name 
was, in later years, used for fraudulent purposes by unscrupulous 
dealers. Besides this specimen Mr. Barrett (/. c.) mentions two other 
T. pallia, which I have also seen ; the history of one is unknown, but 
there is every reason to believe that the other was taken on the south 
coast by a schoolboy years ago. There may be one or two other 
genuine British specimens in this country, but I have no particulars 
of their capture at hand. Mr. Dale evidently thinks that Messrs. 
Barrett and Meyrick have applied the nAm.es '' parva" and " patda" 
to different species ; but a careful comparison of their descriptions to 
which he refers, as well of those of Dr. Knaggs in Ent. Ann. 1874, 
pp. 157-8, with authentic examples of both insects, shows clearly that 
all three authors have applied the names quite correctly and to the 
same species, and that the supposed discrepancies arise from his 
having failed to notice that whereas Mr. Barrett's distinctions are 
bised on the character of the fascia, Mr. Meyrick's rest upon the 
character of the lines. Some of the differences between T. parva and 
T. paula are well pointed out by Dr. H. G. Knaggs in Ent. Ann. 
1874, pp. 157-8; and a good enlarged coloured figure of the former, 
of which I myself captured a specimen in this district on June 8th, 
1892 (Ent. Mo. Mag. Ser. 2, iii. 308), will be found on the frontis- 
piece in Ent. Ann. 1859, though Newman (' British Moths,' p. 448) 
makes the extraordinary comment that from the figure he "should 
have supposed this insect to be the female of ostrlna!'' I would 
strongly advise Mr. Dale to examine the very long and beautiful series 
of T. parva and T. paula in the general collection at the British Museum 
(Natural History), as they will show him well the peculiar character- 
istics of each species : the majority of the specimens came out of 
the collections of the late Professors Zeller and Frey, whose ideas 
as to the correct application of the names agreed precisely with 
those of Messrs. Barrett, Knaggs, Meyrick, and myself. In support of 
his suggestion that T. paula is not British, Mr. Dale, following 



48 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Mr. Barrett (Ent. Mo. Mag. x. 20), says that the larva feeds on 
Gnaphalium arenarinm, which is not a British plant ; but it is also 
known to feed on other species of Gnaphnlhim, and several occur in 
this country. In any case, however, I regard T. paula, T. parva, T. 
ostrina, and certaiu other insects in the British list, as merely 
accidental visitors, which at best can only continue their race in this 
climate for a few months, and are quite unable in any stage to survive 
our winters. — • Eustace R. Bankes ; The Rectory, Corfe Castle, 
January 1st. 1897. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Vanessa antjopa at Gorlkston, near Great Yarmouth. — I saw a 
specimen of Euvanessa [Vajiessa] antiopa on Sept. 8th, when walking on 
the pier on the Gorleston side of Yarmouth harbour-mouth. I did not 
attempt to catch it, as I do not believe in capturing every rare butterfly as 
soon as it is espied, especially when one is sure of its identity ; but I got 
quite near to it, and could plainly see it had the yellow border of the con- 
tinental form, whence I infer it had come across lodged on the rigging of 
some ship. — x\lbert H. Waters, B.A. ; Cambridge. 

MoTHs TAKEN AT Eleotric Light, Ealing. — The following list 
testifies to the fact of an erroneous belief among my friends here, whose 
assertion is that this vicinity, in such near proximity to London, generally 
rewarded the entomologist with few and unimportant captures. I merely 
tried this place as an experiment, on July 5th and August 3rd and 20th 
respectively, which yielded contrary results: — Smerinthus populi, S. tilla, 
Zeuzera ascidi (male and female). Cossus li(jniperda (in good condition), 
Arctia caia, Spilosoma fuUginosa (one dark variety), S. vienthastri, S. 
lubricipeda, Liparis chrijsorrhcea, L. salicis, Orciyia antiqua, Lasiocampa 
querciJ'oUa, Pterostoma palpina, Notodonta dictcEa, Phalera bucephala, 
Drepana liamula, Bryophila perla (on the under surface of this moth's 
wings a number of small red parasites adhered to the costa), Acronycta 
tridens, A. psi, A. aceiis, A. meyacephala (the last very numerous), Leucania 
I'Uhargyria, L. pallens, L. comma, Tapinostola fiilva, Axylia pxttris, 
Hydrcecia nictitans, H. micacea, XyJophasia lithoxylea, X. polyodon (it 
could be seen how plentiful this moth had been by the wings, the remainder 
having been eaten by the bats), Neuria saponaria, Neuronia popidaris, 
Luperina testacea (on the posts), Mamestni anceps, M perdcarice, Dicranura 
vinula, Apamea oculea (plentiful), Miaiia fasciuncula, Agrotis pitta, A. 
exdamationis (one variety having the dark markings totally obliterated), 
TriphcBna pronuha (many rufous and light varieties), Noctiia c-nigrum, 
N. xanthograplia, Calymnia trapezina, Hecatera dysoden. Phlognphora 
meliculosa (scarcer than last year), Hadena oleracea, Cuciillia umbratica, 
Plusia chrysitis, P. gamma, P. iota, Amphipyra. tragopogonis. Cotacala 
nupta (in good numbers), Mania typica Epione apiciaria, Rumia cratagnta, 
Uropteryx sambucata (plentiful, one 1 took having the hind wings aberrant), 
Eugnnia fiiscantaria. E. angularia, Amphidnsya betulnria (a dark form), 
Boarinia rhomboidana (common), Pelurgn. comitata, Hemithea thymiaria, 
Eupithecia subj'ulvata, E. centaureata, Timandra amataria, Melanippe 
Jiuctuata, Melanthia ocellata. The Pyralides were fairly represented. — 
H. W. Bell-Marley: Ravenscourt Park, Sept. 5th, 1896. 



THE ENTOMOLOaiST 



Vol. XXX.] 



MARCH, 1897. 



[No. 406. 



ABERRATIONS OF EPINEPHELE HYPERANTRUS. 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



The first specimen is interesting, as it shows considerable 
bilateral asymmetry in the markings of the hind wings, the left 
wing being normal and the right curiously blotched ; but the 
most interesting point seems to me to be the fact that the 
aberration in the ocellar marks is entirely confined to the black 
and yellow zones, the central white pupils being in each case 
quite normal in position and, except in the ocellus next to the 
anterior margin, of the normal size. This is of course contrary 
to the general rule enunciated by Bateson and others, that 
" speaking generally, such reduction commonly occurs by 
diminution of the diameter of the whole spot ; but if any of its 
component parts are wanting the centre is the first to disappear, 
then the next innermost band, and so on."* _ Bateson himself, 
however, points out that the rule is not a universal one, and in 
fact in E. liijperantlius, as far as I can judge, from the specimens 
I have seen in which the ocelli on all the wings are hardly 
recognisable var. arete, it is the central white pupil that 

* Bateson, ' Materials for Study of Variation,' p. 291. 
BNTOM. — MARCH, 1897- F 



50 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

persists and the marginal zones that disappear, although where 
one ocellus disappears at the end of a series the rule generally 
holds good. 

The specimen, fig. 1, seems to he a case of discontinuous 
variation. I have never seen anything approximating to an 
intermediate condition betweon it and the normal, and, judging 
from the fact that it is confined to one side, and that the wing 
showing the aberration is slightly crippled, it would appear to be 
due to some cause at work during pupal life, and in such a case 
it would probably not be hereditary. In one sense it may be 
regarded as an instance of ocellar enlargement, since the marginal 
zones of four of the ocelli extend so far over the surface of the 
wing as to blend into one another, almost forming transverse 
bands across the wings ; and it is noteworthy that in all the 
ordinary varieties of E. hyperanthus in which the ocellus is 
enlarged, that I have come across, the central pupil is enlarged 
more or less in proportion to the enlargement of the marginal 
zones, as is very well shown in the lanceolate variety, fig. 2 ; 
and in such cases a practically complete series of intermediate 
forms is obtainable with little difficulty. It may be worth noting 
that the neuration is apparently quite normal in both cases. 

My tHanks are due to my friend Mr. Hay ward for the care 
and skill he has displayed in photographing the specimens for me. 

F. P. Bedford. 



FUNGI versus ANDROCONIA. 



Eeferring to Mr. Eickard's paper on "Butterfly Scales," in 
the January (1897) number of the ' Entomologist ' {ante, p. 1), I 
would like to refer him to a paper just published at Cambridge, 
Mass., by A. G. Mayer, as a bulletin of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, on "The Development of the Wing-scales and their 
Pigment in Butterflies and Moths." I think he will find on close 
examination that by his test all the wing-scales are really fungi. 
I have requested that a copy of the paper be sent to the ' Ento- 
mologist,' and have no doubt that Mr. Packard can secure it for 
examination and study. It seems to me that the proper method 
of bringing this whole subject to a final conclusion would be for 
Mr. Rickard, or some one who agrees with his views in the 
matter, to study the development of these scales in Pieris rapce 
in the same manner in which Mr. Mayer has studied the deve- 
lopment of the normal wing-scales. I must confess that nothing 
that has been added in the most recent contribution to this sub- 
ject has served to change my expressed views. 

John B. Smith. 
Rutgers College, Jan. 13th, 1897. 



51 



THE PROBABLE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL NATURE 
OF THE PIGMENTS OF LEPIDOPTERA.* 

Only a beginning has, as yet, been made in the study of the 
nature of the pigment substances that are found within the scales 
of Lepidoptera. Costef and Ureeh | have carried out extensive 
series of experiments which show that many of the pigment sub- 
stances may be dissolved out of the scales by means of chemical 
reagents, giving coloured solutions, and leaving the scales white 
or colourless. They have also shown that some of these pig- 
ments may be changed in colour by the action of reagents, and 
then restored to their original colour by the use of other reagents, 
For example, many reds are changed to yellow by the action of 
HCl or HNO3, and may be restored to the original red colour by 
the use of ammonia. Their researches show that reds, yellows, 
browns, and blacks are always due to pigments. In a few cases, 
greens, blues, violets, purples, and Whites are also due to pig- 
ments, and not, as is usually the case, to structural conditions, 
such as striae upon the scales, &c. 

It is probable that the most universal pigment colours to be 
met with in the Lepidoptera are the yellowish buff and brown- 
drab tints, and this is especially true of the nocturnal forms. 
The diurnal forms have almost a monopoly of the brilliant reds 
and yellows and the rich blacks, but it is interesting to note that 
yellowish buff or brown tints are still very common upon those 
portions of their wings that are hidden from the light, such as 
the upper costal edge of the hind wing, which is usually con- 
cealed from view beneath the overlapping fore wing. Wallace § 
has called attention to the fact that a yellowish or buff tint is one 
of the commonest and most widespread colours in Lepidoptera. 

Concerning the chemical nature of the pigment substances 
within the scales, but little has as yet been made known. 
Hopkins || finds that the white pigments in the Pieridje are due 

* Excerpt from " The Development of the Wing-Scales and their 
Pigment in Butterflies and Moths." By Alfred Goldsborough Mayer. 
(' iSulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College,' 
vol. xxix., No. 5). 1896. 

f " Contributions to the Chemistry of Insect Colours " ' The Entomo- 
logist,' vol. xxiii. pp. 128-132, 155-167, 181-187, 217-223, 247-252, 283-287, 
309-814, 338-343, 370-374 (1890), and vol. xxiv. pp. 9-15, &c.). 1890-91. 

I " Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Farbe von Insektenschuppen " (Zeitschr. f. 
wiss. Zool. Bd. Ivii, Heft 2, pp. 306-384). 1893-94. 

§ ' Darwinism.' 494 pp. London and New York. 1889. 

II " Uric Acid Derivatives functioning as Pigments in Butterflies" (Abstr. 
of Proc. Chem. Soc. Lond. 1889, p. 117 ; also ' Natiu-e,' vol. xl. p. 335). 1889. 
—"Pigment in Yellow Butterflies" ('Nature,' vol. xlv. p. 197). 1891.— 
"The Pigments of the Pieridae " (Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. vol. Ivii. No. 340, 
pp. 5, 6). 1894. 

F 2 



52 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

to uric acid, and also that the red and yellow pigments are due 
to two closely related derivatives of uric acid. These uric 
acid derivatives used in ornamentation are apparently confined 
to the Pieridai among l)utterflies. For when a pierid mimics 
an insect of another family, the pigments in the two cases are 
chemically quite distinct. This is well seen in the genera 
Leptalis (Pieridte) and Mechanitis (Danaidte). 

Further, Griffiths * lias shown that the green pigment found 
in several species of Papilio, Ilesperia, and Limeitiiis among 
butterflies, and of NoctuidaB, Geometridre, and Sphiugidfe among 
moths, also consists of a derivative of uric acid, to which he 
gives the name " lepidopteric " acid, and assigns the empirical 
formula CnHioAz NyOio. By prolonged boiling in HCl it is con- 
verted into uric acid. 

Urech t demonstrated that in a large number of Lepidoptera 
the colour of the urine that is voided upon emergence from the 
chrysalis is similar to the principal colour of the scales. 

Landois I many years ago made a careful study of the con- 
stitution of the blood of several species of beetles and butter- 
flies. He found that when the blood is allowed to evaporate in 
the air, crystals separate out. He also found that the blood 
consists chiefly of egg albumen, but that globulin, fibrin, and 
iron are also present. He called attention to the fact that the 
freshly drawn blood of the larvae of Lepidoptera is usually light 
in colour, but that when it is allowed to dry in the air it 
generally becomes brownish or yellowish ; and further, that 
while the colours of the bloods are difterent for different species, 
it is very remarkable that the colour which is assumed by the 
dried blood is apt to be similar to the ground colour of the wings 
of the mature insect from which the blood is drawn. 

As before stated, I believe that the pigments of the scales 
are derived from the ha?molymph or blood of the chrysalis, and my 
chief reason for believing this is that I can find no evidence that 
there is anything but hnemolymph within the scales during the 
time when the pigment is formed. In considering the pheno- 
mena of pigmentation, therefore, it is important to know as 
much as possible about the pbysical and chemical properties of 
the haemolymph of the pupa. Accordingly, I have devoted some 
time to the study of the properties of the pupal htemolymph of 
the large Saturnida?, Samia cecropia, Callusamia promcthea, and 
Philosamia cyntliia. The haemolymph is under considerable 

"' " Eecherches sur les Couleurs de quelqiies Insectes " (' Coiuptes Reudus,' 
Acad. Sci. Paris, tome cxv. pp. 958, 959). 1892. 

f " Beobachtungeu iiber die verschiedenen Scluippenfarben iind die zeit- 
liche Succession ihres Auftretens " (Zoolog. Anzeiger, Bd. xiv. pp. 46G-473). 
1891. 

I "Beobachtungeu iiber das Blut der Insecten " (Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool. 
Bd. xiv. pp. 55-70, Taf. vii.-ix.). 1864. 



DEVELOPMENT OF WING-SCALES. 53 

piessure in the chrysalis, and when an incision is made near the 
shoulders of the wing cases it spurts out in large drops. I have 
made a chemical analysis of it, and find that its chief con- 
stituent is egg albumen, but that globulin and fibrin are also 
present. When the hsmolymph is agitated with ether, the 
proteid substances are coagulated, and a clear amber-yellow 
solution is left. This amber-yellow solution may then be 
decanted off from the congealed proteids. When thus isolated 
the proteids are slightly yellowish, but they soon dry iuto a drab- 
coloured mass, very much as the hfemolymph itself does upon 
exposure to the air. Spectrum analysis shows that the clear 
amber-yellow solution owes its yellow colour to xanthophyll. It 
will be remembered that Poulton* found that the green and 
yellow colours of many lepidopterous larvae and pupte were due 
to chlorophyll and xanthophyll derived from the leaves of their 
food-plants. The hoemolymph is acid to litmus, and I find that 
it actually contains a large amount of orthophosphoric acid 
(ammonium molybdate test). Mr. George Oenslager has kindly 
determined the mineral bases of the h^molymph for me, and 
finds them to be iron, potassium, and sodium. The iron is 
present in considerable quantity. 

Although the freshly obtained hpemolymph is a clear opales- 
cent amber-yellow fluid, it soon becomes turbid upon exposure to 
the air, and in less than half an hour after removal from the 
chrysalis becomes opaque, and drab or greenish drab in colour. 
It is interesting to note that the drab colour assumed by the 
dried haemolymph from the pupa of C. i)romethea is very 
similar to the drab of the outer edges of the mature wings. In 
the case of P. cijnthia, also, the hnemolymph dries into a 
greenish drab colour, which is strikingly similar to the principal 
colour of the moth's wings. In the case of S. cccropia, however, 
the hfemolymph becomes rather greener in colour than the drab 
of the mature wings. 

This curious change in colour which the hsemolymph exhibits 
upon exposure to the air is probably not a simple process of 
oxidation, for it will take place in an atmosphere of hydrogen, 
although rather more slowly than in the air. An atmosphere 
of CO2, however, practically prevents it, for after remaining for 
forty-eight hours in this gas, the htemolymph shows only faint 
traces of a drab-coloured clot around the edges of the liquid, 
whicli remains clear and amber-yellow in colour. If the hsemo- 
lymph be sealed up air-tight in glass tubes it will retain its clear 
amber-yellow colour indefinitely. When the newly extracted 
clear amber-coloured htemolymph is heated to 5-1^ C, it begins 
to congeal, and at temperatures above 63" C, it rapidly solidifies 
into a chrome-yellow-coloured mass. In this condition it will 

■■■■ " The Essential Nature of the Colouring of Phytophagous Larvae and 
their Pupae, &c." (Proc, Roy. Soc. Lond. vol. xxxviii. pp. 269-315). 1884-85. 



54 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

keep indefinitely, always retaining its original chrome-yellow 
colour. In like manner congelation can be produced in haemo- 
lymph that has become drab by exposure to the air, only in this 
case the congealed mass is dral3, not chrome-yellow in colour. 

If, in accordance with my hypothesis, it be true that the 
colours of the mature wing are derived, by various chemical 
processes, from the hfemolymph of the pupa, then one ought to 
be able to manufacture various colours from the hfemolymph by 
means of chemical reagents. Also, if the colour so manu- 
factured be similar to some colour upon the mature wing, it may 
be expected to present reactions to chemical reagents similar to 
those of the colour on the wing. As far as my rather limited 
experiments go, I find this to be the case. For example, if one 
treat the hfemolymph of S. cecropia with warm concentrated 
HNO3, it congeals into a deep chrome-yellow mass. If now 
ammonia be added in excess, it changes to a reddish orange, 
which is very similar in colour to the reddish orange band that 
crosses the upper surface of the hind wings of the moth. Now 
this reddish orange band of the moth is changed to chrome- 
yellow by HCl or HNO3, and then, if ammonia be added, the 
original red colour reappears ; this alternation of red and yellow 
may be produced indefinitely by the successive additions of am- 
monia and acid. Exactly the same sequence of reactions is pro- 
duced with the red pigment derived from the htemolymph ; HCl 
or HNO3, causes it to become chrome-yellow, and then ammonia 
restores the original red colour. 

Another confirmatory test of a similar nature may be per- 
formed as follows : A portion of the drab-coloured outer edge of 
the wing of S. cecropia is treated with warm HNO3 and the acid 
evaporated ofl; at a gentle heat. By this means the pigment of 
the scales is changed to a deep chrome-yellow ; if ammonia be 
then added, it becomes reddish. Very similar reactions are 
obtained from the haemolymph after it has congealed, in the air, 
into a greenish drab mass. 

Another experiment which I have tried is the following : — 
The freshly drawn hsmolymph from a pupa of C. promethea is 
congealed by heat into a chrome-yellow-coloured mass, then 
HCI3 and a small crystal of KCiOa are added, and the acid is 
evaporated ofi' at a gentle heat, By tbis means a purple mass 
is produced, which is changed to drab by HNO3. The purple 
spots near the outer edges of the hind wing of the female moth 
are also changed to drab by HNO-j. 

Still another confirmatory experiment may be given. The 
drab h^molpymh of C. pyoinctlwd is dissolved and changed to a 
sepia-brown colour by warm HCl, to which a crystal of KCIO3 is 
added. An exactly similar change occurs when the drab- 
coloured outer edges of the moth's wings are treated in a 
similar manner. 



THE DECADENCE OF BRITISH LEPIDOPTERA. 55 

It is well known that the most universal colours of the more 
lowly organized moths are the drab-grey and yellow-drab tints ; 
and this is what one would expect according to my hypothesis, 
for these are the colours that are derived from the haemolymphs 
by mere exposure to the aii'. Ths brilliant yellows, reds, &c., 
are the result of more or less complex chemical processes, which 
have been slowly effected, probably through the agency of natural 
selection. 

In connection with the phenomena of pigmentation it is 
interesting to note that while uric acid may easily be demon- 
strated by the murexide test in the fluids of the alimentary tract 
of the pupce of the Saturnidte, it is never present in the hpemo- 
lymph of the imago ; nor can I detect it in the drab-coloured 
pigment of the outer edges of the wings. The amount of uric 
acid in the fluids of the alimentary tract of the pupa increases as 
the pupa becomes older, so that the fluid which is voided upon 
emergence is always strongly impregnated with it. In the case 
of Pieris rapre there is no uric acid either in the alimentary tract 
or haemolymph of the larva, but it is present in the alimentarij 
tract of the pupa. It seems to me probable that the uric acid of 
the alimentary tract of the pupa may be a product of the meta- 
bolism of the htemolymph that is removed from the fluids of the 
body by the Malpighian tubules. 



THE PROBABLE CAUSES OF THE DECADENCE OF 
BRITISH RHOPALOCERA. 

By W. Harcouet-Bath. 

At the meeting of the Entomological Society of London 
when this subject was brought forward for discussion, judging 
from the report which is published in the ' Proceedings,' one 
cannot avoid being considerably struck with the almost total 
absence of any suggestions advanced by the speakers from a 
purely evolutionary point of view. One must, therefore, accord- 
ingly draw the conclusion that the principles and theories 
propounded by that great naturalist the late Charles Darwin, 
and his able successor Dr. Alfred Piussel Wallace, have not 
succeeded in obtaining many adherents among the Fellows of 
the learned Society under consideration. The chief factors in 
deciding the decadence of British lUiopalocera, which the 
majority of those who spoke at the meeting seemed to consider, 
were adverse climatic influences, and no suggestions or hints 
were thrown out whatever in support of the hypothesis of the 
organic environment possessing a preponderating influence in 
the determination. 



56 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

With due respect to the learning and reputation of some of 
those who gave expression to their views upon the ahove- 
mentioned occasion, permit me to say that personally I consider 
the climatal conditions to have played quite a subordinate part 
in causing the decadence of the indigenous insects under 
discussion. 

From the point of view of an orthodox evolutionist of the 
natural selection school, the primary factors in the matter, to my 
mind, are insular isolation coupled with the consequent conco- 
mitant powerful operation of the law of amixia. This hypothesis 
is supported by the fact that nearly all the species which have 
been extirpated or are at present on the point of extermination 
possess comparatively weak powers of flight, at the same time 
they do not contain in their ranks any species with a very 
pronounced predilection for migrating. At any rate, they all 
belong to that class which are not known to immigrate 
periodically to this country from the Continent. On the other 
hand, many of those species which maintain their existence 
perennially in these inhospitable isles are frequently known to 
come across the English Channel, occasionally in large swarms, 
such for instance as Picris hrassiece, P. rcqne, P. napi, and 
Vanessa atalanta ; while others, such as Vanessa cardui and 
CoUas liyale, would not probably permanently occur in this 
country for more than a few years at the most, were it not for 
these remarkable peregrinating powers which they possess. 

This isolation from the Continent is therefore, in my opinion, 
the primary cause of the decadence phenomenon under discus- 
sion, and the law of amixia comes into operation as a necessary 
consequence. As a rule all those species which subject them- 
selves to its despotic influence, namely, the prevention of cross- 
ing by isolation, have as a result the degeneration of their 
physical powers, their fecundity undergoes a deterioration, the 
number of ova which they produce is thus probably considerably 
below the average, and the offspring at the same time do not 
possess sufficient of the necessary vitality and vigour to enable 
them to contend successfully with the numerous enemies by 
which they are surrounded. 

Another very probable cause of the gradual extinction of 
some of our indigenous lihopalocera is to be found in the 
increasing number of their enemies which subsist exclusively 
upon insects for food. Contrary to that which is the case in 
most parts of the Continent (at least according to my circum- 
scribed experience), the number of individuals of insectivorous 
birds in this country is exceedingly great. This has been 
brought about l)oth by reason of their legislative protection and 
the merciless war waged by gamekeepers against the hawks and 
owls which prey upon them. At the same time, from the latter 
cause also, the number of insectivorous animals {Talpa and 



THE DECADENCE OF BRITISH RHOPALOCERA. 57 

Sorcx, &c.), as well as batrachiaus and certain reptiles, have 
probably undergone an increase, these creatures largely consti- 
tuting the food of several members of the rapacious family of 
Accijntres alluded to, as is well known to those of the ornitholo- 
gical fraternity. When the balance of nature is thus so com- 
pletely upset, something must suffer as a direct result thereof; 
and this in my idea accounts in a large degree for the growing 
scarcity and looming final extinction of several members of our 
already too poor Rhopalocera fauna. 

In support of this contention may be mentioned the fact that 
in France insects of all orders have undergone an increase since 
the fashion came into force for small birds to be utilised for 
millinery purposes, in conjunction with the demand for them as 
articles of food. This has resulted in the extirpation of nearly 
all the small birds in the country named, the consequence of 
which has been for several years past the dreadful destruction of 
the crops by the undue multiplication of the insect hordes. 

As regards the adverse influences of the climatal conditions, 
these in my estimation, as previously stated, play quite a 
subordinate part in the matter, and probably only act indirectly, 
at least in the majority of instances. They are possibly usually 
more apparent than real. When, however, a species has been so 
reduced by the operation of the aforesaid law of amixia, combined 
with the inimical influences of the organic environment in the 
manner I have indicated, I am quite willing to concede that the 
climatal conditions, such as a succession of wet summers or a 
continuance of mild winters, sometimes successfully closes the 
chapter. Other adverse influences may be at work at the same 
time, such as the extirpation of their pabula by drainage and 
conflagration, and the extension of cultivation, as well as in 
several other ways which have from time to time been adduced. 
All these are silently but as surely assisting the adverse 
influences of the organic environment in their fatal task of 
extermination. 

Eapacious collectors are undoubtedly responsible for the 
existing scarcity of several species in certain localities, two 
instances of which have come under my own knowledge during 
the last summer. A resident collector at Arley, in Staffordshire, 
informs me that Melitiea aurinia used to occur in abundance on 
the opposite side of the Severn before several members of a 
certain Society recently succeeded in reducing it to the brink of 
extermination by collecting all the larvre and imagines which 
they could meet with for several seasons in succession. Another 
instance was related to me in connection with Lyccena arion in 
the Cotswolds by an Oxford Don, who attributes the entire 
exth'pation of this butterfly, in one of its very best stations in 
the district named, to the rapacity of a particular individual 
"who scraped up about a bushel of its pabulum" in the hope 



58 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of being able to procure the larvae ; since which date it has 
entirely disappeared. 

Leueophasia sinapis is also rapidly approaching extermination 
in the Midlands, owing to the greediness of collectors. 

Before concluding I will endeavour to furnish a few suggestions 
as to the best means which I consider can be adopted in order to 
counteract, if possible, the lamentable state of things which 
constitutes the subject of these remarks. 

Assuming that the effects of amixia are primarily responsible 
for the decadence of the butterflies, the best thing under the cir- 
cumstances would probably be to infuse "fresh blood" — if I may 
be permitted to employ a metaphorical expression — into those 
colonies which still exist, in the same way as has been suggested 
in order to save the few remaining herds of the European bison 
which still survive in the wilds of Lithuania and the Caucasus. 
Could not a few males or females of certain declining species be 
brought over from the Continent and permitted to fly in some of 
the well-known haunts, for instance, of Lyctena arion, Melitcea 
cinxia, &c. '? At any rate the experiment might be given a fair 
trial during some favourable season. 

As regards endeavouring either to prevent or persuade the 
majority of colleciors in this country from taking long series of 
rare species bordering upon extinction, whenever they have the 
opportunity, all such efforts I think must prove futile. The 
acquisitive instinct of the average British collector is too over- 
powering to induce him to withstand the temptation. 

Moreover, do all the principal entomologists and collectors 
themselves in the Metropolitan Society set a proper example in 
this respect? Judging from the accounts of the public sales 
which periodically take place under the hammer, I should venture 
to suggest that such is not the case with very many of them. 

If something could be done to discourage the ravages of 
omnivorous and indiscriminate unscientific collectors and rapa- 
cious dealers, some good results would undoubtedly accrue. 

Birmingham, Nov. 14tli, 189(3. 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTEKA OF IRELAND. 
By W. F. de VisaiEs Kane, M.A., M.R.I.A., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 30.) 

EuaoNiA ALNiARiA, L. — Restricted in distribution, but locally 
abundant. I have never met with it. Kildare, Hon. Emily 
Lawless (E. M. M. iv. 283) ; Cromlyn, Co. Westmeath {Mrs. B.); 
Enniskillen (S.) : Greystones, Co. Wicklow {Wynne}; Clon- 
brock {R. E. D.). 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTEKA OF IRELAND. 59 

EuGONiA FuscANTARiA, Hciw. — I liave iiever met with this 
species, and record it doubtfully, as the var. infuscata of 
E. qaerciiiaria is easily confounded with it. The only two 
records are Clonbrock {R.E.D.), and at Mallow Mr. Francis 
Stawell writes that it is fairly abundant. 

EuGONiA ERosARiA, Borlc. — Very rare. Cork and Derry (5.) ; 
one at Howth, Co. Dublin ; four at Clonbrock {K. E. D.). 

EuG0NL\ QUERciNARiA, Hiifii. — Comuion in many places {B.), 
but restricted to locality. Near Derry (C) ; Hazlewood, Co. 
Sligo ; Mote Park, Roscommon ; Clonbrock. The var. infuscata 
usually occurs with the type. 

HiMERA PENNARiA, L. — Appears to be local, but numerous in 
some wooded districts. Mr. Birchall took it abundantly, but has 
not recorded the localities. Killarney ; Clonbrock, by Mr. Dillon 
and myself; Markree Castle, Sligo; Cromlyn, Co. Westmeath 
(Mrs. B.) ; near Derry, a few (C) ; Armagh {J.) ; Ballygawley 
and Favour Royal, Tyrone ; Carrickmines, &c., Co. Dublin ; 
Devil's Glen, Co. Wicklow. 

Phigalia pedaria, Fh. — Decidedly scarce in Ireland, though 
widely distributed. Belfast is the only district whence it is 
reported (by Mr. Watts) as frequent ; and the type there is large 
and pale, with distinct markings. The Rev. James Bristow also 
reports it thence from Colin Glen. Examples have been taken 
at the following localities: near Derry (ir. ^. -fZ^.) ; Sligo (/^.) ; 
Clonbrock {ll.E.D.) and near Galway (.4.); Cromlyn {Mrs. B.) 
and Killynon {Miss II.), Westmeath; Tullamore, King's Co.; 
Armagh {J.) ; Phcenix Park and elsewhere in Co. Dublin. 

Nyssia zonaria, Scltiff. — Mr. Campbell, of Derry, was the 
first to discover an Irish babitat for this species, having taken 
the larvse several years ago at Ballycastle, Co. Antrim, some of 
which were forwarded to me for identification. The imago was sub- 
sequently captured freely by Mr. Bristow and others. An example 
has also been forwarded to the Dublin Natural History Museum 
by Mr. Sheridan, the intelligent proprietor of the hotel, Achill L, 
off the coast of Mayo. In 1896 Mr. Halbert, of the Dublin 
Museum, Mr. Dillon, and myself took a good many specimens 
near Slyne Head and at Roundstone on the Connemara coast. 
It seemy probable in view of the wide separation of these 
localities that most of the numerous sandhills which extend 
along the Mayo and Connemara littoral will be found to harbour 
colonies of this species. Mr. Dillon contributes a remarkable 
record (Ent. xxvii. 190) of the occurrence of larvae at Clon- 
brock in the same county, but some thirty miles inland, from 
which he had bred a female on August 19th, 1891, which, when 
taken to the locality frequented by the larvae, attracted a wild 
male. The only note of an autumnal season of emergence, 



60 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

either Continental or British, that I can find, is in Merrin's 
' Calendar,' which gives September, as well as the early spring 
months. Neither has the insect been found heretofore inland, 
except on the Continent, where it haunts bare places and 
clearings of woods in certain localities of Central France and 
elsewhere in April. There is considerable variation noticeable 
among the Irish specimens, chiefly with regard to the basal two- 
thirds of the male fore wing up to the first white bar. On the 
dark ground in some examples there are distinct white dashes, 
a i^air at the base, two pairs in the median area, and three 
separate ones towards the apex. These vary greatly in size and 
definition, and in some Ballycastle specimens are quite absent, 
producing an approximation to the coloration of its congener 
N. liispidaria. On the other hand, a considerable proportion of 
those from Connemara have the wing entirely white, broken by 
dark nervures, and costa, and three strigfe parallel to the outer 
margin. 

BisTON HiRTARiA, Cli'vck. — Very local, and apparently never 
numerous. Specimens have occurred at Wicklow (7^.) ; Farn- 
ham ; Cavan ; Hollybrook, Co. Sligo {MisPi Jf.) ; Killynon, 
Westmeath {Miss 11.) ; and a few at Clonbrock {R. E. D.), 
Co. Galway. 

Amphidasys steataria, Hiifn. — Birchall records this from 
Wicklow (probably captured by Mr. Tardy) ; and this has since 
been confirmed by Mr. Maurice Fitzgibbon at Wooden Bridge 
and Professor Hart, who bred several from pupae taken at Glen- 
malure. It is also fairly abundant at Clonbrock, whence I have 
a nice series of the ordinary, somewhat variable forms. Mr. 
Francis Stawell has taken it at Mallow, Co. Cork. 

Amphidasys betularia, L. — Widely distributed, and often 
abundant in the larval stage. I have seen no remarkable 
variations from any Irish localities, except in a series bred by 
Mr. Thornhill, of Castle Bellingham, Co. Louth, from local 
larvpe. Of these the greater proportion are of the normal type, 
but among them is one specimen of var. douhledayaria, and 
several showing a tendency to the development of the black 
spots ; one especially having large black costal blotches, which 
run into a series of spots, forming irregular transver&e bands ; 
the outer marginal area being also heavily blotched. Another is 
strongly powdered with black on the basal and costal areas. 
This is a very notable instance of the sporadic appearance of a 
melanic tendency in this species, and it will be interesting to 
observe whether the dark aberrations increase and supplant the 
type more or less in an Irish country district whose atmosphere 
is untainted by manufactory smoke, and not remarkable for any 
abnormal rainfall. The moth has been taken also in the follow- 
ing localities : Kingstown and elsewhere in the Co. Dublin ; 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF IRELAND. 61 

Wicklow ; Clonbulloge, King's Co. {E. S.) ; Cromlyn {Mrs. B.) 
and Killynon (il/iss it.), Westmeath ; Enniskillen ; near Derry 
(IF. E. H. d- C.) ; Hollybrook {Miss f.) ; Markree Castle and 
about Sligo; Clonbrock (/t. £". I).) ; Moycullen, Ardrahau (Miss 
A^.), and Galway {A.); on the shores of L. Conn, Co. Mayo; 
Doneraile, Co. Cork {Stawell) ; Killarney and Kenmare. 

Cleora lichenaria, Hiifn. — Widely distributed, and locally 
common. Varies considerably, but the darker forms are scarce. 
Co. Dublin and Lambay I. ; Cromlyn {Mrs.B.) and Killynon {Miss 
R.), Co. Westmeath ; Enniskillen and Tempo {Langham), Co. 
Fermanagh ; Trillick, Co. Tyrone ; Drumreaske, Co. Monaghan ; 
Armagh (J.) ; RathmuUen, Co. Donegal (0.) ; Markree Castle 
and near Sligo {R.) ; Clonbrock, Co. Galway {R. E. D.); Shannon 
Harbour, King's Co. ; Kenmare and Killarney ; Kerry ; Mallow 
iStaweU) and Glandore {D.\ Co. Cork ; Cappagh, Co. Water- 
ford. 

BoARMiA repandata, L. — Everywhere numerous. Very 
variable ; but a comparison of a large number of Irish 
specimens with an English series shows that the general ground 
colour is far lighter in the former. The prevailing Irish form is 
of a pale ferruginous brown, with indistinct and blurred design. 
This is common in Norway also. Occasionally there occur 
mottled forms, with strongly-marked strigae, like the illustration 
in Newman, on a greyish or ferrughious ground ; but I have 
seen none of these with rich dark brown ground, not uncommon 
in England. These strongly-marked forms are found at Kil- 
larney, Kenmare, and rarely at Mote Park, Roscommon; 
Cappagh, Co. Waterford ; and Drumreaske. The Irish B. repan- 
data may be divided roughly into two groups, namely those with 
some tone of brown ground colour, and those with grey. Ruddy 
warm browns are scarcely ever shown. Of the grey forms, one of 
the most remarkable is that with a whitish median band traversing 
a pale speckled wing, the strigae, &c., being almost obsolete, the 
insect having a general resemblance to a small Boarmia consor- 
taria, but less ochreous. This form occurs at Killarney, Kenmare, 
Sligo, Clonbrock, and sparingly elsewhere. It is also met with 
in Scandinavia. The almost unicolorous grey variety destrigata, 
Haw., with nearly obsolete markings, prevails as a local form in 
several Irish districts, as about Sligo and Castle Bellingham, and 
in the Co. Galway ; and sparingly at Killarney and Kenmare. 
Specimens nearly approaching var. sorodensium, Weir (except in 
its blue tint and diminutive expanse), are met with. The hand- 
some var. conversaria, Hb., is the most remarkable of the group 
with brown ground colour ; and it is notable that while in the 
grey forms the median band tends to be paler, in the brown it 
becomes darker than the ground colour. This variety is not rare 
in certain localities, as at Newcastle, Co. Down {Bic), and near 



62 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Keiimare ; and is found also occasionally at Killarney ; Cappagh 
{Miss V.) and Dromana, Co. Waterford ; Greystones, Co. Wick- 
low, &c. The darkest unicoloroiis forms of this species are 
very rare in Ireland. I have one or two of bistre-brown or 
blackish tone, taken at Killarney and Castle Bellingham ; but 
two sooty-black specimens, with a faint pale submarginal 
festooned line identical with the melanic Yorkshire variety, 
have been captured by Mr. Dillon at Cloubrock, Co. Galway ; 
and somewhat resemble the black Swansea variety of 'rcplirosia 
crepuscular ia. Curious aberrations may also be noted devoid of 
almost any markings, except a large dark blotch at the junction 
of the elbowed and submarginal lines, half-way between the anal 
angle and the costa of the fore wing, similar to that shown in 
Tcphrosia consonaria I have not been able to trace any 
response to environment in the occurrence of any of the above 
forms or varieties in reference to their respective habitats. In 
Kerry the whitish and grey and melanic aberrations occur side 
by side. Probably, however, the whitish and grey forms would 
find themselves protected when resting on birch trees where 
they are numerous. I am inclined to think, from observations I 
have made, that these insects frequently choose a resting spot 
which conforms to the hue of their wings. 

(To be continued.) 



ON THE GENUS GYMXOPLEURUS, Illiger; WITH A LIST 

OF SPECIES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW 

GENERA. 

By John W. Shipp. 

The genus Gi/mnopleurus was founded by Illiger (Mag. ii. 
1803, p. 199) for the receptacle of the section of the then 
Scarabffiidfe (Ateuchini) having the dorsal margin of the first 
segment of the abdomen uncovered, and the elytra having the 
lateral margins strongly sinuate near the base. 

The characters by which Macleay (Horse Ent. p. 510 et scq.) 
sought to arrange the species in divisions were chiefly founded 
on the number of teeth on the clypeus, and other variable and 
slight characters. 

This genus, of which sixty-two species were enumerated by 
Harold (Cat. Col. Scar. 1868), has since been augmented to 
105 ; and I do not doubt that in a few years it will be still 
largely increased, now that the interior of the African continent 
is being opened up, and becoming more thickly populated. 

The species of the genus are as follows : — 



THE GENUS GYMNOPLEURUS. 63 

GYMNOPLEURUS, Illiger. 

Mag. ii. 1803, p. 199 ; Muls., Col. Fr. Lamell. p. 53 ; Erichs., 
Nat. Ins. iii. p. 754 ; Reitter, Ver. Nat. Vereines Brunn, 
xxxi. p. 163. 

[ETHIOPIAN REGION.] 

1. (snesccns, Wied., Germars, Mag. Ent. iv. p. 128, 1821. 

:=^^ hiifo, Macleay, Horse. Ent. p. 515. 
^=- speciosus, Dej., Cat. 3rd ed. p. 151. 
=-- falgi lilts, Leach, MS. 
Cape of Good Hope. 

2. (eneipes, Fairm., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xxxvii. 1893, p. 144. 

Oebbi, N. E. Africa. 
2a. ceneus, Har., Stett. Ent. Zeit. xxxvi. p. 453. 
Monrovia. 

3. csruginosus (Koll. MS.), Harold, Col. Hefte ii. 1867, p. 94. 

Egypt ; Kordofan. 

4. affinis, Macleay, Hor. Ent. 1821, i. 2, p. 515. 

Senegal. 

5. anthracinus, King, Sym. Phys. v. t. 41, f. 7. 

Arabia. 

6. atratus, Klug, I. c, f. 4. 

Arabia. 

7. atrovirens, Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 335. 

Victoria Nyanza, West. 

8. azureus, Fabr., Syst. El. i. p. 57 ; Reiche, Voy. Gal. Abyss. 

1850, p. 304 ; Galinieri, Reiche, MS. 
Abyssinia. 

9. bicolor, Latr., Voy. Calliaud. iv. 1827, p. 281 ; Cast., Hist. 

Nat. ii. p. 71 ; Dej., Cat. 3rd ed. p. 151. 
= cyanopterus, Sturm., Cat. 1843, p. 319. 
Sennaar; Nubia; Mozambique; Egypt. 

10. hocandei, Waterh., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. v. 1890, p. 368. 

Senegambia. 

11. ccelatus, Wied., I.e., 1821, p. 127.' 

= bicolor, Cast., Hist. Nat. ii. p. 72. 

= Uchensteinii, Boh., Ins. Caffr. ii. p. 186; Cast., I. c, 

p. 72; Illiger, Dej. Cat., I.e., p. 151. 
= macleayi, Cast., I. c, p. 72. 
= leei, Macleay, H. Ent. p. 514. 
Cape of Good Hope ; Cape Colony. 

12. caffer, Boh., I. c, p. 181. 

Caffr aria. 

13. chloris, Klug, Monatsbr. Berl. Acad. 1855, p. 650; Peters, 

Reis. 1862, p. 215. 
Sena. 
U.cceriilescens, Oliv., Ent. i. 3, p. 189, t. 27, f 231 ; Cast., I.e., 
p. 71. 



64 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

var. centralis, Bates, P. Z. S. 1890, p. 482. 
Senegal R. 

15. consancjiiineus, Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 334. 

Victoria Nyanza. 

16. curacinus, Boh., I. c, p. 185. 

Natal. 

17. crenulatus, Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 333. 

Albert Edward Nyanza. 

18. cupreus, Boh., /. c, p. 185. 

Caffraria. 

19. ciipreovirens, Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 333. 

Victoria Nyanza. 

20. delagorgei, Waterh., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 1896, v. p. 

370; Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 335. 
Natal. 

21. (liffinis, Waterh., I. c, p. 372. 

Senegal E. 

22. elegans, King, Symb. Phys. v. t. 41, f. 6. 

" anaglyptieiis, Sturm., Cat. p. 103. 
Arabia. 

23. fastiditus, Har., C. H. 1867, i. p. 74; Dej., Cat. p. 150; 

Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 334. 
capicola, Hope, MS. 
= mimdus, Macleay, H. Ent. p. 510. 
Cape of Good Hope ; Natal. 
M. falgidus, Oliv., Ent. p. 167, t. 22, f. 199; Macleay, I.e., 
p. 515 ; Har., Col. Hefte viii. p. 5. 
= leei, var.. Fab. Syst. El. i. p. 58. 
Senegal Pi. ; Keren. 

25. hilaris, Hope, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 1842, p. 494. 

Sierra Leone. 

26. Jtildehranti, Har., Deutsch. Ent. Zeit. xxxvi. 1875, p. 218. 

N. Abyssinia. 

27. humanus, Macleay, H. Ent. p. 514. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

28. himeralis, Klug, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1855, p. 650; Peters, Pieis. 

p. 216, t. 12, f. 11, 1862. 
Tette. 

29. indigaceus, Eeiche, Voy. Galhn. Abyss. 1850, p. 306, 1. 18, f. 9. 

= cyaneus, Pioth., Wiegm. Archiv. 1851, i. p. 123. 
Abyssinia ; Tigre. 

30. ignitus, Klug, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1855, p. 650 ; Peters, Reis. 

1862, p. 217. 
=-■ ccerideovirena, Sturm. MS. 
= ciipricullis, Koll. MS. 
= dimidiatus, Walth. MS. 
var. = thoracicus, Har., C. H. iv. 1868, p. 79 ; Dup., Deg. Cat. 
3rd ed. p. 151. 



THE GENUS GYMNOPLEURUS. 65 

var. laviuscula, Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 336. 

Tanga ; Pangani ; Mombassa ; Zanzibar ; Lower Nubia. 
31. mfranitens, Fairm., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6), vii. p. 108. 

E. Africa. 
32 jacksoni, Waterb., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. v. 1890, p. 370. 

E. Africa; Masai Land. 

33. knigeri, Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 336. 

Masai Land ; N. Usambara. 

34. latus, Hope, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 1842, p. 494 

Cape Palmas. 

35. Icevicollis, Cast., I. c, p. 71 ; Lansbr. Revoils. Faun, et Flor. 

Somali Ld. Col. p. 14; Har., Col. Hefte viii. p. 5. 
= kordofanuSy Koll. MS. 
Sennaar ; Somali Land ; Keren ; Lebka ; Insaba. 

36. latreillei, Cast., I. c, p. 71. 

= viridis, Dej., Cat. p. 151. 
Nubia. 

37. leei, Fabr., Ent. Syst. i. p. 65. 

Cape of Good Hope. 

38. liigens, Fairm., C. R. Ent. Belg. xxxv. p. cclxxxiv. 

E. Africa. 

39. malleolus, Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 334. 

Uganda; Lake Tanganjika. 

40. modestus, Lansb., Notes Leyd. Mus. viii. p. 72 ; Shipp, Ent. 

1895, p. 3. 
Benguela 

41. mcerens, Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 335. 

Witu, E. Africa. 

42. nitens, Oliv., Ent. i. 3, p. 159, t. 7, f. 55 ; Cast., I. c, p. 71. 

= corruscus, Dup. Dej., Cat. p. 150. 
Senegal E. 

43. olivaceus, Quedenf., Berl. E. Zeit. xxviii. p. 269. 

Malange. 

44. olivicrii, Cast., I. c, p. 72. 

= micans, Dej., Cat. p. 151. 
Senegal R. 

45. peringueyi, Shipp, Ent. 1895. 

= modestus, Pering., T. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. iv. pt. 2, p. 94. 
Beaufort West, Cape Colony. 

46. plicatus, Fairm., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6) x. p. 547. 

Obock. 

47. profanus, Fabr., Ent. Syst. i. p. 64 ; Cast., I. c , ]). 72. 

Guinea. 

48. piLStulatm, Kolbe, Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1895, p. 335. 

Lake Tanganjika. 

49. reichei, Waterb., I. c, p. 369. 

Abyssinia. 

ENTOM. MARCH, 1897. ^ 



66 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

50. rutilans, Cast., I. c, p. 71. 

Sennaar. 

51. scricatus, Erichs., Wiegm. Archiv. 1843, i. p. 232. 

= dncalis, Dolirn. MS. 
Angola. 

52. sericeifrons, Fairm., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6) vii. p. 108. • 

E. Africa. 

53. signaticollis, Waterli., I c, p. 369. 

Nubia. 

54. smarafidlniis, Bob., Ins. Caffr. ii. p. 187. 

Caffraria. 

55. somaliensis, Lansb., Revoils. Fa etFl. Somali Land. Col. p 15. 

Somali Land. 

56. splendens, Cast., I.e., p. 71; Har., Col. Hefte viii. p. 4. 

=^ jirofanus, Latr., Vo3\ Cailliaud. iv. p. 281. 

= splendidus, Bertol., Nouv. Comment. Ac. Bonon. x. 

p. 393; Dej., Cat. p. 150. 
= virescens, Walth. MS. 
var. wahlhergi, Bob., Lis. Caffr. ii. p. 183. 

var. oliviera, J., Sc. Lisb. ix. p. 40. 
= amoenus, Reicbe, MS. 
Nubia; Sennaar; Fassoglu; Mozamb. Caffraria; Natal; 
Keren. 

57. suhcupratus, Bob., Ins. Caffr. ii. p. 184. 

Limpopo. 

58. t]talassi)ius, Klug, Monatsb. Berl. Ac. 1855, p. 650; Peters, 

Eeis. 1862. p. 216. 
Tette. 

59. thelwalli, Waterh., /. c. (6), v. p. 367. 

Lake Nyassa. 

60. tristis, Cast., I. c, p. 72. 

^= fulifiiiiosus, Dej. MS. 
= modcstus, Walth. MS. 
= jjliVflZ/jjcN /??.?, Hope MS. 
Senegal ; Nubia. 

61. umcolor, Boh., Ins. Caffr. ii. p. 182. 

Gariep. 

62. umhrinus, Gerst., Arch. f. Nat. xxxvii. p. 49; Van. d. 

Deckens' Pieis. iii. pt. 2, pi. vii. f. 6. 
Zanzibar. 

63. vanderkclleni, Lansb., Notes Leyd. Mus. viii. p. 72. 

West Africa. 

64. virens, Erichs., Wiegm. Archiv. 1843, i. p. 231. 

= f/ibbosus, Roth., Wiegm. Archiv. 1851, i. p. 123. 
= nitidns, Dej., Cat. p. 151. 

= pumilus, Eeiche, Voy. Gal. Ab. 1850, t. 18, f. 10, p. 308. 
Tigre ; Congo; Abyssinia. 

(To be continued.) 



67 



LEPIDOPTERA. IN 1896. 

Notes from the Chester District. 
(Continued from vol. xxix. p. 216). 

Lepidoptera. — In June, at Chester, Tlmindra amataria, Phiba- 
lapterijM Utjnata (both plentiful), CilLv spinnla, Hepialus Inumdi vars. with 
primaries marked brown, //. lupalinus (one unicolorous without the white 
markings on primaries), Melanlppe montanata, Ruiiiia luteolata {crat(Bf/atci), 
il/". sociata, Emmelesia decolorata, Cidaria dotata (puraliala), Acidalla 
aversata, Hydrocampa nijinphcdala with very dark forms, Eurrhypara 
iirticata, Hijpena prohoscidalis , Spilodes verticalis (last four species about 
ponds and marshes), XantJioselia hamana (by road-sides), Xylophasia rurea 
with var. alopecurus, Pluilera bucephala, Phlogophora mellculosa, Piusia 
chryutis with the banded form, P. festitcce (worn), P. iota (scarce) P. pul- 
chrina var. aiireum (one), P. gamma (very few this season), Hadena 
oleracea, Apamea yemina (variable as usual), Hydnecia nictitans, A. oculea 
(very variable). At Delamere Forest, on June ^Oth, Cteuonympha typhon 
(davus) (four specimens only — too late for the butterfly this hot season), 
Bombyx quercus, Drepana falcataria, X. polyodoii. Anarta viyriilli wsls 
not so abundant as last season ; specimens " dark reddish black " (see Cata- 
logue of Lepidoptera of Ireland, Entom. xxix. p. 233), but with the white 
central spot on primaries clear and well developed ; I took one, however, 
with this spot entirely absent. Camptoyramma b'dineata, Ematurya ato- 
maria (dark vars., and a nearly black male), AspUates slriyillaria with very 
dark forms (not so abundant this season). 

In July, at Chester, H. oleracea, P. festuccB (one), P. chrysitis (one of 
two specimens a banded form), H. humuli (one), a C spinula ou the 
Slst (second brood), C. dotata [pyraliata), Larentia d'ulymata (large and 
very dark), L. viridaria {pectinitaria), Epione apiciaria (two worn males), 
PUvida sericealis, Zancloynatha grlsealls (last two very local, by pond 
margins). At Delamere Forest, on the 23rd, Cmnonympha pamphihis, 
Polyommatus phlceas, Lycaina icarus [alexis] (all comparatively scarce). I 
was in London until August. From the tops of the West End omnibuses 
I frequently saw butterflies, dark and of the size of Vanessa tirtica; ; also 
a day-flying moth, probably Orgyia antiqua. A few very dusky forms of C. 
pamphilus seen on the bare, sunburnt fields between New Baruet and 
Had ley Wood. 

On Aug. 6th, in North Wales, I never saw vegetation so poor, thin, and 
sun-dried ; hardly a trace of the usual wealth of flowers, and very few 
insects. L. didymata with forms almost white to almost black, Paraye 
megara (one), Pieris brassicce (common locally). On the 8th, at Delamere 
Forest, hardly any insects, Hypsipetes elutata (two), Chaicms yraminis 
(tawny and black-brown forms), C. jMaias (one). Near Chester, F. to, P. 
rapai, Noctua umbrosa, Coremia designata (propugnata), Cabera exanthe- 
mata, N. xanthographa (reddish and black forms), Paraponyx stratiotalis, 
E. apiciaria (worn), second broods of Liparis aurijiua, C. spinula, P. 
lignata. At gas-lamps moths were equally scarce — three specimens of Eii- 
gonia erosaria [iiliaria), one a female. 

In September, at gas-lamps, Neuronia popularis, Luperina testacea, L. 
cespitis (all males), Melanippe Jiuctuata, Cidaria russata (two or three veiy 
small and poor examples of each). 

g2 



68 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Ill October, Agriopis apr'dina (one, at rest on an oak just outside the 
city), Oporahia dilutata. 

In November, at gas-lamps, Hijhernia defoUarla, Cheiinatohia hrumata, 
Pcecilocavipa jwpxdi (a few of each). 

In December, P. popuU (two, one at a gas-lamp, the other flew into a 
shop in the city). 

Larv.'E and Pup.e. — Mr. Hargreaves gave me, on April 4th, a cater- 
pillar of Noctua hrunnea he had taken in Delaraere Forest. The moth, a 
tine dark one, appeared on June 9lh. In North Wales, larvae of Agrotis 
ashivortliii, in usual quantity. Out of two dozen or more I only got six 
moths — one a cripple — in June. This was similar bad luck to last year's. 
All ashworthii breeders, I fear, must lay themselves out for this, and be 
glad if they sometimes meet nothing worse. Mr. Hargreaves brought me 
seven larvae of Bombyx quercus from the Lancashire sandhills, where he 
found Nyssia zonaria imagines. Six male and female quercus emerged from 
their cocoons in July, the first a male with the right lower wing entirely 
absent. Curiously enough I came across, in Delaraere Forest, on July 
11th, a Vanessa urticcB exactly in the same condition. It was a fresh 
specimen, and was able to get along so well with three wings that I failed 
to net it. In April and May larvae of Arctia caia and Odonestis potatoria 
were unusually abundant around Chester. Of the first species I took at 
least two hundred caterpillars, in the hope of getting something startling 
as a " variety." As usual, I was disappointed. Still, there were some in- 
teresting forms. Sometimes the chocolate blotches nearly covered the 
primaries; sometimes the black spots were equally in the ascendant on the 
secondaries ; but the most interesting feature was the difference in tint of 
the secondaries, from deep yellow with the barest suspicion of red in one 
example, to deepest crimson in another. These two (males) I added to my 
collection ; the first has only four spots on each lower wing ; the other has 
the secondaries well blotched with large and often confluent spots. Another 
specimen has the left secondary much more spotted than the right. 
Lastly, the ground colour of the primaries in some of the moths is a pure 
white, in others very ociireous. Many larvae were ichneumoned ; some 
succumbed in the second stage to a parasite which left them as if preserved ; 
others, in the final stage, to a diff'erent species, which crawled in swarms 
out of the caterpillars as white maggots, and then spun tiny whitish cocoons. 
Frequently, after being disturbed by a companion, a larva would leave off 
spinning, take to the floor of the cage, and there change into a chrysalis. 
This had to be quickly removed, or it would be devoured by the remaining 
larvae. I selected about forty of the moths for setting ; the rest I took a 
mile or two into the country, in different directions, as they emerged. Had 
I not done so, some of them would have been brought to me by people 
offering them for sale. On April 0th I took a larva of Bpilosoma fuliginosa, 
spinning up on the heather on the top of Moel Fammau. The moth ap- 
peared on May 6th, a fine male, and almost as dark as the var. borealis. 
On April 16th, eggs of Beeston Castle Polia chi, crossed by Durham 
oHvacea, hatched. Fed up on groundsel. The larvae did badly, many 
dying. Survivors pupated by June 90lh. First emergence, August 10th. 
Imagines all oUvacea, except two which were typical. Larvae of Xanthia 
cerago unusually plentiful ; a few X. silago and X.ferruginea. These were 
captured as they crept from the sallow catkins on which 1 fed A. asluvorthii. 
On May 19th I took five pupie of P. festucm from Glyceria aquatica ; also 
one on the 20th, and two on the 25th. The imagines appeared from May 



LEPIDOPTERA IN 1896. 69 

31st to June 11th ; pupae of second brood scarce; took two, Aug. 14th ; 
only one moth emerged, Aug. 30th. May 23th, Amphidasys hetuJatia var. 
douhledaijaria, from last year's pupae. On May 24th ( lost all my young 
larvte of Amphidasys strataria (prodroinaria) and Tephrosia biundularia, 
through not being able to attend to them. On June 8th some Delamere 
Cabera pusaria began emerging ; I did not get the " black " form among 
the specimens. I found larvae of Hyhernia marginaria (progemmaria) to be 
combative and cannibal ; they diminished in numbers daily. Larvae 
of Nyssia zonaria, hatched May 7th and all pupated by July 15th, I found 
very combative, but not cannibal. In June Smerinthus ocellatus, S.populi, 
and A. lucernea appeared from last year's pupce ; also Notodonta dromedarius. 
July, Lophopteryx cameliaa (light and dark forms). Larvae of last two 
species from Delamere Forest. July 23rd, larvae of Eupithecla pulcheUata 
common in foxglove flowers, Delamere Forest. Anarta myrtilU plentiful ; 
picked two dozen in half an hour or so off the tops of the heather ; their 
chequered pattern of green and yellow made them easily seen. Cater- 
pillars of a sawfly also, on the heather tops, in plenty; head reddish, face 
black, rest of caterpillar (above and underneath) putty colour ; a row of 
thirteen large, very black spots (one on each segment) along each side just 
above the pale, indistinct brown spiracles ; below spiracles an almost con- 
tinuous line of similar spots ; there is also a mediodorsal indistinct row of 
elongated black marks. Legs putty colour, spotted with the same intense 
black. The larva I wrote this description from I watched change its skin, 
through a lens, on July 24th. I was particularly struck with the delicate 
sense of touch exhibited by the six legs, which terminate in what looks like 
a miniature hand with one finger. This finger is most sensitive, and is 
composed of contractile tissue. Thus it can be extended, or contracted, or 
bent in on the palm for grasping purposes, and ends in a claw. The two 
front legs seem especially sensitive, a highly nervous movement or 
twitching being always visible. This caterpillar spun a close brown cocoon 
next day, very like that of Eriogaster lanestris, but a little smaller. 
Ichneumons on the wing unusually common. On Aug. 22nd I took a 
larva of *S'. ocellatus near Chester, oiT sallow ; there had evidently been a 
considerable number at the place. There were several broods also of P. 
bucephala. The S. ocellatus pupated on Aug. 29th. Several larvae of 
Acherontia atropos were found in the district about this time. From 
Oct 3rd to 17th Bombyx rubi caterpillars were abundant on a certain 
Delamere heath ; I picked up a hundred full-grown ones, reserved fifty for 
myself, and divided the rest between a couple of friends. The object was to try 
the chip-box system for hybernation, each caterpillar being put into a sepa- 
rate box when full-fed at the end of October, and the boxes kept on a warm 
mantelpiece. The experiment, in each case, was a total failure. Three 
of my larvte died in spinning up, and the rest before any attempt at 
spinning, by the end of December ; two were ichneumoned, the parasite 
larvae behaving as in the second case of A. caia. Ichneumon black, head 
also, antennae long and robust. Legs brown-black. Ovipositor hardly 
visible through a lens, and without sheath. Upper wing with three 
contiguous areolets; first black, and rests on centre of costa; second and 
third stretch obliquely in direction of wing-base as far as the wing-centre ; 
a nervure then proceeds from the third to the base of the wing. Four 
wings transparent, except costal bkck spot or first areolet. Many of the 
parasites emerged from thtir cocoons in December ; the rest seem to be 
lying over the winter. The chip'bo.x experiment included a few caterpillais 



70 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of Neiiicophihi iHssuIa and S. fuUfjlnnsa I took oii the same heath. They 
all died. Three of the latter were almost black ; the other four were of the 
usual foxy colour. I should be glad to have the names of the sawfly larvae 
and of the ichneumons. 

Dragonflies. — Out of a total of thirty-seven British species, we have 
sixteen in the Chester district. I saw ten of these sixteen during the 
season. I append a list : — 

Ischnura elegans. Chester. Plentiful from May 19th to June 27th. 
There was a second brood, few in number, Aug. 1-lth. 

Agrion jniella. Chester. Flying with 7. e^ans. Plentiful ; May lOlh 
to June 20th. 

EnaUar/maci/atliigerum. Chester and Delamere; June 20lh to July 23rd. 

Platetram qnadritiiacidata. Delamere. Scarce this season ; June20ih 
to August. 

Leucorrldn'ia duhia. Delamere. Less in numbers than last summer; 
June 2uth to July 11th. 

Sympetrum scoticum. Delamere. Not so numerous either; Julyllih 
to Oct. 3rd. 

JEschna (jrandis. Common about Chester as usual; July th to end 
of August. I saw one hawking along a hedge, July 14th, at 9 p.m.; 
another on the 21st, at the same time. Netted the lust one, and then let 
It go. 

^.jiincea. Delamere. Common from July 11th to about the end of 
August. Rather late in appearance. Inadult, July 11th ; spots lavender 
colour; wings very perfect and beautiful, as if glazed with transparent 
varnish. Altogether it had a pale lavender appearance on the wing, exactly 
like the dragonfly I could not make out at Wilherslack (Entom. xxvii. o(>7). 
I liave now no doubt the latter was an immature .Ti,. juncca. This species 
1 have seen on the wing at 7 p.m. 

Lestes sponsa. Delamere. Unusually numerous from July 11th to 
almost the end of August. 

Cor duleg aster aimulatns. A male, taken about the middle of August, 
in the railway yard at Arthog, near Barmouth, was brought to me Sept. 3rd. 

My collection ] now only numbers twenty-six species; the remaining 
eleven, chiefly Feu and Raunoch species, appear diflicult to get — J. Arklk; 
Chester. 

Lepidopiera in Sui^folk. 

The records of past years afford conclusive evidence that the county of 
Suffolk is eminently suited for the study of entomology, and this resume' of 
a year's work amongst the Lepidoptera, principally in the neighbourhood of 
Ipswich, though not perhaps including any insect of exceptional rarity, 
will, I think, prove the truth of the foregoing remark. Although my diary 
does not run to the extent of pages which it did in 1895, it must not be 
inferred that the season was less productive than its predecessor, for that 
result is partly attributable to the irregularity with which my entomological 
pursuits were conducted, owing to professional engagements, and partly to 
the miserable weather of the autumn. In collecting the Micros the time 
at my disposal was principally devoted to the consequent neglect of the 
Macros. Light I practically neglected, and I need only say that my 
anticipations in regard to it (Eutom. xxix. 63) have been realized, the 
introduction of the incandescent ga&light having materially diminished the 



LEPIDOPTERA IN 1896. 71 

number of visitants to the central electric arc lamps, which have been com- 
paratively deserted, the decrease being especially noticeable in the case of 
the Sphingidge, the Notodontidfe, and the Bombycina generally. 

The earlier months of the year were marked by extraordinary mildness 
— a great contrast to the Icelandic severity of the winter of 1894-5 — and 
as a consequence the Hybernidse and other harbingers of spring were out 
fully a month earlier, but by no means so plentiful ; and this suggests the 
question whether a sharp winter is conducive to an abundance of Lep'- 
doptera, or otherwise, to which I am induced to reply in the affirmative. 
Nothing of note was taken in January and February, but towards the end 
of March, Bentley Wood — the local collectors' " happy hunting-ground " — 
was frequented by Diurneafcujella and Tori ricodes hijsmana, amongst the 
former being many melanic forms, which I fancy increase yearly. Several 
Brephos parthenias were on the wing, and Nijssia hispidaria and Cymato- 
phora Jiaiicornis occurred, but my visits to the wood were made at a 
wrong time to reward my search. Hybernated specimens of Dictyopteryx 
contaminana, Dqyressaria applana, and D. umbellaiia were met with, the 
latter, which was newly added to the " Suffolk List of Lepidoptera " last 
year, being fairly common, and in good condition, on Rushmere Heath. 
Here I expected to find larvte oi Bombyx ruhl, but only one was discovered, 
and that unfortunately bad fallen a victim to the tread of the golfer, who 
bids fair to exterminate many of our heath-frequenting insects. The list 
for the month was concluded by two beautiful specimens of Alucita poly- 
dactyla and Tauiocampa munda, at electric light. The Tseniocampidfe, I 
might say, were left to their nightly refection at the sallows unmolested, 
but the genus was very poorly represented elsewhere, for I only savv a few 
T. instabilis, and not one T. (jolhica. T. gracilis visited light in April, 
with a good-conditioned Gonoptera lihatrix. 

May was an ideal month for the lepidopterist, and Micro collecting was 
pursued with advantage, especially towards the close of the afternoons, 
when the hedgerows abounded wiih the ubiquitous Sywathis fabriciana and 
Sa-ammeidamuiia pyiella, others not so common being Dicrorampha [Eiido- 
pisa) saturnana (one with one fore wing darker than the other), Harpella 
(jeof'rella. Tinea cloaceUa, Elachista rufocinerea, Lithocolletis scopariella, 
[j. sylveUa, and doubtful specimens of Oniix amjlicella and Buccidatrix 
boyerella. A fine newly-emerged Sinerinthus tilicB was taken at rest on a 
wall. The genus Depressaria was represented by solitary examples of 
arenella and alstnemeriana, and it is noteworthy that whereas in 1893 
these could be freely netted at dusk along the hedgerows, they have since 
been scarce. Visiting the wood on May 30th, I found the localised 
Tephrosia punctulata (which exhibited considerable variation) swarming 
on tree-trunks, which also yielded three specimens of Lobophora hex- 
apterata, together with several Cidaria corylaia, the skittish Ephyra 
pendiUaria, and Scoparia ainbiyualis (which swarmed). Macariu notuta 
and Drepana falcula were on the wing, evidently just emerged, other 
Macros being Fidonia piniaria (common), Strenia clathrata, Asthena can- 
didata. Herminia baibalis, Acidulia reinutata, and Panayra petraria, a 
pest to the wood in 1895, were appreciably fewer in number. In addition 
to Lobeda reliquana, Aryyresthia conjwjella, and Buccidatrix ulviella {&\l 
new to Suffolk), 1 boxed the following Tortrices : — Tortrix minislrana, 
Scricoris lacunana, S. urticana, Roxana arcuaiia (all more or less common), 
iiiid these Tiuese : — Tinea ruaticella, Micropteryx sparmanneUa, Adela viii- 
della, Oiacilaria sivcderella, Coleophora anatipenncUa, Tischeria coinplandla, 



72 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

LithocoUetis ulmifoUeUa, and L. qiiercifoUella (common, but not previously 
recorded for the county). The tenacious larvae of Pcecilocampa popiili and 
Agriopis aprilina were found in the crevices of oak-trunks, and were after- 
wards successfully reared. In the town two Amphidasys hetularia were 
taken in cop. from palings, and the var. douhledayaria came to light, with 
others, including Sphinx ligustri, Smerinthus popnli, S. ocellatus, Cervm 
vimda (female), Pyijara bucephala, Them variata, Eupithecia centaureata, 
Crambus chrysonuchellus, C.p>vatellus, and Cemiostowa lahurnella (common). 
The summer was characterized by great heat and unusual dryness, but 
notwithstanding the woods retained their luxuriant leafage until late iu tlie 
year, a contrast to the summer of 1895, when the bushes were simply bereft 
of their foliage through the ravages of the larvae of the Hybernidse, 
Cheimalobia briunata, Phigalia pUosaria, and other autumn and spring 
insects, to the detriment of day-collecting. June 9lh was a gloriously fine 
day, and I was induced to visit Bentley Wood. On the route I detected, 
on palings, Sciaphila subjectana, Lobcsia reUquana (female), Micropteryx 
seppella, and Ncpticula snhbimactdella, and, arrived at my destination, 
I encountered Eiiclidia mi, Venilia maculaia, Macaria notata (three), 
Emmelesia ajfinitata, and Eupithecia plumbeolata ; whilst on trunks I 
boxed two Nvla coiifusalis {cristtdaiis}, Acronycta nimicis, and a long series 
of Gelechia xyroximella, with one or two of ats prettier congener, G. lucu- 
lella. Other Micros disturbed by the beating-stick were Crambus genimleus, 
Argyrotoxa conivayana, Ptyclioloma lecheana, Spilonota rosacolana, Halo- 
nota cirsiana, Capua ochraceaiia, Phoxoptcryx laclana [Anchylopera 
ramella), and Swammerdamia caisiella = spiniella (new to Sutlolk). In the 
fir-wood Coccyx tcEdella (hyrciniana) was netted, and Coleophora laricella 
was shaken from its food-plant. On June 14th, iu the same collecting- 
ground, I added Ephyra piinctaria, Phibalaptenjx vitalbata, another 
Argyrcsthia coiijugella (mountain-ash is spread well over the wood), and 
Adela degeereUa. A favourite haunt in the suburbs of the town, in which 
clematis grows freely, was visited on June 2ud, and by dubking I secured 
Ephipphiphora brunnichiana (new to Suffolk), and a curious dark example 
of Tinea rusticcUa, with unusually broad fore wings, other captures being 
Asthena luteata, Ligdia adustata, Melanippe proccUata (abundant), Cidaria 
russata, Pyralis costalis, Penlhina pruniana, Sciaphila virgaureana, Plu- 
tella cruciferarum, Elachista cygnipeniiella, LithocoUetis tnessaniella ; and, 
on palings, Nepticida ? aurella. At Bramford, on the 12th, over a small 
plot of yarrow, I caught Conchylis straminea, several Dicrorampha peti- 
verella, aud one J), plumbana ; and when at Oarapsey Ashe, on the 23rd, 
two Catoptria jidiana, Sciaphila hybridana, and Argyresthia nitidella were 
taken from elm-trunks. Captures at liglit in town during the month 
included Orgyia pndibunda, Leucania comma, I'hibalapteryx vitalbata, 
Pyralis farinalis, P. glaucinalis, Aglossa piuguinalis, Eudorea cembra 
(three), Tortrix jwdana, T. heparana, T. unifasciana, T. viridana, and 
Depressaria heracliana ; whilst by other means I obtained Mamestra anceps, 
Coremia quadrifasciaria, Cidaria fulvata, Cataclysta lemnata, Spilonota 
ocellana, Sciaphila nnbilana, S. pascuana, Gelechia affinis, and G. vulgeUa. 
A feature of the month and of the year was the extraordinary prevalence of 
clothes-moths, which were extremely destructive. My house was infested 
with Tinea bisclliella (I had never seen it before), and I must have exter- 
minated no fewer than 500 on their first emergence — the first few days of 
the month. Their breeding place I discovered in a disused mattress, and I 
found they could easily be reared. Endrosis fenestrella, of course, were 



LEPIDOPTERA IN 1896. 73 

numerous, and in evidence every morning in the milk-jug, and Ephestia 
elutella abounded; (Ecopliora pseudo-spretella and Q^ . fiiscescens occurred 
with less frequency. I may conclude these notes on tlie month by 
mentioning those Micros obtained by careful scrutiny of wall-ledges (a 
means of collecting which I recommend the adoption of) : — Batodes angiis- 
tiorana (two), Depressaria costosa, Gelechia fugitivella (these swarmed on 
elm-trunks), Arr/yresthia gcedartella, and A. hrochella (several). 

During July, among the visitants to light was an aberrant Tortrix. 
Mr. C. G. Barrett has seen the specimen, and considers it to be un- 
doubtedly a variety, and, as its fore wings do not agree with T. heparaiia, 
has named it as probably T. ribeana. Other captures were Odonestis 
potatoria, Plusia iota, Eitpithecia coronata, E. sohrinata, Scoparia pallida, 
Gramhus inquinateUus, Dictyoptcrijx Icejiinrjiana, &c. A fine variety of 
Abraxas grossulariata, with the fore wings from the centre to the costal tip 
completely black, was brought me by a friend ; Tinea ferniginella was 
taken in a railway carriage whilst on the way to Felixstowe, and Grapholita 
penlderiana, Steganoptycha ncRvana, Padisca corticana, Tinea fuse ipunctella, 
Hyponomeuta jJddellus, Prays curtisellus, and var. rustica were found under 
wall-ledges. By beating at Blakenham, on the 8th, I collected Acidalia 
emarginata, EuboUa mensuraria, Paraponyx stratiotalis, Hydrocampa 
stagnata, Ebulea crocealis, E. sambucalis, and Peronea variegana ; and by 
the same process at Akenham, on the 18th, lodis vernaria, AJelaiiippe sub- 
tristata, Hydrocampa nymplia:ata, Croisiaforskaleana ( dark-blotched variety) ; 
and the following in or around the town : — Cilix spinula, Eupithecia sue- 
ceiituriata, Tortrix rosana, T. xylosteaiia, Croisia holiniaiia, Spllonota ocel- 
lana, Sphaleroptera ictericana, Carpocapsa pomonella, and Phibalocera 
quercana. 

An almost unprecedeutly dry summer had its reverse in a long spell of 
wet, cold weather, commencing from the latter end of August, and to this 
must be attributed the great falling oflf in insects. Those for August were 
mostly attracted to light, viz. Hepialus hectus, Notodonta camelina, Catocala 
nupta, Noctua plecta, Cosinia ajjinis, Crocallis elinguaria, Ephyra omicro- 
naria, Acidalia promutata, Aspilates gilvaria, Eupithecia subfulvata, E. 
assii)iilata, Pelurga comitata, and Hyponomeuta cagnagellus. The " Thorns " 
were conspicuous by their absence — I did not secure any Ennomos fuscan- 
taria, which was taken in considerable numbers in 1895 ; whilst ^. ^t7t«n'a, 
usually a frequent visitor to the street-lamps, was only seen once. One 
Xanthia citrago, jnst enjerged, was taken from palings on the '29th. From 
August my diary became almost a blank, and I have only to mention 
Xylina rhizolitha, Ilybernia aurantiaria, and Gelechia domestica to con- 
clude the year's record. I am indebted to the Rev. E. N. Bloomfield, and, 
through him, Mr. C. G. Barrett, for kind assistance in identifying the 
Micros. — Claude A. Pyett ; Waterloo Road, Ipswich, December, 1896. 

Notes from the Eastern Counties. 

Last season was a phenomenally early one; the sallows were out a 
fortnight before their usual time, and moths were plentiful. In the first 
week in April I went to Hunstanton, but caught nothing specially note- 
worthy ; the larvge of Antithesia variegana, Gelechia vulgella, &c., were 
feeding on hawthorn, but were smaller than they were at Cambridge the 
preceding week. Subsequently I went down into the tens, and found the utual 
species out in plenty, and quite a fortnight eailitr than their normal date. 



74 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Ill the last week in May I went to Epping Forest, wliere I obtained 
Anticlea sinuata, Etipithecla virgaareata, Aufferona pruuaria, Melanthia 
occUata, Acroiiycta aceris, FyraJis (jlaucinalis, Roxaim arcuana, &c., besides 
a good nnmber of larviB. the list of which is too long to give. 

At Tuddenliam, SiiiYoik, in July, I took EUopia fasciarla, Acidalia 
scutidaria, A. osseala, A. ornata, A. aversala var. spuUnta, A. emarffinatd, 
Emmeleda tmij'asciaria, Corycia punctata, Macaria liturata, Fidouia 
atoiaaria, Lareiitia viiaria, Eupithecia linariata, E. lariciata, E. oblongata, 
E. suGcenturiata, Melanthia rubiginata (banded form), Melanippe rivata, 
M. unangulata, M. subtristata, Hypenodes costcEstrigalis, Ennychia nigrata, 
Paraponyx stratiotalis, Fioiiea stranientalis, Crambus perlellics, C.falsellus, 
C. latistrim, Pcecilochroma raizeburghiana, Retinia buoliana, Sericoris 
lacunana, Pliibalocera quercana, Xanthosetia zcegana, Ochsenheimeria bi- 
sontella, Gelechia taniolella, G. nndinella, G. dodecella, Aciptilia galacto- 
dactyla, A. tetradactyla, and Amblytilia acanthodaclyla, with other coni- 
rauner species and several larvse. — Albert H. Wateks ; Devonshire Road, 
Cambridge. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Thk Christoph Collection. ^I believe that this collection was sold 
intact, and that it is now in this country. Can anyone kindly inform 
me as to its present whereabouts ? — R. South ; 100, Ritherdon Road, 
Upper Tooting. 

Platyptill\ tesskradactyla, L., in Ireland. — Mr. C. G, Barrett 
(Ent. Mo. Mag. xxxiii. 25) introduces this addition to the list of 
13ritish plume-moths. Several specimens, sent to Mr. Barrett for 
identification, were taken by Mr. F. de Vismes Kane and the Hon. R. 
E. Dillon "in the first week in June, 1895, at Clonbrock, flying in the 
sunshine to the flowers of a species of Gnaphalium on a dry bank along- 
side a bog." Mr. Kane adds that a series was taken in 1891 by Mr. 
Dillon, but were supposed to be zetterstediii : a single specimen has also 
been taken in another locality in Galway. The larva appears to feed 
on Gnaphalium in the flower-stem at first; and afterwards, in the 
spring, on the "larger young shoots." It will be remembered that 
the Noctua, Calophasia platyjitcra, discovered in this country last year, 
was also associated with Gnaphalium. 

Apple-trees and Cheimatobia brumata. — For many years past part 
of my duties as head-gardener has been the care of fruit-trees. For a 
still longer period I have indulged in collecting moths, and Cheimatobia 
brumata flies at a season when I have most leisure for the work. I 
have collected in two or three different counties, and my observations 
have led me to infer that, at least in those localities, the male of the 
species in question does not carry up the female. After making 
frequent observations I have noticed that if the pairs are knocked 
lightly oft' the trees they fall to the ground ; and when thrown into 
the air they do the same. If they are carried home in an open box 
they will not, while united, attempt to move or fly ; but as soon as 
they part they begin to make oft". The ixinle flies to the female as she 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 75 

ascends the tree, aud joins with her usually at about three or four feet 
from the ground; the female does not turn when joined by the male, 
but remains still in an ascending position ; and as long as they remain 
united the male has its head in the direction of the base of the tree. 
The disengaged males, which usually number ten to one of the others, 
rest on the trees in a normal position. This moth is abundant in 
Middlesex, exceedingly so here ; aud we regularly grease-band our 
apple-trees, the large numbers caught show with what results. In the 
' Entomologist' for February, 1895, p. 59, Mr. Rowland Brown men- 
tioned that in the previous December the water of the dyke was strewn 
with the dead bodies of the males, and this is a thing of annual 
occurrence. — Geo. Wall ; Grim's Dyke, Harrow- Weald. 

Tapinostola bondii. — Last week a landslip of the greensand, 
opposite " The Vicarage " here, shifted one end of the ground upon 
which T. hondii occurs ; but fortunately the more inaccessible portions 
of the locality, which furnish the insect with its head-quarters, being 
well shored up by a strong stone wall, are in no present danger. It is 
curious to observe how excessively local and at the same time abundant 
the species is, or was, in its metropolis. For near on forty years men 
and boys have taken it by hundreds upon hundreds, and yet have not 
succeeded in eradicating it. The chief reasons for this concentration 
of the insect would seem to be that the best ground is difficult to work, 
and therefore never disturbed excepting in the hondii season ; and that 
the food-plant (Airhcnatherum avenaceum) in the dry sandy soil grows 
rampant, and the tubers at the base of the stalks spread about, and 
thus afford an exuberance of nourishment (see Deakin, ' Florigraphia 
Britauica,' vol. i. p. 101) ; whereas there does not appear to be that 
tendency to such vigorous growth in clayey or chalky land. Bondii, 
so far as I am aware, has never been found on the chalk ; but I have 
been told that a straggling specimen was once taken in "the warren" 
upon the gault. — H. G. Knaggs ; Folkestone, Feb. 9th, 1897. 

Forcing Achekontia atropos. — In a late number I wrote that I 
proposed to try again the "moist forcing" of some pupas of A. atropos. 
I beg now to state the results. Two larvfe and eight pupae were sent to 
me from Sept. 4th to lOtli. I placed the eight pupte on moss, in a pot 
kept damp, by the fireside. Of these two were found to be dead ; very 
probably injured when found by the potato-diggers. One moth emerged 
Nov. 4th ; Dec. 2ud, one ; 7th, one. Both these last were "crippled," 
one slightly; the other did not appear to have power to dilate its wings. 
Jan. 1st, another emerged; and another on the lOtli. Both these 
were very fine and perfect insects, and one still remains under treat- 
ment. The two larvae which went down in pots are still in a cool 
greenhouse. I may see the perfect insect in May or June. — H. W. 
Livett; V/ells, Somerset, Feb. 9th, 1897. 

AcHERONTiA ATROPOS. — I have been fortunate enough to rear four 
imagines from an equal number of larva?. The pup^e were damped 
and forced according to the advice which has been given in the maga- 
zines. The larvae came into my hands in August and early September. 
Mr. Leech was kind enough to send rue the two larvae which he 
recorded (Entoni. xxix. 366). All the larvae pupated as soon as I got 
them, and they were left alone until the beginnnig of October. They 



76 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

were then put into a greenlaouse, the temperature of which was at a 
guess 60 or 70 degrees hy day, and 50 or 00 degrees by night. Here 
they were watered, but without any regularity. The moths all 
emerged in November. Two of the pupae were left in the earth, but I 
made it easy for the moths to escape by scraping away the soil until I 
broke open the top of the cocoon. The other two pupje were placed 
among moss. Some trouble was taken to provide ladders, so that the 
freshly emerged moths would be able to climb up them and obtain a 
firm hold whilst the process of inflation of the wings was going on. 
One of the larvte, when I received it in a box by post, should then 
have been underground. It had shrunk a good deal, and was quite 
unable to crawl. Instead of burying it in earth I just put it on a sheet 
of paper in the dark and it pupated all right. What interested me 
most about these insects was the seemingly unnecessarily large 
cocoon or cavity which they scooped out. This has been already 
referred to in your pages. The cavity looked quite capable of holding 
three pupje easily instead of one. The interior is not smooth, but 
pitted all over with little indentations, which are, I suppose, the prints 
made by the feet of the larva, when it is enlarging the cavity by 
beating back the walls. — W. M. Christy; Watergate, Emsworth, Hants. 

British Orthoptera. — Mr. M. Burr ((mte, p. 28) mentions Meconema 
variuni, Fab., being taken at sugar. Twice last season I took the same 
species by the same means : on Aug. 14th in the New Forest ; and on 
Oct. 10th in Richmond Park. Platijcleis bracln/ptcra I have been accus- 
tomed to take in fair numbers in two localities near Esher, Surrey. 
Last season, however, it was apparently absent from one ; the other I 
did not examine. One locality is by the side of a boggy pond ; the 
other is on an open sandy spot. In both cases, however, the insect is 
taken on Erica tctmlid-, which grows luxuriantly in each place. — W. 
J. Lucas; 21, Knight's Park, Kingston-on-Thames, Feb. 10th, 1897. 

High Flat- setting. — Mr. Warburg, in his plea for the adoption of 
flat setting on the ground that it would save him (and others) much 
trouble [ante, p. 45), appears to have lost sight of the immense 
amount of labour it would impose upon those who, as collectors of 
British Lepidoptera only, adopt the curved style. And not only this, 
what a number of our, in many cases, best specimens would sufl'er or 
be completely spoiled in the process, the "blues" for instance. On 
this ground alone we might well hesitate, however much we felt 
inclined to meet the wishes of foreign collectors ; but, as I said before, 
we cannot all go in for foreign insects as well as our own, and we who 
have to rest content with the latter think it desirable to adhere to our 
present method of setting. Were we to admit continental types and 
series into our cabinets, which proceeding might or might not (pro- 
bably the latter) prevent extermination of some of our species, it 
would be but the insertion of the thin end of the wedge that would 
surely eventually bring everything down to the continental level, a 
result greatly to be deplored. It would also, to my mind, greatly 
facilitate the palming off upon us by unscrupulous persons of con- 
tinental or foreign specimens (common enough there) as British-taken 
rarities, a thing even now sometimes difficult to guard against. I 
would suggest that entomologists who net in the curved style, and 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 77 

wlio yet are in the habit of exchanging with or supplying foreign 
collectors, should movint some of their spare insects flat for this 
purpose, and so save their correspondents the trouble of resetting 
them. With regard to Mr. Jacoby's remark (Entom. xxix. 859), 
referred to by Mr. Warburg, "the setting alone is no guarantee," I 
should have thought that this was a fact so obvious to everyone that 
it did not require mention ; but I venture to say that a British rarity 
iiflat set would of a surety be eyed askance even although it might have 
the necessary " label." Also this gentleman's reference to "mites" did 
not seem to me to be quite happy. Is he not aware that in most, if 
not all, good English collections the specimens are set well up on the 
pins, and the wings do not touch the paper, consequently the " beautiful 
chance " spoken of does not come in at all ; besides in a carefully 
kept cabinet mites ought to be almost if not quite an unknown 
quantity. — E. Sabine; Erith, Feb. 2nd, 1897. 

High-Flat Setting, &c. — The remarks of a correspondent re- 
specting this subject (Entom. xxix. 380, 1896) amuse me considerably, 
as they apparently seem to exhibit the preponderating influence of the 
commercial instinct. If we all collected insects with the paramount 
idea that they were ultimately destined for Stevens's Auction Rooms, 
the study would be completely revolutionised. I consider your corre- 
spondent a typical specimen of the British entomologist, in the 
prejudiced opinion which he possesses respecting the mode of setting 
insects. Another matter I should like to mention is the erroneous 
way the majority of entomologists have, in this country, of pronoun- 
cing the scientific names of insects. This is the outcome again of 
our insular isolation. Foreign entomologists have a great difficulty 
at first in understanding the English on account of their way of 
pronouncing Latin names, which on the Continent are pronounced 
very differently. Our style is not the orthodox one, and should 
most certainly give way to that in use on the Continent, both in 
countries where the Latin and the Teutonic elements prevail. 
Although I am pleased to see more persons in this country are 
taking an interest in foreign insects every year in proportion 
to what formally prevailed, it is "nothing but insular prejudice" 
perhaps which prevents many extending their interest, at least, to the 
European, of which the British Fauna, as the late H. W. Bates once 
said, constitutes only " a half-starved fragment." There is thus such 
little intercourse between British entomologists and their confreres 
abroad, that the opinion prevails generally in France and Germany 
that there are very few students of the science, in comparison, in this 
country. — W. Harcourt-Bath ; Birmingham. 

Uniformity in Pinning and Setting Lepidoptera. — Now that this 
subject has been brought forward, I hope it will not be allowed to drop 
until a satisfactory settlement has been arrived at if possible. Mr. 
Tunstall's suggestion (Entom. xxix. 299) to adopt standard sizes of 
pins is an excellent one, but I think it would not remedy the evil, for 
I consider that the setting-boards are quite as much in fault, if not 
more so. From my own experience I find that the setting-boards sup- 
plied by dealers are most unsatisfactory. The grooves are very often 
not deep or wide enough to set the insects well ; a board that is wide 



78 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

enough for the wings is often too narrow in the groove to set the insect 
well up to the shoulder. I find it much better and cheaper to make 
my own boards. If we are to have standard pins, then let us also have 
standard setting-boards, the grooves of which shall be of a recognised 
width and depth. These boards should be numbered to correspond 
with the numbers of the pins. Thus, an insect that requires board 
No. 1 would have to be pinned with pin No. 1. A far better plan, 
however, would be to have pins all the same length, but of various 
degrees of thickness, to which the numbers would then refer. All sizes 
of boards should have the same depth of groove, and therefore all the 
insects would be the same height on the pin. The only objection to 
this plan would be that the smaller insects would appear to be set on 
the continental system, but by adopting a medium height for the larger 
ones, this would not perhaps be a serious drawback. — Edward Ransom; 
Sudbury, Suffolk, Jan. 1897. 

Variation in the Colour of Acanthosoma hzemorrhoidale. — I have 
in my collection four specimens of this insect. One of them, captured 
on June 14th, 1892, was especially bright green in those parts which 
are usually green ; the second, taken on Sept. 3rd, 1893, was green, 
but a much duller green ; the third, taken on Oct. 28th, 1894, had the 
green parts a yellowy ochreous colour ; the fourth, taken on Nov. 18th, 
1894, had the same parts of a deep autumnal red colour. Hemipterists 
who have had more experience with this insect than I have will know 
whether this change of colour is typical for the different times of year. 
If it is so, it seems to me to be worth calling attention to, as the change 
in colour of the insect coincides with the change in colour of the leaves 
at the different times of year, which would be a great protection to it. 
— R. M. Leake ; 15, Alleyn Park, S.E. 

" Should the Formation and Arrangement of a Collection of 
Insects be made Subservient to the Elucidation of Scientific 
Problems'?" — Commenting on this and other papers by Mr. W. 
Harcourt-Bath (Entom. xxix.), our contemporary, 'Natural Science,' 
in its February issue, says: — "The general question raised by Mr. 
Harcourt-Bath is of such wide and practical interest that we hope 
room may be found for further discussion of it. It is clear that 
specimens of any kind arranged in some logical order are more likely 
to elucidate problems than those arranged on no scientific plan ; 
moreover, the superiority of specimens to elaborate descriptions, even 
to tabulated statements, is apparent at a glance. Evidence of the value 
of Mr. Bath's method is afforded by his paper ' On the Vertical Distri- 
bution and Derivation of the Rhopalocera in the Pyrenees.' Of course 
each individual collector will have his own predilections, problems, and 
arrangement; the more diverse their points of view the better." 

Leucania unipunctata Migrating. — We learn from ' Psyche,' the 
organ of the Cambridge (Mass.) Entomological Club, that there were 
swarms of this moth last summer on the coast of New Hampshire ; 
walls and ceilings of sleeping-rooms in some houses were so covered 
'« that the rooms could not be occupied until the moths had been 
cleared out. In at least one case the rooms had to be fumigated with 
sulphur, and the dead moths swept up and carried away." Fishermen 
reported " a great cloud of the moths over their boat out on the sea." 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 79 

Aberrations of Lepidoptera captured in 1896. — The first part of 
the summer 1896, from the middle of May up to July 25th, was quite 
exceptional with us, on account of the great heat and the large number 
of Lepidoptera it brought with it. Among the Lepidoptera captured 
the following three aberrations are most interesting. 

The first variety is that of Catocala nupta. The second half 
of July was very remarkable for the extraordinary numbers of 
specimens of the genus Catocala. For many consecutive evenings 
the sugar-patches were literally covered with them : C. fraxini 
and C. nupta, as usual, were predominant ; C. adultera and 
C. pacta were in fair numbers ; C. sponsa, rarer, but also plentiful ; 
and only C. promissa and C. paranympha were very rare. After 
the first evenings, in fact, these great moths became a nuisance, 
as they most unceremoniously pushed the other moths oft" the 
trees. Owing to their numbers a great many living specimens of 
Catocala could be inspected and compared with each other. On the 
whole, no marked difference existed between the examples of each 
species, only the primaries having a more or less distinct pattern, 
being more or less brilliantly coloured ; the secondaries are always the 
same in form, except in the case of C. nupta, which has sometimes a 
broader or narrower black band. One of the specimens, however, 
showed exceptional aberration. Upper surface : fore wings show the 
usual margin, but all the other spots and lines, characteristic of 
C. nupta, are wanting ; the wings are of a uniform greyish-brown 
tinge ; the central dark spot is seen, and beneath it there is a large 
white one, corresponding in position with the white spot on the 
primaries of C. fraxini. The secondaries are of a peculiar red, con- 
siderably paler than usual, and having some pink colour in its compo- 
sition ; the black median band is wanting, and its position is only 
indicated by a series of grey marks and three short lines. The black 
border is rather narrower than in typical specimens. Taken at sugar, 
July 25th. 

The second variety is a male Argijnnis selene. This example was 
captured on the 26th of July, evidently an individual of the second 
brood ; the first brood was on the wing this year from May 19tli to 
the middle of June. The upper surface of the wings of this aberration 
is peculiar, as with the exception of a submarginal series of minute 
dots and the fine marginal lunules the black markings are confined to 
the basal half of each wing ; the number of the marks themselves is 
eight on the fore wing and two on the hind wing. Of the eight spots 
on the fore wing not one occupies its normal place ; all are either 
longer or larger than in typical specimens. The hind wings have 
only two marks : one is the usual round basal spot, characteristic 
of A. selene; the other, just beyond it, is in shape like the 
Greek letter Y,. The under surface of the wings is much paler 
than in the type ; the black spots of the submarginal area are 
hardly seen, and the central band of the hind wing, consisting 
usually of alternately yellow and white spots, is wholly white with 
a silvery sheen. These differences, I believe, are due to the length 
of time that each specimen has lived ; the less distinct marks and more 
uniform colour denote the older moths. The disastrous influence of 
daylight on the colours of moths is well known. I have seen a 



80 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

collection of Lepidoptera in a case with a glass lid, which stood in a 
well-lighted room for some ten years : the diurnal Lepidoptera were 
but little changed, but the nocturnal ones showed a complete absence 
of colour ; the marks, which could still be distinguished, were in 
different shades of grey ; even the blue of C. fraxini and the red of 
0. mipta had turned to a whitish grey. 

The third specimen to be referred to is a female Polyommatus 
hippotho'e, ab. This is a cripple ; on each side alternately one of the 
wings is fully developed, and the other deformed. The upper surface 
shows on the two fully-developed wings no marked differences from 
normal Pohjommatus, except that it is rather less red. The undersized 
wings are of a uniformly dark brown colour, without any marks at all. 
The under surface is of a greyish colour, the orange being only in the 
middle of the fully-developed wings. Of these last the fore wing has 
almost the normal number of spots ; those on the submarginal series 
are elongated, the first two especially so ; hind wing with fewer spots, 
first two of submarginal series elongated, and there is much red on the 
marginal area. The two small wings : fore wing has only one spot 
in the centre, all the others are obliterated, and only faint indications 
remain of the submarginal series ; hind wing has only two distinct 
spots on the submarginal area ; these are very elongated, and there 
are some further spots on the marginal and submarginal areas to be 
faintly traced ; the basal spots are distinct. 

In conclusion I wish to add that this summer the varieties were 
unusually plentiful : thus for instance Helotroplm fibrosa and Anyerona 
ion/l((ria were much oftener met with than the types H. leucostupna and 
A. prunaria. All the above-described aberrations were captured near 
Lauga, Govt, of St. Petersburg. — B. N. Menshootkin ; Chemical 
Laboratory, St. Petersburg University. 



CAPTUEES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Leucania extranea, Gn., in the County of Cork. — A small 
example, ouly \h in. in expanse, was taken near Timoleague, on the coast 
of Cork, at sugar on a railway post, in September last, by Mr. R. J. F. 
Donovan. He sent it to me for identification, correctly named from New- 
man, but wished to make sure of its identity, as he is only a beginner. The 
specimen is in tolerable condition, and there can be no question as to the 
species. This is the second Irish capture ; the other is in the cabinet of 
the Hon. R. E. Dillon, and was taken in the same month at Clonbrock, 
Co. Galway, which is some thirty miles inland from the sea, whereas 
Timoleague is on the Cork coast. It would therefore appear that the insect 
is indigenous here, though possibly originally introduced from America by 
ships. The species has not been taken on the European continent, and in 
Staudinger's Catalogue " Mad; Angl. m. (advena ;•)" is given, which suggests 
a doubt as to the identity of Mr. Bond's specimen from Freshwater in 
September, 1859, an untenable supposition. Mr. R. Donovan's brother. 
Dr. C. Donovan, collected Lepidoptera assiduously near Glandore, Co. Cork, 
before he went abroad, and rendered me much valuable help in studying the 
distribution of Lepidoptera in that district of the county. It is to be hoped 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 81 

that his work may be vvortliily supplemented by liis younger brother, who 
has added such au important item to our knowledge of the range of this 
rare species. — W. F. de V. Kank. 

liYC^NA BELLARGUs AND L. GORYDON IN 189(3. — The year 1896 was 
a great year for Lycmia bellargiis and L. conjdon in the two localities in 
N. Wilts which I visited for them, on the look-out for varieties. A sloping 
bank of waste field at Winsley, about an acre in extent, where Hipocrepis 
coinosa grows in plenty, was thickly studded with L. bellargxis fanning its 
wings in the sunshine, or towards evening resting with closed wings on tlie 
grass-stems. The May brood was the most abundant; but out of the two 
broods in May and July I only took one good variety, which was an under 
side of the female with no spots except the central discoidal spot on each 
wing, and the hind marginal row of spots. Then early in August I paid 
two or three visits to the range of chalk downs extending east from Devizes, 
where I found L. corijdon literally swarming ; you could hardly walk without 
treading on a specimen, and along the base of the downs every flower of 
thistle and centaury had its two or three occupants. But, beyond the 
difference in the width of the black hind-marginal band, I did not notice 
any marked variation in the male, with the exception of one with the hind- 
marginal band white with black veins running through to the fringe. 
I also caught one dwarfed specimen with broad and rounded wings, looking 
quite a different species. I noticed that several males had a distinct black 
discoidal spot on the fore wings. Of the females I saw none of the form 
much mottled with white, such as I have found in Hampshire ; but I caught 
nine of the blue variety (var. sijn(jrapha], and saw as many more worn 
specimens. I was pleased to take this brilliant variety again. I first caught 
it in 1870, and then again in 1872, at which time I was living in the 
neighbourhood. After I left I paid several visits in later years, but I never 
saw another specimen till last year. Of the under side of L. corydon the 
only variation, beyond the enlargement of the spots, was the occasional 
absence of the basal spots of the fore wings, corresponding to var. icarinus 
of L. icarus. I have further to note that at Wiusley, which is on the free- 
stone, I saw one male L. corydon last year along with the L. bellaryus, which 
is the only specimen I have seen there, except one other male which I saw 
in 1893 in the same district, but not at the same spot. I should be glad 
if any entomologist in the Bath district would say whether there is any 
L. conjdon locality near there. Also I saw three male L. hellanjus amongst 
the L. corydon near Devizes. I have never seen a specimen there before, 
though I lived there many years; but there must be a L. bellargus colony 
somewhere near, from which these specimens were stragglers. What most 
astonished me in these trips was that amongst such a prodigious number of 
specimens — and of L. corydon I must have seen thousands and examined 
hundreds — there should be so little variation from the type. — C. A. Sladen ; 
Burton Vicarage, Neston, Chester, Feb. 2nd, 1897. 

Setina irrorella in Sutherland. — Last June I found a specimen 
of this insect floating in a pool of water on a small island in Badcall Bay, 
on the west coast of Scotland.— Herbert Ashby; Pinehurst, Bassett, 
Southampton, Feb. 9th, 1897. 

Notes from North Wales. — On May 28th and June 3rd, 1896, 
I took here at light three specimens (males) of Ayrotis cinerea. Is not 
this generally considered to be a maritime insect? We are nearly forty 

ENTOM.— 7MARCH, 1897. H 



k 



82 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

miles from the coast here. I may add that Vanessa c-album occurs very 
sparingly in this part of Montgomervshiro. — Alfkkd S. Tetlky; Llwyuoii- 
Newtown, N. Wales, Feb. 9ih, 1897. 

Lepidopteka of the Scilly Isles. — I am going down to the Scilly 
Isles at Easter, and should be glad of any information regarding the 
Lepidoptera of the islands. I am only a beginner, so any information 
through the 'Entomologist' would be thankfully received. — W.Hunt; 
2, 4 & G, Albert Bridge, xMauchester, Feb. 13th, 1897. 

CoLEOPrEiiA IN .Ianuaky. — The weather during the early part of 
January Imving been exoeptionally mild, my brother and I have been busily 
engaged in collecting Goleoptera, principally by cutting grass tufts and 
examining bark of trees. We have during the lirst fortniglit taken abnnt 150 
species, among the more interesting of which are: — Dyschirius glohosus 
(common), llarpalus laiun, Metdllctus obscutoiiuiLatus, FaUu/ria sulcata 
(common), Conurus pubescens, Qitedia^ m.'iurortifns, Lathrobium lowinluia, 
Stiliciis orbicuUitus, Stenus pubescens. S picipeuuis. S. latifrom, Phhi'oiiuin 
clypeatuin, Pselaphus heisel (owe), TycliUH iiiyer, Bryaxis J'ossitlala, B.jiui- 
corum [not uncommon), Scydiiucnus collaris, S. scuteltaris, Choleva inorin, 
C. trisiis, 0. serlcea, Parnus auriculatus, Lona cyaneUa C'hrysoiiiela 
vaiians, Cassida obsoleta, Apioii dijfunue, Hypera pohjyoni, Liosoiiia 
ovatuluni. Bayous aiismaiis, Tychias picirostris, Rkinoncus castor, Bala- 
iiluus bruisicce, Ocalea badia, Hygronoma diinidiata, Othius melanocephahis, 
Gorlicaria fuscula, Psylliodes piciiia, Ocypus cupreus, O. fuscatus, Achenium 
depressuin, Antlionoinus uhni, Ceuthorrliynclius litura, Ceutkorrynchidius 
jiontUs, Ho)iialiuin iopteruin, Leptusa rujicoUis. Cassida oblo)tya, Rldzo- 
phayus bipnstulatus. — Beunaud S. Hauwoud ; Brooklyn Villas, Colchester. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London.— JrtH!tr/n/ 20^/(, 1897. The 
SLrty-fourth Annual Meetiny. — Professor Raphael Meldola, F.R.S., 
President, in the chair. An abstract of the Treasurer's accounts, 
showing a balance in the Society's favour, having been read by one 
of the Auditors, the Secretary, Mr. H. Goss, read the Report of the 
Council. It was then announced that the following gentlemen had 
been elected as Officers and Council for 1897 : President, Mr. Roland 
Trimen, F.R.S. ; Treasurer, Mr. Robert McLachlan, F.R.S. ; Secre- 
taries, Mr. Walter F. H. Blandford and Mr. Frederic Merrifield ; 
Librarian, Mr. George C. Champion ; and as other Members of the 
Council, the Rev. Canon Fowler, Mr. Herbert Goss, Sir George F, 
Hampson, Bart., Herr Martin Jacoby, Prof. Raphael Meldola, F.R.S., 
Mr. Osbert Salvin, F.R.S., Mr. James W. Tutt, and Mr. G. H. Verrall. 
The President then delivered an Address, and took for the subject, 
" The Utihty of Specific Characters from the Point of View of the 
Darwinian Theory." His remarks had reference to the paper on this 
subject, read last June before the Linnean Society, by Dr. A. R. 
Wallace, and the subsequent discussion. Prof. Meldola pointed out 
that the question of " utility," as necessitated by the theory of 
natural selection, had hitherto been made to depend too exclvisively 



SOCIETIES. 83 

upon external and visibly manifest utility, a restriction which he did 
not believe to be warranted by facts. He argued in favour of a con- 
nection of the nature of correlation between apparently trivial external 
characters and latent physiological characters of great importance to 
the welfare of the species. From this point of view it was contended 
that the diagnostic characters, used for purposes of description did not 
truly represent tlie sum total of the characters which must be regarded 
as specific. Tlie President concluded by referring to the losses by 
death during the year of several Fellows of the Society and other 
entomologists, special mention being made of Mr. A. S. Olliff, Mr. 
Edward Armitage, E.A., Mr. Peter Inchbald, Miss G. E. Ormerod, 
Mons. Auguste Salle, Mr. Arthur Dowsett, Herr Julius Flohr, Mr. J. 
Chappell, and Dr. Morawitz. A vote of thanks to the President was 
proposed by Lord Walsingham, F.R.S., seconded by Mr. Osbert 
Salvin, F.R.S., and carried. A vote of thanks to the Officers was 
then proposed by Prof. Poulton, F.R.S., seconded by Mr. R. Trimen, 
F.R.S., and carried. Prof. Meldola, Mr. McLachlan, and Mr. Goss 
replied, and the proceedings terminated. — H. Goss, Hon. Secretary. 

Februanj Snl. — Mr. Roland Trimen, F.R.S., President, in the 
chair. The President briefly returned thanks for the honour conferred 
upon him by his election, and announced that he had appointed as 
Vice-Presidents, The Rev. Canon Fowler, M.A., F.L.S., Mr. R. 
McLachlan, F.R.S., and Professor Meldola, F.R.S. Mr. F. Bates, of 
417, High Road, Chiswick ; Mr. Dudley d'Auvergne Wright, M.R.C.S.. 
L.E.C.P., of 55, Queen Anne Street, W. ; and Mrs. E. Brightwen, of 
The Grove, Great Stanmore, were elected Fellows of the Society. 
Mr. Champion exhibited an extensive series of Coleoptera collected by 
Mr. R. W. Lloyd and himself in July last in the Austrian Tyrol, and 
containing about 450 species, including thirty-five of Longicornia and 
about twenty of Otiorrhynchus (the most characteristic beetles in the 
places visited). He also exhibited about eighty-five species of Coleoptera 
from Cintra, Portugal, collected by Col. Yerbury during the early 
spring of 1896, the most interesting of these being Carabus iusitanicus, 
F. Also, on behalf of Mr. W. H. Harwood, two specimens of the rare 
Zewjophora flavkoUis, Marsh., from Colchester. Mr. Tutt exhibited, 
for Mr. H. B. Prince, some Lepidoptera, chiefly Nocture, from the 
Cheshire coast, to show the colour varieties there prevalent. Also, on 
behalf of Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, some typical specimens of Zi/gcBna 
ochsf'iihei inert, Zell., from Piedmont, and some hybrid Zygfenids, 
obtained by crossing Z. ochsenheiuieri male with Z. JilipendulcB female. 
The hybrids were fertile inter se, the males of the cross exhibiting very 
markedly the characters of the male of Z. ochsenheimeri ; whilst, on the 
other hand, the females, with two exceptions, strikingly resembled 
Z.jHipendulie. Mr. Tutt also showed, for Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson, a 
number of obscure British Micro-Lepidoptera, many of which had been 
regarded as new species. The validity of the determinations was dis- 
cussed by Lord Walsingham, Mr. B. A. Bower, and others ; and the 
first-named speaker strongly deprecated the practice of positively 
recognizing or describing such obscure forms, particularly when 
British, from single or worn specimens. A suffused aberration of a 
Gelechiid, taken at Witherslack, and described under the name of 
Lit I intermedieUa (Ent, Rec. ix. bU) was referred to L. fratemella, Mr. 

H 2 



84 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Barrett showed specimens of the true Platyptilia tesseradactyhi, L. 
{ = P. fischeri, Zell.) new to the United Kingdom, and taken in Co. 
Galway by Mr. W. F. de V. Kane and the Hon. R. E. Dillon. Mr. 
McLachlan exhibited cooked locusts [Schistocerca peregrina) received 
from the Eev. A. E. Eaton, and sold in the market of Biskra, Algeria, 
under the name of " Jarad." They were cooked whole, but the abdo- 
men only was eaten. A paper was communicated by Dr. A. G. Butler, 
F.L.S., on "Seasonal Dimorphism in African Butterflies," which led 
to a long discussion, chiefly on the so-called " dry-season " and " wet- 
season" forms. Mr. Merrifield stated that he had been unable experi- 
mentally to modify the colour and markings of Lepidoptera by varia- 
tions in humidity. Mr. Tutt believed that Mr. Doherty had obtained 
"wet-season forms" of Oriental species by keeping the pupae in a moist 
atmosphere. 

Febniari/ Vlth. — Mr. E. McLachlan, F.R.S., Vice-President and 
Treasurer, in the chair. Messrs. Champion and Jacoby exhibited the 
collection of Phytophagous Coleoptera made by Mr. H. H. Smith in 
Grenada and the Grenadines for the West India Exploration Com- 
mittee of the Royal Society. Mr. F. C. Adams exhibited rare Diptera 
taken in the New Forest during the preceding year, and including 
Callicera (Euea and Ncphrucerus flavicornis. Mr. M. Burr showed an 
example of an undetermined species of locust taken in the Post Office 
at Bedford Street, Strand, and six new species of Acrydiidfe of different 
genera. The Secretary exhibited a Cicada larva from which a fungus, 
probably Cordi/ceps sohoJifera, was growing, which had been sent to the 
Society from Venezuela, with an enquiry as to its real nature. The 
Rev, Dr. Walker showed a series of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and 
Diptera, collected in the Orkney Islands during the previous season. 
Mr. Tutt exhibited bred examples of the extreme radiate variety of 
Spilosoma luhncipeda. This variety occurred naturally in Heligoland, 
and its existence in Great Britain was probably attributable to acci- 
dental importation. Mr. Jacoby and Mr. Champion communicated a 
"List of the Phytophagous Coleoptera obtained by Mr. H. H. Smith 
in St. Vincent, Grenada, and the Grenadines, with descriptions of 
new species." — W. F. H. Blandford, Hon. Sec. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
December 10///, 1896.— C. G. Barrett, Esq., F.E.S., Vice-President, in 
the chair. Mr. Brooks exhibited a very long series of Acherontia 
atropos, bred from pupfp obtained at Long Sutton this year. One 
specimen was much lighter on one side than on the other ; it was 
suggested that a deficiency of fluid in the wings through injury was 
the cause. He also exhibited a very long series of Triplmna fimbria, 
bred from larvoo collected near Rotherham. Many specimens were 
light, and only very few of the dark form ; it was stated that the 
colour variation was by no means sexual. Mr. Mansbridge, a long and 
very variable series of Af/rotis au.riliaris from N. America, taken in 
1893; and read a paper on the exhibit, describing the forms of 
variation, life-history, and distribution of the species. Mr. Barrett, 
two specimens of Agrotis suhf/nthica, said to have been captured by 
Raddou, of Barnstaple; and also forms of A. tritici of the var. 
snhifothica. A discussion ensued, in which it was conclusively proved, 



SOCIETIES. 85 

by reference to Doubleday and others, that the bona fides of Raddon 
could not be rehed on. Mr. Adkin read an addendum to his previous 
paper on Triplmna codics (nrbona), giving more detailed evidence of the 
occurrence of the species and its var. curtisii in various localities. He also 
exhibited some Shetland forms of Cawptogramma hilineata, one having 
a dark fascia, broad and complete, with a pale central blotch. Mr. 
Dennis exhibited microscopic slides showing the striking distinctions 
between the antenute of Fli/bemia aurantiaiia and those oiH. defuUarla. 
Jaunari/ lAth, 1897.— R. South, Esq., F.E.S., President, in the 
chair. Mr. Routledge exhibited specimens of Acronycta viemjanthidis 
from Carlisle, with the thorax white ; Xylophasia rurea from N. Devon, 
light gfey, with fine lines ; Ar/rotis se<jetum, with silvery fore wings and 
unusually white hind wings ; Noctua c-nifjruni, with the c reduced to 
two spots ; and a specimen of Triphana pronuha from Epping, with 
lunules on the hind wings. Mr. R. Adkin, Tephrosia crepuscularia, bred 
March, April, and (summer brood) June, some of the latter being equal 
in size to the former ; T. blmulularia, bred May : all from the London 
district. Also, on behalf of Mr. W. F. de V. Kane, Dianiha'cia capsophila 
from a small island off the Kerry coast, with examples from Howth and 
Isle of Arran (Galway) for comparison ; the Kerry specimens were un- 
usually dark for the species, and were bred. Mr. Hewett, of York, a 
varied series of Tceniocampa miinda from York, including a fine 
mahogany-coloured form; a melanic var. of T. (crnda) pidvendcnta ; a 
series of vars. of Abraxas ijrossulaiiata, including var. varleyata, bred 
from a wild larva ; the various forms of Arctia Inbricipeda, including a 
series of intermediate forms; a preserved larva, from ova laid by a 
female T. munda taken in cop. with a male T. stabilis at York, 1896 ; 
series of vars. of A. sylvata [ulmata), one being suffused and several 
unusually free from markings ; three females of Odoncstis potatoria of 
the male coloration ; and three Saturnia carpini, one having left hind 
wing very pale, one very dark male, and a female having hind wings 
approaching the male coloration. Mr. Barrett, on behalf of Mr. Kane, 
a specimen of Boarmia repandata var. destrigaria, Phothedes captiun- 
cula, and Aciptilia tetradactylus, from Ireland ; also a series of FAipi- 
thecia consiynata, bred "in and in" continuously since 1874, and only 
on one occasion, some ten years ago, had a wild strain been introduced; 
at first they gradually deceased in size, but after the introduction of a 
wild strain and the sleeving-out process, they increased both in size and 
depth of colour. Mr. Tutt, a long series of Acheroutia atropos, bred by 
Mr. Borroughs, of Rainham, showing considerable variation in the colour 
of the "skull." He did not consider the species adapted to exist in 
this country ; the specimens exhibited had been forced. Mr. McArthur, 
a living larva of Aplecla occulta, and a bred series of HeUothis peltiyera. 
Mr. Young, of Rotherham, very long series of Spilosoma lubricipedn, 
var. zatiina, and var. fasciata. To illustrate his paper, Mr. Hewett 
exhibited very long series of both broods of T. oepnscidaria, and also 
series of T. biundidaria ; these were from some fifty or sixty different 
localities. Most of the known forms were shown, as well as preserved 
larvffi. On behalf of Mr. de V. Kane, the latter species from Irish 
localities ; and both species from Swansea, on behalf of Mr. Robertson. 
He then read a most exhaustive paper on these two species, and 
included in it were the observations and experiments of more than fifty 



86 THE ENTOMOLOGtSf. 

well-known entomologists, who had heen interested in this question. 
In the discussion which followed, Mr. South asked : (1 ) Did any 
character exist by which the species could be separated with absolute 
certainty? (2) Which was the commoner species? To the former no 
answer was forthcoming ; but to the latter members agreed that 
7'. cre/iiiscuUiria was very local, while 2\ Inundula) id was more common. 
Mr. Barrett was of opionion that as a result of Mr. Hewett's paper all 
distinctions between the two wore swept away. Mr. Tutt insisted that 
the naming of tlie tsvo forms and the consideration of them as distinct, 
although very closely allied, was a matter of convenience, necessitated 
in our comparisons with continental and Asiatic representatives. 
Messrs. Carpenter, Bacot, and others continued the discussion. 

Januanj 2,Hth. — The President in the chair. This was the Annual 
Meeting, and devoted to receiving the Report of the Council, the read- 
ing of the balance sheet, and the Address of the retiring President. 
The Officers and Council elected for the ensuing year were : — Presi- 
dent, R. Adkin, F.E.S. ; Vice-Presidents, R. South, F.E.S., and J. 
W. Tutt, F.E.S. ; Hon. Treasurer, T. W. Hall, F.E.S. ; Hon. 
Librarian, H. A. Sauze ; Hon. Curator, W. West (Greenwich) ; Hon. 
Secretaries, Stanley Edwards, F.L.S., F.E.S., and Hy. J. Turner, 
F.E.S.; Council, Messrs. C. G. Barrett, F.E.S., A. W. Dennis, 
H. S. Fremlin, F.E.S., W. Mansbridge, F.E.S., A. W. Mera, 
Hy. Tunaley, F.E.S., and Col. C. E. Partridge. Mr. South then 
delivered his Address. After referring to the excellent position which 
the Society still continued to maintain in membership and usefulness, 
as well as in its finances, he pointed out various practical lines of study 
which members of the Society might take up. He spoke of the extra- 
ordinary mterest shown in natural history by the general public, as 
evinced by the success of so many recent publications on the subject. 
After enumerating the new additions to the British fauna, he remarked 
on the growing interest taken by British entomologists in European 
Lepidoptera. Jn reference to the study of variation, he considered 
that more attention might be paid to the geographical distribution of 
varieties. He stated that classification seemed to be in a state of 
chaos, the several works recently issued on Lepidoptera differing very 
materially in nomenclature and arrangement. 

Feln-uanj ll<//.—R. Adkin, Esq., F.E.S-, President, in the chair. 
Mr. Barrett exhibited specimens of a species new to Britain, I'latyiitilin 
Usseiadactylux, taken by Mr. de V. Kane in the West of Ireland; the 
specimens were greyer than the usual German form. Mr. Routledge, 
a tine var. of Didiit/uccia cunsperm, bred from Orkney ; it was generally 
ochreous, the usually white markings being grey. Mr. Tutt, dead 
laryas of Hepialus liijmlimis which had been attacked by a fungus ; 
living larvas were also shown which had nibbled the dead ones. On 
behalf of Mr. Fletcher, of Worthing, he exhibited a series of hybrid 
Zyganiida^ from continental Z. ochscnheiincri and British Z. filipenduhe, 
which hybrid race was perfectly fertile. Also, on behalf of Mr. Prince, 
of Cheshire, a large box of common species, showing the local forms 
and range of variation ; among these the Nyssia zvnaria was most in- 
teresting for the variation in the transverse lines. And, on behalf of 
Dr. Chapman, the living larva of Bryophila perla, showing its silken 
gallery to which it retires during the day; it was noted that the 



SOCIETIES. 67 

Species did not hyberiiate, but fed all the wiater. Mr. McA.rtliiir. a 
specimen oi Aplecta occulta, just bred from a Rannoch larva. Mr. Adkin, 
a series of the same species, part taken and part bred from larvae taken 
at the same locality ; they were of good size, and very darkly marked. 
Mr. Perks, specimens of the "jumping bean," a Mexican fruit contain- 
ing the larvae of Carpovapaa saltitans. The remainder of the evening 
was devoted to the exhibition, by means of the lantern, of some sixty 
photo-micrographic slides of insect anatomy, by Mr. F. Clark aided by 
Mr. Furueaux, F.R.G.S. ; some of tlie prepared objects from which 
slides had been made were kindly lent by ]\lr. W. West, of Streatham. 
Mr. Clark first showed, by means of diagrams, his method of making 
the slides ; and then went on to exhibit various forms of antennae, the 
tracheae, several forms of the tongue, the compound eye, scales of Lepi- 
doptera, hairs of common larvae, and a most interesting series of the 
parasites of man and animals. The large screen used had been bought 
by Mr. Edwards, and most kindly presented to the Society, which is 
now admirably equipped with a lantern and all appliances for demon- 
stration purposes. — Hy. J. Turnek, Hon. Beport Sec. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — December lith, 
1890. — Mr. S. J. Capper, President, in the chair. A paper was read 
by Dr. J. Harold Bailey entitled " Notes on a Day's Beetle Collecting 
in Shropshire," in which he recounted the various species taken, and 
stated it was a ground over which the late Charles Darwin had often 
worked for coleopterous insects. Mr. H. B, Prince also read a paper 
entitled " Experiences in Lepidoptera in 1896." Tlie author, after 
referring to the general scarcity of insects during 1896, especially in 
tlie autumn, drew attention to the controversy now going on as to 
whether Lepidoptera were over collected to the point of extermination, 
which led to considerable discussion. Mr. Pierce stated that no one 
who had ever visited the fen district, or such places as Barnwell Wold, 
could for a moment believe that over-collecting could account for the 
disappearance of Polyounuatus dispar or Lycann avion. Liverpool 
entomologists, he said, were especially favourably situated for observing 
local species, and mentioned Nyssia zonaria, which in some seasons 
was so abundant that it was impossible to walk without treading on 
larvae at each stride; yet every now and then the species had gradually 
disappeared entirely from a locality, and would certainly have been 
lost had it not been re-introduced by Mr. Gregson and others. Bombi/.v 
tiifoUi was very similar. Efforts to re-establish L.yccena avion and 
Oiyyia dispav had entirely failed, even for one season, although the 
experiment had been tried with the latter many hundreds of times in 
different parts of the country ; the opinion of tliose present being that 
it was not to man, but to other agencies, that the disappearance of 
certain species from Great Britain was attributable. Dr. Bailey ex- 
hibited a large number of Coleoptera, the result of the day's collecting. 
Mr. Prince, Lepidoptera to illustrate his paper. The President, a 
long series of Avyynnis /la/iliia and Mditmi arteiiiis. Mr. Pierce, Vanessa 
c-album and var. Iintchinsnni. Mr. Webster, pieces of wood infested by 
Cossiis liynipevda from a garden at Huyton. 

AnmuiL Meeting, Monday, January llth, 1897. — The President, Mr. 
S. J. Capper, in the chair. Mr. F. N. Pierce, Hon. Sec. pro. tern,, 



88 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

read the Eeport of the Council, from which it appeared that nine 
meetings had been held duriog the past year, at which valuable papers 
had been read, and many interesting exhibits shown. The following 
officers were appointed for the ensuing year : — President, Mr. S. J. 
Capper. Vice-President, Eev. F. Freeman. Hon. Secretary, Mr. F. 
N. Pierce. Hon. Treasurer and Librarian, Mr. H. Locke. The 
following gentlemen were elected on the Council: — Mr. W. E. Sharp, 
Dr. J. W. ElHs, Messrs. W. Webster, B. H. Crabtree, and Douglas 
Walker. The President, in his Annual Address, said : — 

"On the 21st of next month the Lancashire and Cheshire Ento- 
mological Society will have attained its twentieth anniversary. The 
first meeting was held at my house, Huyton Park ; it then numbered 
only eleven members, viz. Messrs. N. Cooke, Mountfield, N. Greening, 
T. J. Moore, Birchall, Carrington, Koxburg, Whitby, Johnson, Cross, 
and myself. Twenty years in the retrospect is a long period, but it 
has passed so quickly that I find it difficult to realise so long a time 
has elapsed since that happy occasion. The meeting at my house had 
been anticipated by one at Mr. Nicholas Cooke's, Wallasey, Cheshire, 
a few weeks previously, at which, however, I was not present, when 
the formation of such a Society was determined upon, and the office- 
bearers proposed, and Mr. Cooke was requested to ask me to become 
President. When Mr. Cooke informed me of all this I was much 
surprised, but at nothnig more so than at my being selected to occupy 
such an honourable position. I told Mr. Cooke that he was the right 
man for that office, but at his persuasion I agreed to accept it for one 
year, but only conditionally, that he undertook to do so the next. 
Strange to say, circumstances happened to prevent this, and I find 
myself, after nineteen years, still your President. On similar occasions 
I have urged upon you the desirability of choosing some other member 
than myself to preside over you, and three years ago stated that, 
having given so many inaugural addresses, I felt myself exhausted for 
new material, so that if you persisted in electing me I must at any rate 
be reheved from this duty. Two years ago our then Vice-President, 
Mr. W. E. Sharp, khidly gave the address. Those present when he 
did so, or those who have perused it in its printed form [Entom. xxvii. 
81] , will remember the originality and the new lines of thought it 
evoked, — how, in his introductory remarks, he stated that 'Entomology 
is at best but a partial science, and is only a small fragment of the 
great science of Biology, and yet Entomology and Entomologists 
existed before ever Biology, under that name, was invented.' 

"Let us very briefly glance over the progress made by the Society, 
the kind of work which has occupied its attention, and at a few of the 
many lectures given and papers read at its meetings during these 
nineteen years of its history. The next meeting after the one at my 
house was held March 20th, 1877, in the room we now occupy, the 
use of which was kindly granted us by the Museum Committee. The 
number of new members joining us was considerable, so much so that 
I find no less than fifty- seven members recorded in the first printed 
Annual Eeport for the session 1881. It is interesting to state that no 
fewer than sixteen of these are still members, viz. E. Brown, H. Capper, 
J. E. L. Dixon, Dr. Ellis, E. D. Jones, W. C. Gardner, J. T. Green, 
W. Johnson, S. L. Mosley, F. N. Pierce, T. Eoxburg, W. E. Sharp, 



SOCIETIES. 89 

E. p. Thompson, J. Vicars, R. Wilding, and myself. Whilst it is 
gratifying to find that so many old members are still with us, it is 
sad to state that eleven of those fifty-seven are since dead, many 
amongst whom were much-loved friends of my own, and such as are 
irreplacable. 

" At present we have sixty-nine members, so in this respect are in 
as flourishing a condition as ever ; but for the past year or so the 
attendances at our meetings have not been such as we could desire. 
Nothing is more discouraging, when a good lecture or paper is 
brought before the meeting, than to find only a poor audience. I 
would, therefore, urge upon each member who desires the continued 
prosperity of the Society to consider the second Monday in the month 
an engaged evening, and by his presence prove his interest. 

" Considering the very great attention that has been given in late 
years as to the cause of melanism in Lepidoptera, and the numbers of 
papers that have since been read before societies like our own, or 
published on the subject, it is most interesting to state that at the first 
meeting of our Society our then Vice-President, Mr. Nicholas Cooke, 
read a paper on the subject. He drew attention particularly to the 
great change that had taken place, and that within a very few years, 
in several species of Lepidoptera in Delamere Forest, drawing attention 
specially to Amphidasys hetularia and Tep/irosia hiundnlaria, which from 
almost white forms had become almost black. His suggestion that 
this was owing to a very large extent to the chemical fumes and coal 
smoke appears probable, though not ia tbe way that any of us, with 
the exception of himself, thought, owing to a chemical deposit in the 
food so affecting the larvas ; for if I remember rightly those who took 
part in the discussion were of the opinion that the smoke discoloured 
and darkened the branches and the foliage of the trees, rendering the 
light forms more conspicuous to their enemies, so leaving the darker 
forms to propagate their species. His paper was published in the 
' Entomologist,' vol. x. p. 92, and led to a very lengthy discussion, in 
which Dr. Buchanan White, Mr. E. R. Robson, and others took part ; 
nor do I think that we have even yet arrived at a satisfactory con- 
clusion, notwithstanding the investigations of Lord Walsingham in 
1884, and Mr. Tutt's exhaustive treatise on ' Melanism and Melano- 
chrism,' published October, 1891, My point is that our Society was 
the first that paid much attention to this interesting subject. 

" This was soon after followed by a lecture on the Genital Arma- 
ture of the Lepidoptera, by Mr. Benjamin Cooke. I believe Mr, B, 
Cooke was the first person who called attention to this subject, and at 
this lecture he gave us his experience of many years' investigations. 
I remember how interested we all were, but we had no microscopic 
lantern to illustrate his remarks, but simply a pocket lens, Mr, Cooke 
had acquired a great deal of valuable knowledge on the subject, having 
devoted to it many years of careful study and thought. It was his 
intention, when more satisfied with his conclusions, to make them 
known to the public, but his premature death deprived the world of 
the results of his valuable researches, not only in this department, but 
also in many others of equal interest. It has been my privilege to 
enjoy the society and friendship of many men taking the highest 
position as entomologists, but I think I never met with a keener and 



90 TEtB ENTOMOliOGISt. 

more thorough scientific observer than Mr. B. Coolce, and with one 
who had so much knowledge of insect-life generally ; and yet un- 
fortunately he has left hardly any record of all his life's work. Some 
few years after this lecture, Dr. Buchanan White published his 
observations on the subject in the ' Transactions of the Linneau 
Society.' Most interesting is it, however, to state that, without the 
knowledge of the work that had been done in this direction by others, 
our Secretary was engaged in the same study, and by his lectures 
before our Society, and luerary communications on the subject in our 
magazines, has made himself famous in the entomological world. It 
is not my place on the present occasion to do more than thus allude to 
the work done by Mr. Pierce. Almost the last lecture given at our 
Society was a most interesting one by him on that subject, a lecture 
tiiat makes us proud of such a member. 

" The iuterestiug paper ' On the Wings of Insects,' by Mr. C. H. 
Hesketh Walker, October 25th, 1880, and published in the 'Young 
Naturalist,' is one of great originality of thought, and has led to much 
investigation, being indeed a new theory on the development of the 
wings of insects, based upon very caret ul microscopic study. This, 
like the ' Genital Armature ' of Mr. Pierce, opens up subjects for 
endless enquiry. 

" Familial- as most of us now are with the works of the late Dr. 
Darwin, twenty years ago his ideas were neither understood nor 
appreciated as they are at the present time. Converts, however, had 
been increasing, especially amongst men of science, since the publica- 
tion of the 'Origin of Spec;ies,' in 1859. This has gone on up to the 
present date, when it is rare to meet with a man of culture who is not 
one of Dr. Darwin's disciples. We shall therefore expect to find 
papers on this subject ; nor are we disappointed. Amongst others. 
Dr. Ellis, on Aug. 28th, 1878, read us a paper on 'Darwinism: its 
Eelations to Entomology'; on June 26th, 1882, the Kev. S. Fletcher 
Williams one, on 'Darwin and Darwinism' ; and on Oct. 29tli, 1883, 
Mr. Henry Capper, ' Darwinism and Beauty.' These papers were all 
thought worthy of publication, and each led to most interesting and 
instructive discussions at our meetings. 

" As a student of the Homoptera we have, as a honorary member, 
Mr. Kobert Newstead, of Chester, who for a number of years has con- 
tributed origiual papers on his investigations of the British Coccidas, 
dealing fully with the habits, met imorphoses, and structural charac- 
ters of these obscure and little-known insects. In his first paper, 
read m 1890, Mr. Newstead described, as new to science, Dacti/lopiits 
u-dlkrri, K., Kiiococcns insiijnis, N., and llipersia fra.nni, N., all of 
which he had himself discovered in Cheshire. During the years which 
have followed, Mr. Newstead has published, in the Ent. Mo. Mag., a 
series of papers on ' British and Foreign Coccidse,' and quite recently 
has communicated a paper to the Entomological Society of London on 
' New Species of Coccida^ collected by the Kev. A. E. Eaton in Algeria.' 
W^hen we consider the amount of work Mr. Newstead has gone through 
in connection with the museum at Chester, we may well wonder how 
it is he has been able to describe over forty new species of scale insects, 
and clear up the synonymy of many doubtful species. All his diagnoses 
are clearly given, and accompanied by carefully prepared, drawings, 



SOCiEllES. 9i 

which add much to the value of his contributions. Many of us 
remember witli pleasure Mr. Newstead's exhibition of coloured draw- 
ings intended for the firot Revisional Monograph of the British 
Coccidte, which, I am glad to say, the Ray Society will shortly pub- 
lish. The volume will be a valuable contribution to our entomological 
literature. 

" Mr. Newstead's abilities as an ornithologist are also well known, 
and his bird-groups have gained for him a world-wide reputation. In 
this connection I must mention a paper he contributed to our Society 
on ' Insects found in Birds' Stomachs,' which was the result of some 
500 post-mortem examinations. Over-pressure of other work has pre- 
vented the publication of this contribution, but I am assured it will 
appear in due course. But in order that we may gather somewhat 
of the nature of his observations, Mr. Newstead has favoured me with 
one of his charts, wliich is of importance, as it clearly shows the 
economic value of his investigations. 

" Most of my Addresses to you in the past have more or less 
treated on Economic Entomology, as it is a subject in which I take 
much interest ; and we have had numerous papers bearing on the 
subject, notably those by Mosley, Chappell, Thorpe, and Gregson, 
which have all contained much valuable infoimation and ltd to much 
discussion ; whilst for a considerable period Dr. Ellis, who was then 
our Secretary, acted as Recorder of Economic Entomology for the 
counties of Lancashire and Cheshire. The past twenty years have 
witnessed wonderful strides in the lines of Economic Entomology, 
especially in the American States, Canada, and Australia; but these 
countries do not immediately concern our Society, though we hail 
with pleasure the efforts of such men as Prof. Riley, Prof. French, and 
our lion, member Prof. Fletcher, who have done so much to make this 
branch of our study a practical science. The latter gentleman, by his 
kindness in forwarding to our Society his publications, keeps us 
informed of the vast work done at the experimental farms in this 
branch. But what has been done in this line in our own country 
mostly concerns our Society, especially when we remember that some 
of our own members have taken no mean part in the work. Miss 
Ormerod commenced her work in 1877, by the issue of a pamphlet 
(eight Images) calling attention to certain insects more or less generally 
injurious, and her yearly Reports, ever increasing in bulk, interest, 
and usefulness, have appeared regularly ever since. It is to the 
indefatigable and disinterested efforts of that lady that this subject 
owes the position that it occupies in this country to-day, which, 
though far from what we would like, and very inadequate to the 
importance of the subject, is certainly much in advance of what it was 
when this Society came into existence. If nothing further had been 
done than Miss Ormerod's elaborate Reports on the Warble Fly and 
the Turnip Flea Beetle, these amply testify to the usefulness of the 
work, the former pest particularly having been considerably reduced 
and almost exterminated in some districts, in consequence of her 
instructions having been followed out. It is a matter to be regretted 
that in this very useful work Miss Ormerod should have received no 
support from the Government of this country. 

" Some Reports, commenced in 1886, have been issued from the 



92 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Board of Agriculture, and papers on injurious insects are continued by 
Mr. "Whitehead in the ' Journal of the Board of Agriculture,' but a 
good State Entomologist is yet a desideratum in this country. 

" The Royal Agricultural Society in 1889 determined to employ a 
young man, and allow him to train himself for the work ; but after he 
had issued one Report, severely criticised by Miss Ormerod, he seems 
to have disappeared. The old Collection of Injurious Insects fitted up 
by the late Andrew Murray at Bethnal Green Museum has been re- 
modelled by the late Prof. Westwood and our member Mr. Mosley, and 
placed in the South Kensington Museum. Similar collections have 
been placed in the Government Museums at Kew, Dublin, and Edin- 
burgh ; and the subject has been taken up by several county councils, 
particularly Cheshire, where another of our members, Mr. Newstead, 
has made himself exceedingly useful in lecturing on the subject, 

" Perhaps the most valuable work that has engaged the attention 
of our Society has been the compiling of the Lepidoptera Fauna of 
Liverpool and neighbourhood, and the Coleoptera of Liverpool and 
neighbourhood. This undertaking was commenced in 1882, and to 
Dr. Ellis, who acted as editor, the greatest credit is due. It is only a 
few days since Mr. Barrett, writing to me, said how much he valued 
and how frequtntly he referred to our Lepidoptera Fauna as to localities 
for his work on British Lepidoptera, which will probably be the text-book 
for the next generation. Mr. Sharp is engaged in preparing similar 
catalogues on the Hemiptera-Heteroptera ; whilst Mr, W. Gardner is 
preparing one on the Hymenoptera. These catalogues, I understand, 
will all be based on the original lists we now possess, prepared by our 
late member, Mr, Benjamin Cooke ; they are added to year by year, 
and so kept up to date, 

" Very briefly have I this evening glanced at some of the work we 
have accomplished during the past twenty years. There is every 
cause for congratulation and encouragement. We have been far from 
an idle Society, and the work that we have done has been of the 
greatest scientific importance. From its commencement no fewer 
than 196 papers or lectures have been given, the greater part of which 
dealt with new and important subjects relating to entomological 
science. For twenty years our meetings have been held with the 
utmost regularity, and the ever-increasing interest in Entomology has 
been marked by constant additions to our ranks. Most of the old 
school of naturalists have been removed by death, leaving their 
empty chairs to be filled by those of new energy ; and I would, 
therefore, again urge our younger members to assiduous and careful 
work, not merely in the collecting of specimens, but in a better and 
more perfect understanding of the science, 

" To the younger worker our library is open for reference; he will 
find there most of the text-books and standard works upon Entomo- 
logy, together with periodicals devoted to our particular science for the 
past twenty or thirty years, 

"Finally, in making a retrospect glance at the rise and progress 
of the Society, I see every cause for congratulation on the self-evident 
success of a career extending over a fifth of a century. We have no 
cause to be ashamed of our labours ; and I have no hesitation in 
saying that few scientific societies can boast of a better record of 



SOCIETIES. 93 

original and useful work than the Lancashire and Cheshire Entomo- 
logical Society." 

Fehruarii 8«/t.— The President, Mr. S. J. Capper, F.L.S., F.E.S , 
in the chair. The Rev. R. Freeman gave a lecture entitled 
"Elementary Biology and Anatomy of Insects," in which he traced 
the connecting links from the protoplasm amoeba to the perfect 
insect, describing in detail the organs of nutrition, the nervous 
system, breathing organs, &c., of insects. The lecture was fully 
illustrated by diagrams from the author's preparations. Mr. John 
"Watson, of Manchester, exhibited specimens of lielenois teutonia and 
B. nlsea from Australia, and showed transitional forms from the New 
Hebrides, proving that these two species must now be considered as only 
local forms of the one. He also showed Etirycus cressida and form 
from North Queensland. The Rev. A. M. Moss exhibited a curious 
bronze-coloured variety of Amphidasys prodromaria captured by himself 
at Windermere. Mr. Gregson, a box of asymmetrical specimens of 
Lepidoptera, the collection including two fine varieties oi Arctia caia the 
fore wings of one specimen being very different. — F. N. Pierce, Hon. Sec. 

Cambridge Entomological and Natural History Society. — January 
15th, 1897. The President, Dr. Sharp, in the chair. Mr. Fleet exhibited 
a good specimen of Cleonus nebulosus, a large weevil, from the crop of 
a stone-curlew purchased in the market. It was suggested that a 
probable locality for both bird and beetle was Brandon. Dr. Sharp 
exhibited a fine mass of the cocoons of Aphomia socieila. picked up in 
the neighbourhood ; also some remarkable dipterous larvre, viz. an 
undescribed Tahania larva, from the New Forest, with feet disposed 
all over the body, and somewhat allied to Tahanus spodopterus (he 
thought it might be a larva of Atylotns) ; larva of Scenopinus fenestralis 
from Bucks (he called attention to the importance of ascertaining 
whether this larva is injurious as commonly supposed, or whether it is 
present in woollen goods only to destroy other larvs, such as those of 
the clothes-moth) ; larva of Microdon, found in Portugal by Colonel 
Yerberry, which shows no sign of segmentation ; also Idolothrij)s 
spectrum, sent by Mr. Froggatt from New South Wales. 

Januartj 29(A. — The President in the chair. The President ex- 
hibited a specimen of a large click-beetle of the genus ChaJcolepidius, 
and showed that if the anterior parts were separated from the after- 
body and then replaced, the front part would be propelled to a 
distance from the body ; he therefore concluded that the explanations 
ordinarily given of the jumping of the click-beetles was unsatisfactory ; 
and he suggested that it might be found that the act really depended 
on an elasticity arising from the mode in which the parts of the meso- 
thorax and elytra were shaped and fitted together. Mr. Rickard read 
a paper upon "Jumping Beans." He said that probably the larva, 
after consuming all the internal portion of the seed, attacked the 
shell ; in this endeavour to obtain food it pulls at the remaining shell, 
and the efforts supply the motive-force to which the jumping is due. 
He thought that the actual motion was merely mechanical, and 
determined by the formation of the euphorbiaceous seed. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — November 16th, 1896. — 
Mr. G. T. Bethuue-Baker, President, in the chair. Exhibits : — By 



94 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Mr. W. H. Wilkinson, a collection of insects made in the Madeira and 
Canary Islands in February, March, and April, 1896, he gave an 
account of his visit to tlie Islands and of the collection. He visited 
Funchal, Madeira ; Orotava, Teneriffe ; and Las Palmas, Grand 
Canary; Orotava being the best collectino: ground. He found Anuaia 
pli'.rippici and A. chri/sippus very plentifully, especially the former, in 
Grand Canary ; Vancssti callirho'e was also common in Grand Canary ; 
V. ranlui and V. Imntera both occurred ; Gonuptcnjx. deopatra was 
common, and many others. Mr. Bethune-Baker said that the most 
interesting species in the collection were Paranie .rlpliia from Madeira, 
and P. xiphioidea from Grand Canary, two closely allied but distinct 
species, peculiar to tbe Madeiras and Canaries respectively ; also 
fA/rtr,)ui wflthiaiia, of which there were four specimens, an interesting 
little species restricted to the Canaries. He called attention to the 
fact tbat the (t. cleopaira from these islands differed decidedly from 
the Mediterranean form of the species. He also showed series 
of Pieris braxsicte, of P. wnlhistoni from Madeira, and cheirantlil from 
Canary, and pointed out the curious fact that wolhistoni, altbough 
nearer to the European brai^sicip. than cheirauthi is, is yet the more 
widely divergent species ; also a series of Li/cana wehbiaiHi, and of 
Anthocliar'iH charlonin from Algeria, a species which he said also 
occurred in the Canaries. Mr. Kenrick said that tbe most curious 
feature in the Canary Islands fauna was the occurrence of American 
forms ; V. hiintera occurred only in the Canaries and America ; and 
A. plexippiat, which is common in the Canaries, is an American 
species. Mr. Bethune-Baker said that in working at the moths he 
noticed American affinities in several groups, particularly in the genus 
Phlixjophorn, wbich was much more closely allied to American tban 
to European forms. By Mr. Bradley, for Mr. J. W. Moore, a remark- 
able variety of Arctia caia, bred from a lot of larv;e collected locally 
and reared under natural conditions ; the markings were all in their 
usual positions and shapes, but the whole insect was of a rich dark 
brown, the markings on the under wings showing black, and on the 
upper wings a lighter brown. By Mr. .J. T. Fountain, McUtaa artemis 
from Umberslade ; a bleached specimen of Kpinepliele ianira from 
Wyre Forest ; a specimen of F. io, from Kniver Edge, the two sides of 
which were unequal in size ; a specimen of T^ ataUinta with white 
spots in red bands, from Bournemouth, and another from Himley, 
near Dudley, with the red bands broken ; a specimen of Apatnra iris 
in which the bands of the posterior wings on the upper side were 
small and bent inwards, and on the under side only shown as paler 
bars, not white ones ; the under sides, too, were very sligbtly marbled, 
nearly plain, with less white on the fore wings than usual ; the purple 
iridescence on upper sides could be seen on all wings at once, not on 
only one side at a time as usual. By Mr. W. Bowater, a lot of butter- 
flies, unnamed, collected about 500 miles up the Niger river. Mr. 
Kenrick said tbat one Pipiis seemed to be new to him. By Mr. H. 
Taylor, Lnperina cespitis from Yardley, Kiitinnia erosaria from Wyre 
Forest, 'ittlwa subtntut from Wyre, and CirrhceJia xemwpelina taken 
this autumn at Steckford. Bv Mr. Bickley, C. xerampelinK from 
Steekford. By Mr. C. W. Wynn, Gortijna ftdvaijo from Sutton, 
Xcuronia popularis from Yardley, Ojwima'Grace'affo-{-a. hred series from 



SOCIETIES. 95 

Wyre Forest) ; Tricldura cratcecii from Wyre, Asphalia dilnta from 
Sherwood Forest, and Calocampa e.voleta from Sutton. By Mr. C. H. 
Kenrick, Tephrosia crepuscitlaria and T. biuntlularia ; he expressed the 
opinion that they were but one species, and that locally it was single- 
brooded and consisted of light and dark forms mixed. By Mr. H. 
Foster Newey, a number of drawings of larvte. A communication from 
Mr. R. W. Fitzgerald was read, giving a. list of the Macrolepidoptera 
collected and observed by him within a radius of four miles of TJley, 
near Dursley, Gloucester. It contained the names of 286 species, and 
included Vanessa aniiupa (taken on Nov. 3rd, last), Chierocnmpa 
jiorcellns (abundant in 1896), Selina imm'lla (one), XnntJiia aiinu/o 
(common in 1895), Folia jiavicimia, Churidea uiiihra. (one at sugar in 
1896), Fhibaliipteryx tersata, and P. vitnllxita, &c. By Mr. R. C. 
Bradley, a collection of Diptera made at Bournemouth during the first 
fortnight of August, 1896 ; it included Geranomyia unicolor, Xantho- 
(/rdiiiDia oriKtta, Mi/opa fasciata, Mtltofiraniina punctata, and J\[. conica, 
Idia liinata, &c. ; the last species was formerly considered doubtfully 
British by Mr. Verrall. 

Deceinlxr 21st. — The President in the chair. Exhibits: — Mr. 
Bethune-Baker, for Mr. Abbott, three female specimens of a Lycama 
taken by Mr. C. B. Antram at Uptield, Sussex; they were suffused with 
blue, and were believed by the captor to be hybrids between L. icanis 
and L. ai/estis. Mr. Bethune-Baker said they were a not unusual form 
of the female of L. icarus, which he had from several localities. By 
Mr. R. C. Bradley, Eiinnelesia cricetata from Inverness-shire, &c. By- 
Mr. Abbott, a fine bred series of At/mtis ashicorthii ; they had been 
reared from eggs laid in 1896 by a bred female, and had been forced 
through. He also showed a yellowish form of Arctia cain, and a 
specimen of Spilosuma fnliginosa, in which the black markings of the 
hind wings had been splashed across the fore part of the wings. 
By Mr. Martineau, a very fine photo slide, by R. W. Chase, of larvae 
of Sphinx lit/ustri. By Mr, Bethune-Baker, spiders taken by Mr. 
W. H. Wilkinson in the Canaries and Madeiras. 

January 18th, 1897. — The President in the chair. Mr. A. E. 
Cutler, 13, Portland Road, Edgbaston, was elected a member of the 
Society. Exhibits : — By Mr. A. H. Martineau, L'rabro interruptus from 
Solihull (one specimen, taken June 14th, 1896), and Bomhus I at re i I lei ba 
var. distiiKjuendus (taken at Sutton in June last). By Mr. R. C. 
Bradley, Lophyms pint (one, bred, from Sutton). By Mr. Bethune- 
Baker, two cases of palasarctic Pa])ilios, with nice series of all six 
species, including var. feisthamelii of Papilin podalirius from Algeria, 
&c., var. latteri from Algeria, var. zanclcBus from Greece, and P. 
machaon from the British Isles, Italy, &c., those from the south being 
darker. By Mr. P. W. Abbott, a very fine variety oi Arnymiis euphrasy ue 
from Wyre Forest, taken by Mr. H. McNaught ; on the upper side the 
outer two rows of spots on the fore wings were much enlarged longi- 
tudinally, and on the hind wings all the black markings were much 
enlarged and suffused, so that they were very dark; on tiie under side 
the black markings had almost disappeared, the fore wings being pale 
with indications only of markings; on the hind wings all the basal two 
thirds were pale yellow, the outer third being orange ; the black mark- 
ings were gone, and the silver ones lengthened out radially. He also 



96 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

showed a fine example of Fidonia (ttomaria from Shirley Common, 
taken hy Mr. C. B. Antram in June, 1896 ; it was of a uniform dark 
brown above and below. 

Febiuarij Ist. — Annual Meetin;/. — The President in the chair. The 
Annual Reports of the Council, the Treasurer, and the Librarian were 
presented. Mr. Bethune-Baker was re-elected President ; Mr. P. W. 
Abbott, Vice-President ; Mr. A. H. Martineau, Librarian ; Mr. R. C. 
Bradley Hon. Treasurer ; and Mr. C. J. Wainwright, Hon. Secretary. 
Exhibits : — Mr. J. T. Fountain, CirrJuedui xeranipelina and Luperina 
cespitis, both taken in the Pershore Road, close to Birmingham ; also 
Erehia Uandina from Aberdeenshire, and a number of Swiss Erebias 
and other Rhopalocera. By Mr. P. W. Abbott, a series of Cucullia 
chamomillm from Sutton, at various dates ; they were all very dark 
specimens, excepting one, which was taken in 1894 and was rather 
small and very pale. By Mr. Cutler, specimens of Arctia caia, one 
pale and one very dark, but crippled ; both from the same batch 
of larval", and reared together. — Colbran J. Wainwright, Hon. Sec. 

North London Natural History Societv. — The fifth Annual 
Exhibition was held in the Lecture Hall at the N.E. London Institute, 
on Saturday, January 2nd, 1897. The exhibits were, if anything, 
even more numerous than last year. Tlie entomological department 
was, as usual, the best represented, but botany was also very much to 
the fore. Lantern illustrations were once more on view, Mr. Wattson 
contributing " Life in a Pond," and Dr. Gerard Smith attracting great 
attention with photo-micrographs illustrative of plant morphology, 
marine zoology, &c. Short lectures were delivered during the evening, 
by Mr. Bacot " On behalf of Insects," by Mr. Wattson on " Pond Life," 
and by others. The exhibition was unanimously admitted to be the 
best the Society had yet held. — Lawrence J. Tremayne, Hon. Sec. 

The Entomological Club. — Since our last report the following 
meetings of the Entomological Club have been held, namely: — On 
July 7th, 1896, at the residence of Mr. Samuel Stevens, when the 
time-honoured " strawberry feast," which in the olden days was held 
annually in the neighbourhood of the then prolific hunting-ground of 
Birch-wood Corner, was duly celebrated ; on November 24th, at the 
residence of Mr. Robert Adkin; and on January 19th, 1897, at the 
Holboru Restaurant, when Mr. G.H. Verrall entertained representatives 
of leading entomological associations and others, to the number of 
about fifty. At this meeting a resolution was unanimously passed by 
the members present that the Club collections should be placed in the 
custody of the South London Entomological and Natural History 
Society. These collections contain, among other interesting material, 
certain type specimens, and it is hoped that when deposited with the 
above Society their usefulness will be increased by their being more 
easily accessible than is now the case. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX.] APEIL. 1897. [No. 407. 



ON THE SUBORDINATE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATAL 
CONDITIONS IN DECIDING THE MORPHOLOGICAL 
CHARACTERS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 
RHOPALOCERA. 

By W. Harcourt-Bath, 

The preponderating influence of the organic environment in 
determining the distinctive or morphological characters of the 
Rhopalocera is probably much less apparent than real. It is, 
however, a more difficult task to prove than its influence with 
respect to their geographical and vertical distribution. Never- 
theless, I am perfectly convinced myself that the climatal con- 
ditions similarly play only a subordinate part in the matter, and 
what effects derive their origin from the physical environment 
do not possess the determining factor, and only operate upon the 
organism indirectly. 

I will endeavour to support this hypothesis by certain facts 
and conclusions which I have obtained during the course of my 
investigations respecting the various problems connected with 
their vertical distribution. 

I will first of all add a few words to the article by my pen 
which appeared in the December (1896) issue of the ' Entomo- 
logist ' with reference to the latter subject. The conception I 
have formed of the phenomenon presented by the various zones 
of vegetation, with their accompanying fauna, stretching from 
the equator upon either side to the two poles, and likewise from 
the bases of the various mountain chains to the line of congela- 
tion, is that it represents a somewhat parallel or analogous case 
to the phylogenetic and ontogenetic stages in the progress 
respectively of genera and species. This is, of course, not 
strictly the case, but it represents in a very fair degree the 

ENTOM. APRIL, 1897. I 



98 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

changes that have been going on daring past ages, and are still 
proceeding. The different zones of vegetation which one meets 
with in ascending a mountain therefore present, in my mind, 
their respective antiquity — by no means accurately so, as I have 
already said ; but the higher one ascends the more ancient will 
become the prevailing constituents of the flora of each particular 
phyto-geographical belt, together with its accompanying fauna. 
The higher zones constitute, as it were, the final sanctuaries of 
many species which are unable to modify their characters in 
harmony with the ever-changing organic conditions by which 
they are surrounded, and are practically in the same position as 
islands. As new conditions manifest themselves at the bases of 
the mountain chains from time to time, in the appearance of 
new types of animals and plants with more highly specialized 
powers of adaptation, they will make their presence felt all 
along the Hne from the bases upwards, the constituents of each 
zone rebounding, as it were, on the one above, like waves upon 
the sea-shore, the more ancient in turn succumbing to the next 
in the order of succession. A typical instance of this change, 
independent of any apparent alteration in the cHmatal conditions, 
is to be found in the Scandinavian peninsula at the present day, 
where the existing flora of the lower zones is gradually receding 
before an Oriental one, which is slowly but surely making its 
way westwards from Siberia. Some remarkable changes of a 
somewhat similar character concerning the arboreal vegetation 
have also occurred in Denmark within historic times. 

Such evolutions as these must be affecting the distribution of 
the Ehopalocera to a considerable extent, for the larvas, being 
dependent upon the plants for their sustenance, will either have 
to retreat with their pabula, or succumb, unless they can con- 
form themselves to their altered surroundings. Temporary 
fluctuations or return waves will periodically manifest them- 
selves, such, for instance, as the clearly ascertained fact of the 
comparatively recent more elevated extension of the pine forests 
in the Alps, and this will react upon the zones below, together 
with their insect inhabitants, in the manner I have endeavoured 
to exhibit. 

The organic environment therefore clearly plays a pre- 
ponderating part in the distribution of organisms, while that of 
the physical only a subordinate one, and this generally in an 
indirect manner. While the former will operate almost exclu- 
sively in curtailing their distribution downwards, the latter will 
exert its influence principally in deciding their upper rather 
than their lower limits. Another important item worthy of 
special consideration and investigation by biologists is the fact 
that the vertical and horizontal conditions affect the flora in a 
difierent degree to that of the fauna. In the former kingdom 
whole tribes and families seem to be similarly affected in respect 



CLIMATAL CONDITIONS WITH REFERENCE TO RHOPALOCERA. 99 

to their distribution, whereas in the latter the environmental 
influence seems principally confined to species. While we thus 
have whole genera of plants confined to particular zones upon 
the mountains, the same in the case of animals may be com- 
pletely cosmopolite. This conclusion will be very evident to 
those who have made a special study of their vertical distri- 
bution in the Alps, and is particularly so in the case of the 
Ehopalocera. 

Thus in the latter all the principal genera are cosmopolite, 
or nearly so. Consider, for example, Pieris, Colias, Lyccena, 
Vanessa, Melitcea, Argynnis, Erebia, Pararge, Cmnonympha, 
Syrichthus, and Hesperia ; while others — such, for instance, as 
Pajnlio and Polyommatm — also possess a very wide range in 
respect to altitude. On the other hand, the various genera of 
plants are often considerably very circumscribed in their dis- 
tribution, frequently being confined to only one or two zones 
upon the mountains. The inference to be drawn from these 
facts seems to be that the organic environment acts more 
powerfully in the case of the animals, the physical conditions 
manifesting their influence to a somewhat greater extent in the 
plants. 

Now let us consider a few facts concerning the relationship 
between altitude and morphology. 

It is too readily taken for granted similarly that butterflies 
owe their remarkable diversity of colours and patterns to the 
direct influence of the climatal conditions. 

Much has been written on this subject by Dr. A. R. Wallace 
in favour of the preponderating influence of the organic en- 
vironment. It is my intention in the present paper to confine 
my attention to two phases only, namely, melanism and ocella- 
tion, with special reference to the alpine Ehopalocera. 

As regards the first of these, many hypotheses have been 
from time to time put forward to account for its existence. 
Thus some writers of the old-fashioned school (like Mr. C. W. 
Dale) seek to find a direct cause in the abundance of the 
precipitation and the amount of sunshine. They assume that 
bright colours are the direct products of the sun. How then do 
they account for the fact of there being such a large proportion 
of dull-coloured species of butterflies inhabiting the tropics ? 
Take a glance, for instance, at such a work as Mr. Distant's 
' Ehopalocera Malay ana,' if a collection of exotic forms is not 
available for inspection. It will be seen that the proportion of 
dull and sombre coloured species is quite equal, indeed if it does 
not exceed, the proportions existing in temperate climates (such 
as that of Europe) in comparison with the number of light 
coloured forms. Then how do they account for the following 
fact? If we compare two species belonging to corresponding 
groups, one of which is found in Europe or Japan, and the other 

i2 



100 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

in India, we shall generally find that the Indian insect is the 
smaller and duller coloured of the two. 

It is therefore evident that we can dismiss the idea that the 
colours of butterflies are directly due to the abundance or absence 
of sunshine. Everything, on the contrary, seems to point to 
their being the outcome of the organic environment. Other 
writers (like Mr. Tutt), more in harmony with the natural 
selection school, maintain that colours with a melanic or melano- 
chroic tendency are useful to their possessors by enabling them 
to resemble their surroundings, especially when they reside at 
high altitudes among the mountains, and thus enable them, 
when at rest, to escape detection by their enemies. When this 
is the case at the lower elevations I can quite agree with them 
that the value of these sombre hues is considerable under certain 
circumstances, but when it exists in the higher zones, where 
insectivorous birds, mammals, and reptiles are generally so 
scarce, its purpose is not so easy to comprehend. 

Another hypothesis, with especial reference to the genus 
Erehia, has been launched forth by Lord Walsingham, to the 
effect that their dark colours, by rapidly absorbing the solar 
rays, give their possessors greater vitality when on the wing 
than would otherwise be the case. This character, he supposes, 
would be especially beneficial to the males in searching for the 
females ; in other words, it is of selective value. Now it is well 
known that rich colours in nature are generally correlative with 
considerable vitality, and it is thus exceedingly probable that the 
darker colouring of the males is beneficial to their possessors in 
the manner indicated ; at the same time I do not consider that 
it constitutes the origin of the particular pigmental colouring of 
the genus, the primary purpose of which will have to be sought 
for elsewhere. In support of my contention may be brought 
forward the fact that there are a large number of light-coloured 
butterflies also existing at the higher elevations along with the 
various melanic species of Erehia. Some of these are almost 
exclusively white. A list of these pre-eminently xanthochroic 
species, which I have encountered in the Alps and the Pyrenees 
between the altitudes of 5500 and 9000 feet, is as follows :— 
Parnassius apollo, P. deli us, P. mnemosyne, Aporia cratcegi, Pieris 
hrassiccs, P. rapes, P. napi, P. callidice, P. daplidice,^ Euchloe 
belia var. simplonia, E. cardamines, Leiicophasia sinapis, Colias 
paheno, C. phicomone, C. hyale, C. edusa, and Bhodocera rhamni. 
Some of these I have seen in considerable profusion at the 
elevations of 7000 and 8000 feet. There are also a considerable 
number of species whose representatives in the higher zones are 
of a lighter or brighter coloration than the forms existing at the 
lower elevations. 

On the other hand, melanism exists at lower levels as well as 
at the higher ones, such, for instance, as in Polyommatus phlceas 



CLIMATAL CONDITIONS WITH KEFERENdE TO RHOPALOCERA. 101 

var. elens, Ccenonympha immphiliis var. lylliis, Melitcea didijma 
var. alpina, some of them being exclusively found at the lower 
elevations. 

Now respecting ocellation. Dr. A. K. Wallace's theory to 
account for the predominant character which manifests itself in 
the Satyridae, as well as in other groups of butterflies, namely, 
in the submarginal ocellation of both the upper and the under 
sides of the wings, is that the eye-like spots are useful for pro- 
tective purposes. Being situated at a distance from the most 
vital parts of the insects, he considers that they are the results 
of natural selection pure and simple. The enemies of the 
butterflies, principally birds, he presumes, would most likely 
make for the most conspicuous part of the insect, both when at 
rest and when flying, and these would in most cases be the 
ocelli. This being so, it would afford the possessor a chance of 
escape. In this connection I may here remark that I once 
captured a specimen of Colias ediisa which showed unmistakable 
signs of having been so attacked, and of its consequent escape. 
Some small bird had probably bitten at the eye-like spot upon 
the under side of one of the posterior wings while the butterfly 
Avas in repose, as a piece had been bitten clean out of both sides 
from thence to the hind margin. I have frequently seen speci- 
mens of the Satyridse served in a similar manner. 

Presuming that Dr. Wallace is correct in his hypothesis, I 
have endeavoured to prove it by investigating the conditions 
under which ocellation exists in the Alps and the Pyrenees, 
where there is plenty of scope for an enquiry of the kind, but 
the data and material at present collected are inadequate to 
enable me to make any definite pronouncement either in favour 
or against his hypothesis. I first of all started with the 
assumption that ocellation would appear more highly developed 
upon the wings of those specimens occurring at the lower levels 
and at the lower latitudes. But in this respect I have at present 
found the evidence largely of a negative character, which is, 
however, equally discomforting to those who consider that the 
abundance of sunshine is the direct cause of the increased 
ocellation. Thus, while there are some species, such as Erebia 
ligea and Ccenonympha arcania—ii we consider the fornis euryale 
and satyrion respectively only alpine varieties — exhibit increased 
ocellation at the lower altitudes, others, such as Pararge mceni, 
Erebia stygne, and Ccenonympha pamphiius, do not appear to be 
similarly affected. 

These facts, taken in conjunction with those almost equally 
as negative respecting the melanistic tendencies of butterflies 
at high altitudes, evidently belong to the same category of 
phenomena. The only solution out of the difficulty I can see is 
that both melanism and ocellation were originally developed at 
the lower levels for protective purposes, where the organic 



102 tSe entomologist. 

environment would be more severe, but that they are now 
retained not because they are any longer required for the same 
purpose, but by reason that they prove of value in other ways ; 
thus, in the case of ocellation in the genus Erchia, for purposes 
of specific identity and recognition ; and, in the case of melanism, 
as enabling its male possessors to compete more successfully 
for the members of the other sex, by reason of their enhanced 
vitality. 

Birmingham, Dec. 14th, 1898. 



THE PROBABLE CAUSES OF THE DECADENCE 
OF BRITISH RHOPALOCERA. 

By G. Harold Conquest. 

With reference to Mr. W. Harcourt-Bath's interesting article 
on this subject {ante, p. 55), I should like to state that it appears 
to me that Mr. Bath does not lay nearly sufficient stress upon the 
operations of agriculture as a factor in the extinction in so many 
localities of the rarer of our British Rhopalocera. 

I should say ninety-five per cent, of the extinction has been 
caused by the operations of our friend the farmer, i. e. in the 
cutting down of our woods and forests, the draining of our fens 
and marshes, the burning of the furze and indigenous flora of 
our hillsides, and all the various operations incident to the 
improvement of the land from a farmer's point of view. 

It seems almost puerile to hold collectors, law of amixia, bad 
seasons, &c., responsible, when one considers the vast changes 
that agriculture has wrought over the face of a great portion of 
the British Islands daring even the last hundred years, and the 
enormous destruction of large classes of lepidopterous insects, 
including of course the Rhopalocera, consequent thereon. 

The following examples will, I think, support my contention 
that it is to the operations of agriculture that the extinction or 
rarity of many of our British butterflies is chiefly due : — 

Papilio machaon. — Formerly abundant in the fen-lands of 
Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire ; now, owing entirely to 
the drainage of the fens for agricultural purposes, confined to 
the small area of Wicken Feu in Cambridgeshire. P. machaon 
is of course still plentiful in the Norfolk broad district, owing to 
the fact that its habitat there has not been destroyed for agri- 
cultural purposes. 

Polyuininatus dispar. — Exiinci as a British insect, owing to 
the destruction of its habitat for agricultural purposes. 

Apatura ^ iris, Liinenitis sibylla. — Formerly in comparative 
abundance in many localities ; now comparatively rare, and 



THE DECADENCE OF BRITISH LEPIDOPTERA. 103 

occurring in only a few localities, owing to the destruction of 
woodlands. A. iris is often exterminated, although the woods 
in which it used to occur still exist, owing to the constant 
cutting away of the undergrowth during winter and early spring, 
and the consequent destruction of the hybernatiug larvse. I 
could give several instances of this did space allow. 

Melitaa athalia, M. aurinia {artemis). — Now extinct in many 
localities where formerly abundant, chiefly owing to destruction 
of woodlands and heaths, and (in the case of M. aurinia) 
draining of marsh and fen-land. M. athalia is now, I fear, 
extinct as an Essex insect ; in quite recent times it could be 
taken in two places at least in this county ; both localities have 
been destroyed for agricultural purposes. 

Tliecla pnuii, Carterocephalus pakemon (paiiiscus). — Both 
species now cpnfined to a few localities (woods) in our midland 
counties. It is only reasonable to suppose that both these 
insects must have occurred freely over the counties in which 
they have been taken, prior to the destruction of the woodlands 
of these counties. I consider therefore that their present 
restricted range, and liability to possible extinction as British 
insects, to be entirely due to the destruction of their habitats for 
agricultural purposes. 

Lijccena avion. — Having personally collected in the chief 
localities in this country where L. arioii is or has been taken, I 
have formed the opinion that agriculture is practically the sole 
cause of the now comparative rarity of this species ; even at 
Barnwell Wold, where large numbers were undoubtedly taken by 
collectors, the insect did not become extinct until the fields in 
which it occurred were burnt by the agriculturist. In the 
Kingsbridge (South Devon) locality this same burning has 
been the chief cause of its destruction. L. avion still exists on 
the Cotswold Hills in Gloucestershire, and used to be taken in 
many other localities in the same county until it was wiped out 
by agriculture ; its continued existence on the Cotswold Hills is 
due to the fact that the ground on which it occurs has not been 
broken up for agricultural purposes. 

I could cite further examples in support of my views, but 
those mentioned will, I think, suffice. 

Mr. Harcourt-Bath's article refers to British PJiopalocera 
only, but the evil effects of agriculture (from an entomological 
point of view) are quite as apparent in the case of many of the 
Heterocera. 

In conclusion, I should wish, in support of my theory, to 
refer to the simple fact that it is precisely those locahties that 
have been the least affected by agricultural operations that now 
form our best collecting-grounds; witness the New Forest, 
practically the last stronghold of many of our woodland Lepi- 
doptera; the broads and feus of Norfolk; the hills and mouu- 



104 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

tains of Scotland and the North of England ; and, finally, the 
cliffs and uncultivated slopes by our sea- shores. The latter 
frequently form the last resting-place for many species after 
agriculture has done its best (or worst) to drive them from their 
native land. 

58, Hatherley Eoad, Walthamstow, March, 1897. 



As a practical observer and collector for many years, I should, 
if asked the cause of the decadence of British Lepidoptera, 
unhesitatingly say it arose from cultivation and ra]mcious col- 
lectors chiefly. When a student at a well-known Agricultural 
College on the Cotswolds in the sixties, I was acquainted with 
one or two isolated and small colonies of Lyccena avion ; these 
have long since disappeared owing to farming operations in the 
form of mowing and feeding. Any one acquainted with agri- 
culture must know how closely sheep tread, feed, and crop the 
herbage ; these must frequently destroy the ova and larvae of 
butterflies. As regards collectors, one told me some years since 
that when L. avion was in its glory on the Cotswolds he had 
taken as many as forty in a morning. 

At the present time I do not know where to find it. Should 
any collector be fortunate enough to discover any new locality, 
I sincerely hope he will not record it ; though slight, it will be 
an assistance towards preservation. Though late, I believe 
much might be done if collectors would be content with a small 
series of a species. Personally, I fail to see the utility of a 
large one, when there is no variation ; and rows crowded 
together hide the form and outline of an insect, and certainly 
do not add to the picturesqueness or artistic view of a cabinet. 

As regards Lyccena avion, I believe it to be also one of those 
delicate and sensitive creatures which are unable to withstand 
much interference with their surroundings. Cultivation must 
in the long run destroy many of our Lepidoptera, but that is no 
reason why we should assist in the work of extermination by 
over-collecting.— T. B. Jefferys ; 17, New King Street, Bath. 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTEEA OF IRELAND. 
By W. F. de Vismes Kane, M.A., M.R.LA., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 62.) 

BoARMiA GEMMARiA, Bvahm. — Decidedly local, and not fre- 
quently met with ; but appears more plentiful in the suburbs of 
towns than in country districts. Varies widely, as in England, 
and the var. pcvfumaria occurs with the type at Howth, Clon- 
brock, and elsewhere. The larv^ are often to be found on ivy 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF IRELAND. 105 

in the autumn. Howth, Kingstown, Phcenix Park, and else- 
where near Dublin; Co. Wicklow (B.); Cappagh, Co. Waterford, 
numerous ; near Kenmare, Co. Kerry ; Mallow, Co. Cork 
{Stawell) ; Clonbrock {R. E. D.), and Kylemore {Hon. Emily 
Laidess), Co. Galway ; Markree Castle, Sligo ; Tempo Manor 
(Langham) and Enniskillen. 

BoARMiA ciNCTARiA, Scliif. — A local species, probably having 
a far more general distribution than appears from my list of 
localities. Most of the great tracts of moor and mountain scrub 
in Ireland probably harbour this handsome insect ; but at the 
early season of its emergence these wild districts are rarely 
explored by the entomologist. The females are frequently very 
small and inconspicuously marked. A larger jDroportion of the 
males in Killarney and Glenveagh, Co. Donegal, are strikingly 
barred with white or pale grey than is met with, I believe, in 
the New Forest, being generally characterised by darker bands 
strongly contrasting with a pale ground colour. Again, we find 
that the very different climate and rainfall of Donegal and Kerry 
does not appear to have differentiated the pale and dark varietal 
forms. One example from Colonel Cooper's woods near Markree 
Castle, Sligo, has all the wings whitish grey traversed only by a 
brown basal band, and a slightly pencilled, festooned, elbowed 
line crossing both pairs of wings ; with a faint subapical shading 
on fore wing, and a trace of a submarginal line on the hind 
wing. The imago being frequently found on birch trunks, it is 
possible that where these are frequent, natural selection has 
encouraged the paler forms. There are few handsomer geometers 
in a cabinet than a good series of variable Irish B. cinctaria. 
Common at Killarney ; and Glenveagh, Co. Donegal {W. E. H.) ; 
and has occurred sparingly at Clonbrock, Co. Galway (R.E. D.); 
Markree Castle, Sligo; and Kells, Co. Meath {Mrs. Cuppage). 

Tephrosia consonaria, Hb. — Stated by Mr. Birchall to be 
"common in Wicklow and Kerry." At Derrycunihy and 
Mucross, Killarney, I have taken it in moderate abundance, but 
the Wicklow habitat must be a strictly limited one. Professor 
Hart, Mr. M. Fitzgibbon, and myself have collected frequently 
in spring in various parts of the wooded districts of Wicklow, 
from Powerscourt to Arklow, but have never met with it. The 
only other locality I know of is Clonbullogue, King's Co. {E. S.). 

Tephrosia biundularia, Bork. — Some years ago I recorded 
the capture of T. crepuscularia, Hb., from Ireland, but subsequent 
enquiry, and a more extended acquaintance with the present 
species, compel me to retract the statement. Eepresentative 
series of the Irish insect have been sent to Mr. Tutt and other 
English adherents of the dual theory, and they have all been 
referred to T. biundularia, Bork. For some years, like other 



106 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

collectors who have a one-sided experience, I inclined to ignore 
the existence of T. crepuscidaria in its varied forms, but the recent 
careful discussion of the subject has modified my incredulity. 
Yet the evidence brought forward by Mr. Tutt, judging from 
what has been published, appears to me still somewhat incom- 
plete and unsatisfactory. His resume of the controversy, so far 
as it has yet been printed, is a destructive criticism of various 
statements put forward by those who would merge the two 
species ; but the actual tabulated facts necessary to prove the 
"separate and distinct life cycles" require to be more precisely 
set forth to compel conviction ; and when dates are given, the 
year and locality are not mentioned, — an essential when a range 
of nearly three months fluctuation is claimed for the date of 
emergence of both species in differing seasons. It is alleged 
that a clear four or five weeks elapses "between the first 
emergence of T. crepuscularia and that of hiiuidiilaria ; and 
another three or four weeks between the latter and the second 
brood of T. crepuscularia in any given year." If this has been 
proved to be the case to the satisfaction of the members of 
the Entomological Society, before whom the discussion took 
place, the separation of the two species needs, I think, no 
further demonstration. But has anyone such a continuous serial 
collection, labelled with dates, and collected in localities approxi- 
mate in climatic conditions ? That there is but one species 
in Ireland all the evidence to hand tends to prove, but it is 
impossible to predicate a distinct negative so long as the fauna 
remains so ill explored. I have, however, examples from eleven 
different places, and have sampled specimens from at least as 
many more, and one important point which bears on the con- 
troversy is that in no instance have I met with any Tephrosia 
in Ireland earlier than the end of the first week in April, though 
the climate of Derry and Down differs from that of Kerry as 
much as that of Scotland from Devon ; nor have I any evidence 
of the occurrence of a second brood. In June, at Killarney, I 
have found the insect still plentiful, though mostly worn. If, 
therefore, T. histortata from Perth emerge in March (a particular 
which I have not yet seen clearly stated), I should consider the 
case in favour of two species a very strong one. A comparison 
of fifty-two Irish specimens with some twenty English T. cre- 
puscularia shows that the former are of a clearer ground colour, 
less powdered with dark scales; with the elbowed line but faintly 
shaded externally in most cases. Nevertheless, three or four 
examples taken with the ordinary form in the same locality 
cannot, I think, be separated from T. crepuscularia ; and though 
the average expanse is less, some Irish hiundularia attain an 
equal size with it. I cannot accept the dictum that the colour 
and pattern of the two species furnish alone a sufficient basis 
for separating the species, because both are very variable, and 



LEPIDOPTERA IN 1896. 107 

their variations may become stereotyped into local varieties, as 
with the melanic form. But this, in conjunction with a different 
period of emergence, which is the most important matter to 
place beyond controversy by long series with full data, would 
decide the question. The moth is abundant in almost every 
wooded district I have visited in Ireland, both in the north, 
south, and west. The females appear to be paler generally than 
the other sex, and the emergence is continuous from toward the 
end of April to about the first of June. Occasional examples 
are met with in mid April or earlier in favourable seasons. A 
smoky form was found on Slieve Donard, above Newcastle, Co. 
Down, by Mr. Watts, which is heavily charged with dark scales, 
but is not at all so black as the melanic Yorkshire variety, and 
is characterised rather by the partial obsolescence of pattern. 
I have seen nothing similar elsewhere. Some localities in which 
this moth occurs are as follows : — Powerscourt, Co. Wicklow ; 
Cappagh, Portlaw, and Dromana, Co. Waterford ; Glengarriff, 
Kenmare, and Killarney ; near Limerick; Clonbrock and Mount 
Bellew, Co. Galway ; Markree and Eockwood, Sligo ; Favour 
Pioyal and Altadiawan, Co. Tyrone ; Drumreaske, Monaghan ; 
Enniskillen, Newcastle, Co. Down ; Farnham, Cavan ; Knock 
Ion and Killynon, Co. Westmeath. 

(To be continued.) 



LEPIDOPTEEA IN 1896. 
(Continued from p. 74.) 

Notes from Ringwood. 



The season from March to the end of August here was exceptionally 
dry and sunny, with a very slight rainfall ; the entomologist was con- 
sequently on the alert, as many insects were only out for a very limited 
time, a week's delay in some instances, and captures would be most 
unsatisfactory. Emydia cribrum only lasted for a few days. The season 
after August was rainy, and rarely fine enough for collecting. Common 
larvte upon the oaks were extremely abundant; by quietly standing under 
the trees, the movements and droppings of the larvae falling upon the 
shrubs sounded like a shower of rain ; the trees in many cases were almost 
bare, but the second growth of foliage in June put them in trim again. 
The following is a partial account of insects taken or bred : — 

Jan. 22nd. Hybernia j)roi^einitmria. ^8th. Vanesa io. 29th. G. rhamiii. 

Feb. I llh. Vanessa iirtwcE. I2th. Amphidasys prodromaria bred. 17th. 
TepJiroda crepnscularia. 26th. Sallows out; also the usual moths upon 
them. 28th. Hyhernia leucophaaria, abundant. 

March 2ud. Trachea piniperda, Taniocampa tniniosa, and Cymatophora 
ridens, in numbers; also Arctia mendica. 14th. First Notodonta chaonia, 
seven in all bred. 17ih. One Ve7iilia maculata. 21st. Gonepteryx 
rhamni, very common. 23rd. Phibalapteryx tenala, emerging daily, larva 
found upon clematis. 24th. Piens rapa out. 25th, Saw two or three 



108 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Li/ccena ar<jiulus, the earliest I bave seen. 2(Jth. Ova of Liparis monacha 
hatching. 

April 3rd. Tephrosia extersaria caught. 4th. Larvae of Callimorpha 
domimda and Chelonia caia, comraoa about four miles from here. 7th. 
Pieris rapes, common ; Eupithecia rectangulata, common. 23rd. Boarmia 
cinctaria, well out ; took fifty good specimens ; it varies very much in 
ground colour, and the transverse lines in some cases unite just above the 
inner margin. It is a curious fact that this species and males of Hybernia 
leucophcearia have similar habits and parallel varieties : put a varied series 
of each side by side and this will be seen ; both drop off from tree-trunks 
obliquely and simulate death ; a novice in either case would think it to be 
a dead leaf falling ; occasionally, of course, both species fly away direct. 

May 2iid. LyccE)ia argiolus, abundant ; Platypterijx unguicula and 
Phytometra anea, common ; B. cinctaria very abundant. 5th. Anthocharis 
cardamines, Satyrus egeria, and meyara, common. 7lh. Took forty good B. 
cinctaria and left scores upon the trees; (7. domimda, C. caia, and Psilura 
»<o«rtc/(a now pupating. 8th. Polyomvmtus phhvas, Lithosia aureola, Cidaria 
corylata, Larentia berherata, Vanessa io, V.j)olychloros, Syrichthus alveolus, 
Thecla riibi, several ; Lycana aryiolus, still out, but worn. 13th. Liinenitis 
Sibylla, larvae common ; to-day I took an almost pure white Boarmia 
cinctaria in perfect condition. 14th. ToEniocainpa miniosa, larvae extremely 
common ; Cilix spinula, Fidonia piniaria, Thera variata, and Platypteryx 
lacertula, all common ; pupa and larva of Pericallia syrinyaria, upon 
honeysuckle. 15th. Euryinene dolobraria oat; Emmelesia alchemillata and 
E. albulata, very common ; Thanaos tages, common; Lithosia rubricollis, 
at rest; Macroglossa bombyliformis (broad border), common at bluebells; 
one M.fuciformis only. 1 got about fifty larvae of Leucania littoralis from 
Mudeford, near Christchurch, from which I have bred out a nice series ; 
also a few Aspilates citraria, and later Zygcena JilipendulcB, from the same 
place ; whilst at Christchurch Z. trifolii was abundant. 18th. I was 
deliglited to see Pieris brassicce fairly common, after an absence of several 
years. 23rd. Callimorpha donnnula. I bred seven good specimens of 
the yellow var. rossica, Kol. 2Gth. Larva of lodis vernaria abundant 
upon clematis in my garden, many full fed. Larvae of Thecla betulai 
common ; beat above forty to-day ; many small ones put back again upon 
the sloes; Aryynnis euphrosyne well out. 31st. Two Acronycta alni bred. 

June 1st. Lithosia viesomella, Scodiona belyiaria, and Aspilates 
slrigillaria, appearing; the heat to-day was unbearable, although in the 
early morning there was a frost. Last season (1895) Emydia cribrum 
appeared upon June 4th; this year (1896) on the 1st, when I took forty- 
oue, and on the 2ud fifty-two, time to give friends warning : so wrote to two 
or three, who put in their appearance iu due course. The first day we 
averaged about twenty-five each, but upon comparing notes of course each 
stated it to be much less; very few collectors like showing their captures, 
or giving numbers, when a good insect is discussed. Larvae of Orgyia fas- 
celina is generally distributed upon the heaths. 4th. A thunder-storm, 
with heavy rain, which was most welcome; first rain for months. 5th. E. 
cribrum almost over; saw four only, 13th. Thecla betulce larva very 
plentiful, full fed ; Argynnis paphia out ; to-day beat over a hundred larvae 
of Cymatophora ridtns, eight Notodonta chaonla, and several Psilura 
monacha. 15th. One Melanippe galiaia upon heath. 20th. Heliothis 
dipsacea, abundant ; netted forty-one to-day ; also a few Eidhemonia 
russida. 24.lh. Tephrosia biundularia out; to-day bo.Ked eight Boarmia 



LEPIDOPTEKA IN 1896. 109 

rohoraria; lodis vernarla emerging; I bred out two or three dozens. 
29th. L. liltoralis emerging from pupa. 

July 5th. Limenitis sibylla, Argynnis adippe, A. paphia, and var. 
valesina, all very common. 11th. Netted a good series of Acidalia strami- 
nata ; T. betulxB emerging freely from pupae ; bred several dozens. Ento- 
mology is almost at a standstill; temperature 82° in shade; vegetation 
parched up. I went over to Brockenhurst, on a visit to my friend 
Mr. Stokes, in search of " crimsons"; two nights produced thirty Catocala 
promissa, and over sixty C. sponsa, both species very abundant. Orgyiafas- 
celina emerging. 28th. Saw two or three female Lyccena argiolus, second 
brood, feeding upon bramble bloom ; it is curious that I never see any of 
the spring brood outside the forest, whilst the second one is scattered all 
around. 

Aug. Ist. Gnojihos ohscurata and Selidosema plumaria, common. 
Several Acherontia atropos larvae. I was rather late in looking for this 
larva, but by the appearance of the potato plants it must have been abun- 
dant. 24th. Rainy weather has really set in now; useless to try for insects. 
27th. Second brood of Anaitls plcujiata, common ; also a few Cidaria 
immanata. 28th. StUbia anomala making its appearance to-day ; I took 
two males and one female ; several later. I take them at dusk ; they fly 
low ; also search palings for them. The palings around the forest enclosure's 
are studded with nails half driven in, and bent over, each exhibiting about 
an inch of its length ; in searching for anomala, look amongst the nails, 
as the insect at rest exactly resembles one ; wings tightly rolled around its 
body, pointed crest standing erect, the resemblance is extraordinary, but of 
course it is really meant to mimic dark irregular pieces of bark upon trees, 
and in the latter position I have often obtained them. 

Anthocharis cardamines has been abundant ; the general forest butter- 
flies also; but what (to me) is a mystery is that although the larva of 
Thecla betula is always very common, I rarely see the perfect insect. This 
species usually comes out in August, and its flight is during the mornin«, 
about midday ; in collecting I must pass many, as the ova are deposited 
upon the very lowest sloe-bushes. I have seen specimens flyincr over oak- 
trees, but have never seen one settle low down. 

I was glad to see Pieris brassica again, as it has been extinct around 
here for some three or four years, and I think in this case the wasps were 
the cause, rather than its usual parasites. The last batch of larv» I saw 
here was in my garden, upon curly kale. I was about to collect them, 
when I observed a wasp approach. I kept quiet and watched ; it settled 
upon the plant and made direct for a larva, and with celerity killed it, 
sucked a quantity of the juicy fluids, and rolled the remainder up with its 
fore feet and mandibles into a round mass, and so flew away with it. 
I waited, and within a few minutes the business was repeated ; I took the 
remaining larvae. Wasps and hornets were very numerous at the time; the 
larva of P. brassica, being gregarious and conspicuous, would fall an easy 
prey. I heard of a specimen of Leucopliasia sinapis having been seen 
here, but have not had that pleasure myself, so far, although it used to be 
common ; it is getting scarce in all parts of the Forest. 

With the exception of Vane&sa urticce the Vanessidse have been scarce. 
V. polychloros is very erratic in its appearance; some years common, others 
the reverse. Thecla rubi was common, but scattered. T. quercus, un- 
common. No Colias edusa, so expect we shall have to wait for another 
flight from abroad. Sarrothripa, revayana, Halias prasinana, and H. quer- 



110 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

cana, fairly common. I found many empty cocoons of the latter under the 
trees ; evidently the pupa had been extracted by tits. Earias chlorana, larvae 
abundant upon sallow twigs. Nola ciicuUateUa, also upon sloe. N. singula, 
at rest. Nudaria seiiex, common in the meadows. CalUgenia minlata and 
LitJiosia mesomella. One L. aericea beaten from yew. L. rubricoUis upon 
grass-stems. Chelonia villica seems spread about generally. Arctiafuli- 
ginosa upon heath. I had a larva of Zeuzera ascuU feeding inside a holly 
twig. Lasiocampa qnercifoUa occurs annually in the lanes. Upon a clump 
of heath I got over 150 small larvae of Saturnia carpinl ; none were 
ichneumoned ; they mostly pupated ; in two cases two larvae formed a 
common cocoon, and another formed an oblong cocoon with two perfect 
exits. Both broods of C'dix splnula occurred. Thyatua derasa and 
T. hatis more plentiful than usual. I took a specimen of Brgophila 
glandifera ten miles inland; it is suffused with greyish green, the markings 
obscure. Larvae of Denms coryli scarce. Pupae of Acronijcta lignstri from 
ash trees. Dlloba carulencephala very abundant as larvfe, and during the 
first week in November the imago also ; I watched one ovipositing upon an 
apple tree; it settled upon the under sides of the boughs, and whilst laying 
kept the wings vibrating. The eggs were placed in groups of three or four, 
and covered with down ; the whole being done with celerity. Noctuajesliva, 
N. dahlii, N. brunnea, and N. baia occurred. Hecatera serena and 
Acronycta aceris, from tree-trunks. At clematis, the latter part of Septem- 
ber, I took five Triphana subsequa, and one Plusia feduccB, very pale, but 
good. Trlphmna interjecta and Arctia mendica I frequently saw flying 
over hedges in the daytime. I took a very small T. proyiuba, unicolorous 
red, quite distinct from the usual varieties. One Dasycampa rubigiiiea, at 
ivy. Larvae of Trachea piniperda very plentiful. I got one imago of Tcenlo- 
campa munda off sallow, with broad yellow outer margins. Also boxed one 
Agrotis saucia at ivy ; the second taken inland. One Epunda nigra bred, 
Several Anchocelis lunosa beaten from firs; also two Hepialus sylvajius. 
Cosmia affinis, Xylophasia rurea, and var. alopecunis. Leucania turca, 
Grammebia trilinea, and var. bilinea, at sugar. CuculUa verbasci is 
another species which seemed to have disappeared, but the larva was abun- 
dant upon both mulleins. Hadena oleracea bred minus the red stigmata. 
Xylina rhizolitha, common at ivy. CharcBas graminis, at light. Plusia 
jndchrina and iota, at flowers. Both broods of P. chrysitis abundant ; blue, 
green, and bronze, both quite fresh, with perfect cilise. Nonagria fulva, at 
ragwort ; also one Agrotis obelisca. Anarta myrtilli, bred two, without the 
usual white spots. Plusia gamma was extremely scarce. Miana furuncula 
swarmed in the fields, and good varieties were obtained. 

Geometers, upon the whole, were fairly common. The following is a 
partial list of captures, &c. : — Uraptery.v sambucata, abundant. Ejiione 
apiciaria and E. advenaria, uncommon. Paunia cralcrgata, both broods ; 
second small. Venilia maculata, amongst bluebells (such a contrast). 
Metrocampa margaritata, Ellopia fasciaria, pupae also beaten from firs ; 
Eurymene dolobraria, Pericallia syringaria, Selenia illustraria, S. lunaria, 
S. iliunaria, Crocallis elinguaria, larva from thorn in spring. Ennomos 
erosaria, pupae beaten from beech. Hiinera pennaria, several beautiful 
females bred. Cleora glabraria, scarce. C. lichenaria, common. Boarmia 
repandata and vars. B. consortaria and B. roboraria. Tephrosia consonaria ; 
T. crepuscularia, three broods. T. biundularia, uncommon ; there is a 
characteristic difference between the last two species, the transverse lines in 
the latter being more oblique and better defined, the difference here being 



LEPIDOPTERA IN 1896. Ill 

marked. T. extersaria, pupae beateu from oaks. Gnophos ohscurata, abun- 
dant, and dark ; I get them by searching cart-tracks ; the ruts along the 
sides are a capital resting-place. Pseudoterpna cytisaria, larva common 
upon a pretty dwarf furze. Nemoria viridata, common. lodis lactearia, 
always plentiful, but the green quickly fades. Ephyra pimctaria and E. 
trilinearia, common. I netted a good series of Acidalia straminata ; also 
A. subsericeata, A. imitaria, A. emarginata, Timandra amataria, Corycia 
temerata, and C. bimaculata ; I have found pupae of the latter in raid-winter. 
Aleucis pictaria ; Macaria Uturata, both broods common. Halia iiavaria ; 
Strenia clathrata, singly. Scodovia helyiaria, Selidosema plummia, Aspi- 
lates striyillaria, all common. Black-banded vars. of Abraxas grossiilariata 
bred; larvae extremely abundant upon sloe. lean never get them from 
currant trees in my garden, whilst wild plants in the meadows produce 
plenty; formerly I got them from trees against walls; evidently they dis- 
like open places. Ligdia adiistata and Lomaspilis marginata, fairly 
common. Pachycnemia hippocastaaaria, extremely abundant upon heaih ; 
at dusk they simply swarmed for miles Several nice vars. of Oporabia dilu- 
tata bred. Larentia didymata, abundant. Einmelesia ojfiaitata and 
E. alchemillata, in lanes. E. albulata, extremely common and variable. 
E. decolorata, scarce. Lohophora sexalisata, L. viretata (one only). Larva 
of L. carpinala upon sallows. Thera varlata, and in company with the 
second brood I got two or three dozen good T.Jirmata. Hypsipetes rube- 
rata and H. impluviata. Melanthia ocellata, both broods. M. albicillata, 
scarcer than usual. Melanippe unaugulata. M. rivata, some very light, 
others nearly black. I took one M. galiata upon heath. Anliclea ber- 
berata, a few. Phibalapteryx tersata, common. P. vitalbata, one only 
Scotosia dubitata. and S. certata. S. undulata, scarce. Cidaria jysittacata, 
at ivy. C. miata, bred. C. corylata, common. C. iinmanata, C. suffu- 
mata, C. testata, from heaths. C. fulvata and larva, from rose-trees. 
C. dotata and G. associata. Eubolia cervinata, larvae abundant. E. limi- 
tata. Anaids plagiata, two broods ; second small. Tanagra atrata, 
common. Botys hyalinalis, sewer-a]. Pyralisfa^'inalis, by hedges. Henninia 
tarsipennalis, H. barbalis, and Zanclognatha grisealis. Endotricha flam- 
mealis, common. Hypena rostraJis. Aventia flexula, two. Cledeobia 
angustalis, common. Pempelia palumbella, abundant ; often mistaken for 
E. cribrum. 

Two or three days in early August, at Swanage, produced : — A few 
Arge galatea. Hesperia actcBon was very scarce ; I did not take any. 
H. thamnas, common under the Castle Hotel. I saw one or two Lycana 
minima, and I heard of a specimen of Hesjjeria pciniscus having been taken 
there. Melanippe galiata, three. M. procellata, common. Two good 
Sesia musciformis. Gnophos obscurata, very abundant and varied ; many 
very dark brownish grey, some approaching var. calceata. To obtain this 
species turn up flat stones ; this mode is very successful ; also put a stick 
in any hole amongst the rocks, and move it about ; G. obscurata will fly out 
in numbers; but one has to be quick in netting them; they bolt with the 
rapidity of a rabbit. Zygcena fiUpendulce was about the only common 
insect seen. Swanage is not much use for collecting after Bank Holiday; 
upon that day boys m numbers net and catch everything almost. On one 
occasion I saw one of these boys with a cyanide bottle nearly full of butterflies, 
many actceon amongst them; he of course had not even a collecting-box. 
I tried to give him a lesson, and to point out the waste, but it was useless. 
There were more than a dozen others doing likewise. Actaon cannot hold 



112 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

out many years longer; it has got very scarce at Lulworth Cove already.—' 
J. Hy. Fowler; Ringwood, Dec. 8th, 1896. 

Notes from South Devon. 

Though I have not found the past season a profitable one about here, 
yet a few notes may, I hope, be of interest. I returned to Devonshire in 
the latter part of March, and found insects swarming at the sallows. 
Perhaps the best nights were March 33rd, 24th, and 95th. On the Q3rd 
Tceniocampa crucla, T. stabilis, T. gothica., T. miniosa, T. gracilis, T. munda, 
Xylina petrificata, Ccrastis vaccinii, together with one Agrotis segetiim, male, 
in fair condition (I was not aware that this species hybernated, though 
A. suffasa seems to do so, as I have taken it at the flowers of Daphne 
mezereon). On the 24th, a warm and thundery night with intermittent 
moonlight, moths fell from the sallows in countless numbers, a score or 
more being in the umbrella at the same time, the only good insect, however, 
being Oporina croceago (two). On the 25th I took an odd couple, viz. 
H. progemmaria male and T. cruda female. I failed, however, to obtain 
ova. On the 31st sloe-blossom proved almost as attractive as the sallows, 
which were getting over. Several Eupitheciae were about, chiefly, I think, 
forms of E. ahbreviata. 

April 5th seems rather early for Lyccena arglolus, of which two females 
were seen (but no males till the 19th). Having to leave home on the 24th, 
I determined to make an eff'ort to obtain larvae of Petasia cassinea. 
Accordingly, my father and I went out on the 22nd with beating umbrella, 
hut found the oak-coppice, which covers several hundred acres about a mile 
from my home, still brown and bare. So we tried our luck in searching 
young birches for larvai oi Asphalia flavicoriiis, with little success, however; 
but the first bush we searched (only about six feet high) yielded four larvae 
of Geomelra papUionaria, already, like the birches, in their green attire. 
On the low branches of another small birch I came across five young larvae 
of Trichiara cratcegi. On a little twig of the same I found four ova 
(hatched), which I suppose were of this species; they were bolster-shaped, 
and laid side by side transversely on the twig. Gonepteryx rhamni was 
flying freely, both mile and femile. We noticed one of the latter laying. 
The ova are placed singly on end on Rkamnus frangula [R. catharticus 
does not occur here). Pieris rapes, P. napi, Vanessa to, Lyccena argiolus, 
Anthocharis cardamines, and Pararge egeria were also observed on the wing. 

Turning our steps homewards, we found some young oak just in leaf. 
Now for the umbrella! In a short time we had beaten five small green 
larvae, which I felt pretty sure were P. cassinea. I have often taken this 
larva before, but have found it very difficult to rear to the perfect state. 
Reaching home, I placed them in a nearly empty flower-pot with some twigs 
of oak, and, fearing that they would escape through the meshes if I covered 
the pot with net, I used paper instead. One of the larvae promptly made 
its escape through a hole in the paper, which I believe it made for itself. 
The remaining four my father reared, and gave them a large pot of turf in 
which to pupate. This pot I turned out about the early part of July, and 
found four large pupae at a depth of about three or four inches. I did this 
that I might watch the pupae, and keep off insect pests. I replaced them 
at a slight depth, covering them with grass-roots, &c. One died about the 
middle of October ; two moths emerged during November, male and female, 
but, alas! both cripples. They were kept in a pot with some flowers of 



LEPIDOPTERA IN 1896. 113 

Jasminum nudiflorum, and the female gave me a batch of ova which I hope 
may prove fertile. The ova are large, round, and flat, and of a brown 
colour, looking very much like fine specimens of the " mealy bug." The 
remaining pupa is still lively, and intends, I am afraid, to lie over. 

Returning home towards the end of June, I found almost all the early 
larvae had disappeared. The drought and heat had hurried them through 
their larval state. On June ^8th I obtained a fine larva of Amphidasys 
betalaria, already full-fed. 

On July 4th I found a small larva of Notodonta dictmoides on a small 
smooth-leaved birch. For some time it fed well on twigs of birch placed in 
water. One day, however, I gave it birch of a somewhat woolly texture. 
It refused to touch it, and kept crawling aimlessly about the pot. It was 
clearly getting very weak, and could hardly hold on to its food-plant. 
Suspecting the reason, I supplied it with smooth-leaved birch, and it at 
once found its appetite again, and I had no more trouble with it. About 
the middle of the month Cleora glahraria was fairly common in a larch 
plantation, where long tassels of lichen hang from the lower branches. 
Boannia ahietaria was also about at the same place, but difficult to capture, 
and possessed of a mysterious power of rendering itself invisible as it 
tlitted into tlie shade. 

During the early part of September Liiperina testacea and its varieties 
came freely to light, along with a few L. cespitis. The latter seldom arrived 
before 11 p.m., and were all more or less worn. Hellophohus popularls, of 
course, came in swarms (all males ; the only way to obtain females seems to 
be by netting at dusk in grass fields, or by sweeping). On Sept. 9th my 
brother found a fair specimen of Acherontia atropos, only just alive, on the 
ground outside the house. The insect looked as if it had been crushed, 
the thora.x. being nearly in two parts. I have searched many potato fields, 
but have never come across this moth before. 

Ivy, which was well in flower by the end of September, has not been 
productive. I beat several " pug "-like larvae from it. Some of these 
almost answered to Newman's description of Lohophora viretata. Others 
were green all over. They have now pupated. Casually looking over 
Greene's * Insect Hunter's Companion,'! noticed he alluded to the attractive 
powers of sliced rotten apples. I determined to give them a trial. Some 
I sliced and pressed on, others which were very soft I smeared on the trees. 
The latter were decidedly the more attractive. I kept to the same trees, 
going round each night just after si.x; p.m. Often the moths were already 
thick on the old patch. Usually they dwindled in numbers as night 
advanced. The following is a list taken from barely a dozen patches : — 
Agrotis sujf'usa, A. saucia, A. segetum, Triphcena pronuba, Orthosia lota 
(plentiful), 0. macllenta, Afichocelis rufina, A. pistacina (in swarms and 
very variable), A. lunosa {A. litura is absent from the local list), C. vaccinii, 
C. spadicea, Scopelosoma satellitia, Oporina croceago, Xanthia silago, 
X. ferruginea, Polia jiavicincta, Epunda nigra (two males, four females; 
never before ten p.m.), Miselia oxyacanthcB, Agriopis aprilina, Phlogophora 
meticulosa, Hadena protea (mostly worn, but some beautiful specimens), 
Xylina rhizolitha, X. petrijicata, Amphipyra pyramidea. These were 
taken from Sept. 29th to Oct. 15th. The weather was very unfavourable, 
as it was usually either cold and clear, pouring with rain, or blowing half a 
gale.— F. G. Bkcggs; Fursdon, Egg Buckland, S. Devon, Dec. 17th. 

ENTOM. APRIL, 1897. K 



114 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Notes from the Southend District. 



Coleophora albitarsella. Many cases of this insect observed on fences, 
over ground ivy, early in May. 

Phorodesma smaraydaria. Hybernated larvse not uncommon in May. 
First moth emerged June 2nd ; a female netted at Benfleet, June 22nd. 
In 1895 I took three moths on June 24th, and bred my first female on June 
18th. In 1894 I bred five moths on June 28lh. I think, therefore, that 
the time given for the appearance of the perfect insect in Buckler's ' LarviE,' 
vol. vii. p. 61, "about the middle of July," is a little too late. Confirma- 
tory of this is a quotation from Peter Bouchard's diary, in the late 
Mr. Howard Vaughan's very interesting list of the Lepidoptera of Leigh, 
which reads: "June 20th, 1857. A fine iemdXe sinaragclaria. I think 
it ought to be got earlier, near Leigh." 

Epiclmopteryx reticella. A few cases containing pupae found in May at 
Canvey. A large number of males taken by assembling. It is worth a 
long walk to watch the movements of dozens of this most charming little 
insect. Very few flew direct to the decoy, but with quavering wings 
ascended to the top of the fine grass, showing unmistakable excitement. 

Dichorampha sequana. At Benfleet, in May. 

Lithosia complana. June 9th, one larva found on a lichen-studded post 
at Canvey. 

Hesperia lineola. June 9th, one larva at Canvey. The butterfly was 
common at the end of the month. 

Tortiix- vihurniana. June 9th, many larvae in twisted tops of sea- 
wormwood at Canvey. 

Senta maritima var. hipunctata. One only, at sugar, Benfleet, June 22nd. 

Herminia crihralls. Not uncommon on reeds. 

Enpcec'dia atricapitana. Among ragwort at Benfleet, early in July. 

Melanargia galatea. Several in one field only at Canvey. 

Lyccena astrarche. August 3rd, large number observed at Canvey. 

Scoparia jmllida. On reeds in July at Benfleet. 

E upithecia -suhnotata. Flying over Atriplex littoralis at Benfleet. 

Leucauia straminea. Larvae, June 22nd; imagines at sugared reeds in 
July. 

Mamestra abjecta. At sugar in July ; only one or two of the var. 
rarieffata. 

Hijdrcecia nictitans var. paludis. Not uncommon at sugared reeds. 
Var. liicens. One or two at the same time. 

Agrotis tritici. One fine large well-marked specimen with broad pale costa. 

Chilo phragmitellus. A few only. 

Aijlossa cuprealis. One specimen only, at rest on a fence. 

During the continued wet weather in August and September I collected 
very few insects, the only captures worth recording being two specimens of 
Cirrhcedia xcrariipelina. A fine series of Nonarjria liitosa was taken early 
in October on reeds at Benfleet, and one or two specimens of Depressaria 
yeatiana, and one G. stiymatella about the same time, at sugar. — F. G. 
Whittle; 3, Marine Avenue, Southend, March 1st, 1897. 

Notes from Reading. 

I reported early ia the year the capture of a female Endromis 
versicolor, together with a batch of ova deposited on the same branch 
as that on which I had found the insect. Ddemin? it best, I devoted 



LEPIDOPTERA IN 1896. 115 

my captive, which was of cabinet worth, to ova depositing, and thus 
ruined a noble specimen in the interests of breeding; and very inter- 
esting the breeding proved ! All the ova were infertile ! An attempt 
to rear a batch of Boarmia consortaria larvae also proved most un- 
successful. They were sleeved on oak, and at first thrived well ; yet, 
in spite of careful attention, dwindled away, and died ofl' in a most 
discouraging manner. A friend, I am inclined to believe, must have 
cast an "evil eye'' upon them, for no sooner had I told him of my 
small stock than out came the remark, "They'll all die in a month or 
so." Among other common things which have fallen to my lot whilst 
collecting in this neighbourhood have been Lcucophasia sinapis (Reading 
finds itself in a proud position indeed, being able to quote an insect of 
which even the incomparable New Forest is, I believe, now void), 
Gonepteryjc rhamni, Argynnis selene, A. adippe, Thecla riibi, Sphinx 
ligustri, Maeroglossa fucij'ormis, M. bombglifonnis, Lithosia mesomella, 
Nemeophila russula, Hepialus hectics, Zeuzera pyrina, Pcecilocampa populi 
(larvffi), Bombyx ncbi, B. quercus (larvae), Drepana cultraria, Stauropus 
fagi, Lophopteryx camelina, Acronycta aceris, Hecatera serena, Acontia 
luctuosa, Gatocala nupta, Eiigonia alniaria, Hemerophila abruptaria, 
Boarmia conwrtaria, Tephrosia crepiiscularia, Pseudoterpna jjruinata, 
Zonosoma orbicularia, Panagra petraria, Eubolia palumbaria, &c. An 
insect I have rarely met with of late is Orgyia antiqua; indeed, 
I do not remember to have seen a single specimen for six or eight 
years. 

A glance back at captures by trap procedure brings the utterance 
that last year did not equal by a long way its forerunner. To note the 
falling away both in quality and quantity is at once both easy and 
disappointing, and the cause is apparently obscure. The nights, taken 
as a whole, have not been altogether unfavourable, and the trap's 
position, being precisely that of the bygone year, would not seem to 
account for the sad falling off. Whether others have this same mis- 
fortune to lament, I have not yet lighted upon the means of ascer- 
taining. By the capture and report of one single rarity the trap's 
reputation is saved, and, by being unprecedented here, adds another 
important item to last year's list. Agrotis cinerea is, I believe, con- 
sidered a Cotswold insect, yet until now not a single sign of it has 
been noticed, although both my father and I have worked the district 
for many years. This and two others, Trichiura cratmji and Eurymene 
dolobraria, seem alone to be eligible for the honourable position of 
"new captures." Astewscopus sphinx always makes a reportable cap- 
ture, but its appearance is erratic, and only rather above a dozen were 
taken or seen in November. The following make a somewhat un- 
interesting list, for which the trap is responsible : — 

January has nothing to report of importance. 

February. — Pkigalia pedaria and Hybernia progemmaria, with a 
nice variation. 

March. — Tmniocampa incerta, T, stabilis, Hybernia de/oliaria, Ani- 
sopteryx oescularia, and Antidea badiata. 

April. — Nights not very favourable, and very few insects made any 
appearance. 

May. — Spilosoma lubricipeda, S, menthastri, Cilix glaucata^ Apamea 
basilinca, Agrotis cinerea, Tmiiocampa gracilis, Hadena ihalassina, Fitimia 



116 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

lutcolata, Selenia lunaria, Odontoptera bidentata, Himera jicnnaria, Strenia 
clatlirata, Melanippe flucluata, Antlclea derivata, and Cidaria miata. 

June. — Spilosoma luhriclpeda, S. vienthastri, Cilix glaiicata, Leucania 
comma, L. pnllens, L. impura, Xijl.ophasia riirea var. alopecurus, X. 
Uthoxijlea, X. suhlustris, X. monoyhjpha, ]\[amestra basUinea (not all 
common), Grammesia trirjrammica, a fair number of the var. bilinea, 
Noctna augur, N. c-nigrum. N. rubi, Dianthcecia capsincolu, Hadena 
dentina, H. dissimilis, H. genista;, Habrostola tripartita, H. triplasia, 
Plusia chrysitis, P. iota, Selenia lunaria, OdontojJtera bidentata, Hemithea 
strigata, Acidalia emarginata, Timandra amataria, PJiibalapteryx vitalbata, 
Cidaria jjyraliata, and others commoner. 

July. — Litliosia complanula, Bombijxneustria, Cilix glaucata, Leucania 
lithargyria, L. conigera, Cerigo niatura, Amphipyia tragopogonis, Hadena 
dissimilis, Plusia iota, Uropteryxsambucaria, Pericallia syringaria, Selenia 
bilunaria, CrocaUis elinguaria, Acidalia imit aria, and Coremia fernigata. 

August. — Trichiura cratagi, Neuronia p)opularis (more females this 
year than last), Luperina testacea, L. cespitis, Noctua xanthograp)ha, &c. 

September. — Triclmira cratagi, Luperina cespitis, Anchocelis pista- 
cina, X. lunosa, Xanthia gilvago (a few). 

October. — Cheimatobia brumata, &c. 

November. — Asteroscopus sphinx, &c. 

December. — Pa:cilocampa populi, &c. 

Those taken by other means in the same neighbourhood include : 
— Argynnis euphrosyne, A. aglaia, Melitaa aurinia and var. (also a 
single specimen of this on high ground, near woods, and eight miles 
away from the big rendezvous), Melanargia galatea, Pararge egeria, 
Kpinephele hyperanthcs, Tliecla rubi, Lyccena argiolus, Nemeobius lucina. 
Sphinx ligustri, Chtcrocampa porcellas (in abundance), C. elpenor, 
Smerinthus populi, S. tilicc (some fine forms), Macroglossa stellatarum, 
M. bombyliformis (narrow-bordered), Ino statices, 1. geryon, Zygana 
trifoUi, Z. lonicercE, Callimorpha domimda, Nemeophila plantaginis, 
Hepialus lupidinus, Drepana cultraria, Grammesia trilinea var. bilinea, 
Triphana fimbria, Hccatera serena, Hadena genista;, Xylina ornithojnis, 
Cucullia rerbasci, C. umbratica, Epione advenaria, Venilia maculata, 
Amphidasys strataria, Tephrosia consonaria, T. biundularia, Geometra 
vernaria, Zonosoma Unearia, Z. punctaria, Minoa murinata, Abraxas 
sylvata, Emmelesia albulata, Cidaria svffumata, Eucosmia certata, and 
Anaitis jdagiata. Clucrocampa elpenor, Callimorpha domimda, and 
llecatera serena are all "new takes." Those who have not yet cap- 
tured the "scarlet-tiger" have an enviable treat in store. — C. J. 
Nash ; Reading. 

Sallows in Yorkseiee, 189G. 

Sallows were very productive in the neighbourhood of York last 
season, and whilst they were out I visited them on nine different 
occasions. 

My first visit was on March 24th, when, accompanied by my friend 
Mr. E. G. Potter, we proceeded on bicycles to a wood situated some 
seven miles from York in a north-easterly direction. At this early date 
only two trees were in bloom, but moths were obtained in abundance 
from the first and largest tree. I spread a very large sheet under 
this tree, and shook the branches vigorously ; en examination by the 



LEPIDOPTERA IN 1896. 137 

aid of a lantern, the sheet was found thickly peppered with moths. 
TcEniocampa iiiunda was the moth of the evening; it was in great 
force, and in splendid condition, evidently just out. As the result of 
the first shake I boxed seventy T. munda. A few T. cnida, T. tjothica, 
T. stabilis, T. imtabilis, Cerastis vaccinit, and Panolis piniperda were also 
in evidence. 

On March 31st, in company with my friend Mr. B. H. Crabtree, of 
Manchester, we drove to the wood previously mentioned, and at about 
8.30 p.m. commenced to work the sallows. Moths were by no means 
rare. We obtained T. munda (twenty-five males and sixteen females), 
T. cruda (sixteen males and nine females), T. stabilis (eighteen males 
and eight females); one of the female specimens of the last-named 
species was of a uniform reddish colour similar to the New Forest 
variety of T. gracilis. T. instahilis and T. gothica were only poorly 
represented ; but of P. piniperda we got thirteen males and one 
female. Other species taken were Lohophora lohulata (two males and 
two females), Anisoptergx ascidaria, also one example of Hybernia 
marginaria var. fuscata. We stayed until 10.45 p.m. Night chilly ; 
wind due north. 

On April 2nd I visited the above locality, and commenced opera- 
tions about 8.30 p.m. Moths scarce. I saw T. cruda (six males), 
T. stabilis (four males and one female), and T. munda (two males). 
Night was cold, with wind due north ; sky clear and starry. 

On April 3rd, in company with my friend Dr. H. Corbett, of Don- 
caster, I visited some sallows at Wadworth Wood, some three miles 
from Doncaster. Here we found the sallows nearly over. I got 
T. populeti (four males), T, instabilis (one male), T. stabilis (three males 
and one female ; one of the males was very pale). Dr. Corbett got 
about a similar number. The night was cold, and sky clear ; wind 
quite cold, and due north. Mr. Clayton, the woodman, told us that 
Brephus parthenias had been on the wing early in March. 

Mr. Potter and I visited the York locality on April 4th. As we 
were waiting for darkness, we found a nest of the long-eared owl with 
four eggs. We boxed nine Lobophora lobrdata, males, in fine condition; 
these were at rest on birch trunks. Commenced operations at sallows 
about 8.30 p.m., and by 9.45 p.m. I had selected and boxed over one 
hundred and fifty moths from amongst a great number of specimens. 
Nearly one-third of the total were T. munda; there were also two 
T. populeti, males, eight P. piniperda, males ; the remainder were 
commoner species. Night warm and cloudy ; wind south-west. On 
our return journey, about 10.30 p.m., mounted on our bicycles, we 
noticed numerous glow-worms, glistening like diamonds, amidst the 
grass on the roadside ; a very early date. 

On April 6th Dr. Corbett and self proceeded to the sallows near 
York, and arrived on the ground about 8.10 p.m., commencing opera- 
tions about 8.30 p.m. We shook twelve or fourteen fine trees, and 
had fair success at all of them. We found 7'. stabilis the most abun- 
dant moth of the evening, whilst T. munda was a good second; stabilis 
was in very fine condition, and varied much in ground colour, from 
pale ashy grey to light and dark ochreous forms ; there were many 
pairs in cop. T. cruda was fairly common, and in good condition, and 
we noticed many pairs of this species, and also of C. vaccinit. S. 



118 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



satellitia was by no means rare. Several L. lohulata and H. pro(/eni- 
maria also fell on to the sheet, as did one G. UbatrLv, the first I have 
ever noticed at sallows. Several examples of T. popnleti were boxed, 
and these were mostly in good condition. T. finthica and T. instabilis 
were both common, and in good condition. Neither satellitia, instabilis, 
populeti, f/othica, nor piniperda were taken i» coj).; and although I have 
taken large numbers of the latter at sallows during the last twenty 
years, I have never yet seen a pair in cop. On this occasion we took 
a male Selenia illunaria on the wing. This evening will long be 
remembered by me as being that on which I took a male stabilis paired 
with a female muiida. I called Dr. Corbett's attention to the singular 
occurrence before boxing the specimens. The female laid one hundred 
and sixty eggs, all of which proved fertile. Dr. Eiding, of Honiton, 
and myself fed these larvte on ash, oak, sallow, and birch, of all of 
which they ate freely. As might be expected, the larvae closely re- 
sembled those of T, miinda. About forty larvffi went down, and we are 
now anxiously awaiting the emergence of the moths. A specimen of 
T. rei-ayana (a female) was also secured. This is a scarce species in 
Yorkshire. 

In the evening of April 9th, about 7 p.m., I went off alone on my 
machine to Strensall, arriving there at 8 p.m. Night cold and clear, 
air rather frosty, and sky quite starlight ; there was also a cold breeze 
blowing from due north. There were not many moths at the sallows, 
and very few fell into the sheet at each shake. Stayed out until about 
9.30 p.m. I took T. munda (seven males and ten females), T. populeti 
(two females), T. stabilis (two males and four females), C. vaccinii (two 
females), T. cruda (three females, one of them a beautiful melanic 
form, the darkest 1 have ever seen), 2\ gothica (three females), 2'. 
instabilis (one female), L. lobulata (three males), A. badiata (one male). 
I kept most of the females for eggs. Many of the T. munda were 
worn ; the sallows were getting over, some quite j^asse, others well 
into leaf. Left the wood about 9.50 p.m. 

In company with Mr. B. H. Crabtree, I visited the York locality 
for sallows on April 10th, getting there about 8 p.m. Night cold and 
windy ; wind due north, and quite strong, so strong indeed that it 
bent the tops of the most exposed sallow bushes, and large branches 
were swayed about by the breeze. The sallows, too, were about over. 
We took P. inniperda (one female), T. rnbricosa (one male), T, munda 
(three males and seven females), T. jwpuleti (seven males and one 
female), T. stabilis (three males and twelve females), C. vaccinii (a 
pair, in cop., the only pair seen that night), 2\ cruda (four males and 
twelve females), T. instabilis (three males and seven females), S. illu- 
naria (one male), T. (jothica (one male and one female). Noticed a few 
L. lobulata and li. })ro(/emmaria on sheet. We shook some twelve 
bushes. 

On April 18th sallow-bloom was nearly over ; but on this, my last 
outing for 1896, I obtained, in the wood previously mentioned near 
York, P. piniperda (nine males and nine females in fair condition, 
some of them good), T. instabilis (two males and two females), T. 
gothica (one male and two females), T. munda (one female, very worn), 
T. rnbricosa (two females in good condition). Saw a few C. vaccinii, 
but no T. cruda, 1\ piopulcti, or T. gracilis. Caught one S. illunaria, 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 119 

female, in good condition ; this had laid about fifty eggs by the 23rd. 
I noticed one example of P. piniperda flying round and alighting on 
the blossoms of the sallow about 3 p.m. in the broad sunlight; the sun 
just then was very hot, and shining full on the tree. Night warm, 
day very fine ; wind south-west. 

The commonest insect at sallows last season with me, at York, 
was T. munda, and I was struck by the extreme variation that occurred 
amongst the specimens taken. I have selected a beautiful series, from 
the year's captures, of sixteen males and twenty-four females for my 
own collection. T. munda will lay freely in a chip pill- box ; the 
average number of eggs laid by one female about two hundred. The 
larvae feed up readily on birch, sallow, elm, or oak ; but the pupfe 
seem to have a strong objection to reveal their contents the following 
spring, at least such is my experience and that of several of my friends. 
Whilst on the subject of sallow moths, I might mention that I have 
noticed for many years how difficult it is to get specimens of T. 
riibricosa, T. gracilis, and T. popuJeti, to lay in captivity. Most of the 
sallows I am in the habit of working are large trees, generally situate 
on the outskirts of small plantations. An umbrella, even if of the 
dimensions of that used by King Coffee, would be far too small. I 
use two very long and very broad sheets, and then not unfrequently 
have to add to these two, three, or more copies of one of the London 
dailies to increase the spread. When all is ready below, I despatch 
my " Man Friday" up aloft, and then at a given signal he tickles the 
branches, and down come the moths. Occasionally the shaker is 
himself dislodged from the tree and drops on the sheet, but this only 
increases the fun, as it certainly does the danger. — William Hewett ; 
Howard Street, York, November, 1896. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

High-flat Setting of Lepidoptera. — Although enough has, I 
think, been said on this subject, I beg to be allowed to say a few more 
words, in answer to Mr. Sabine's remarks {a7ite, p. 76). If he, as he 
says, thinks that it is well enough understood and unnecessary to 
mention, that low-setting is no guarantee against fraud, why then is 
this mode of setting still carried on ? Further, if mites should not be 
known in a well-kept collection, they are, in spite of it, not an 
impossibility, even if introduced accidentally with specimens received 
in exchange ; and as to Mr. Sabine's other remark that in no good 
collection do the insects touch the bottom of the drawer, I can assure 
him that I have seen very good collections indeed in which every 
specimen, without exception, did touch the bottom, and indeed this 
could scarcely have been otherwise, considering the small pins used. 
I am, however, glad to see that I receive some support from several 
other British entomologists in regard to the high-setting ; and on the 
other hand, I should like to hear yet of the advantage of the English 
system, and why this should be still adhered to in opposition to the 
entire rest of the world, who surely must have found their system to 



120 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

answer, as they all have adopted it. One more word. I fail to see 
why the peculiar setting in England should only be confined to the 
Lepidoptera : why do not collectors of other groups of British insects, 
or even ornithologists, adopt each a peculiar way of mounting their speci- 
mens to distinguish them from continental ones ? say, for example, the 
bird collector might have all his birds stuffed with their beaks open or 
one eye shut, or the coleopterist might mount his beetles with the two 
hind legs raised in the air, &c., just to distinguish them from foreign 
specimens. But, joking aside, let everybody follow his own inclinations 
and taste in that respect ; to me, personally, a collection of Lepido- 
ptera with drooping wings looks, to say the least, untidy and poorly 
set. — M. Jacoby. 

Agrotis ashworthii reared from Ova. — Having occasion to visit 
the Penmaenmawr locality for this beautiful insect, about the second 
week in July, I spent an hour looking over the most likely grounds. 
I only found one perfect insect, but saw several batches of ova. How- 
ever, having learned from my experience of the previous season that 
there is a greater chance of success with a moderate number, I only 
took one batch. These hatched on, July 18th, and numbered seventy- 
one. I tried to force them, feeding on sallow so long as it lasted. 
They made very slow progress, though kept in flower-pots on the 
kitchen mantelpiece. About thirty of the larvfe fed up before the 
others, and I had the satisfaction of knowing that twenty-four or 
twenty-five had gone down by the middle of October. The remainder, 
about thirty, absolutely refused to feed up, and gradually died off, 
being then only about half grown. On November 17th the first imago 
made its appearance, and between that date and Dec. 18th I had the 
pleasure of seeing twenty-five perfect specimens emerge. They vary 
slightly, some being very dark, others very pale, with intermediate 
forms. After the sallows were over I used knotgrass, groundsel, dock, 
plantain, and at the very last, lettuce. This latter food they ate 
freely, but it was rather too juicy for some of them, and they suc- 
cumbed in the usual way. In my opinion the most successful method 
would be to procure ova as early as possible, and force slightly, so as 
to feed the larva up by the end of September at latest. — Robert 
Tait, Jun., 15, Rectory Road, Crumpsall. 

Dragonflies of North London. — Apropos of the very interesting 
article on dragonflies in 1896, by Mr. W. J. Lucas {mite, pp. 29-36), a 
few remarks on the dragonflies of North London may possibly not be 
unacceptable ; and though they are greatly inferior in number and 
variety to those recorded by Mr. Lucas as occurring in Surrey, yet I 
can remember the time, many years since, when they were more 
numerous than at present, and when it was an every-day sight to 
observe the natural economy of the iEschnidae, and of LihelMa 
depressa emerging from the pupa, on the rushes in a pond in my 
father's garden at Southgate. I have never enjoyed the same 
facilities of observation since, and doubtless several localities have 
been obliterated, and species have disappeared before the inroads 
of the universal builder. 

Calopterijx.—M.3.ny years have elapsed since I last saw this genus 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 121 

in Middlesex, and whether or no it still occurs in North London is 
more than I can say. But in past days Caloptenjx splendens certainly 
was common (and I think C. vin/o also) on the banks of the New Eiver 
in the grounds of Amos Grove, Southgate. The course of that portion 
of the New River has since been diverted, and it no longer flows 
through my cousin's property. In those days, also, my father used to 
bring these dragonflies home after taking a walk by the River Lea. I 
believe one chief cause of my own attention being primarily directed 
to entomology was noticing the extreme beauty of a specimen of 
C. splendens that an old asthmatic spaniel of ours was holding 
between its paws. 

y^schidda. — Anax imperalor =^formosHs. An occasional visitor in 
North London. A solitary specimen was observed by a lady (then a 
neighbour of ours) two consecutive summers in St. Cuthbert's Road, 
which skirts the side of my residence. I did not see it myself; but 
the description which I received of its size, colour, and unusual 
appearance left no room for doubt that it was that species. — /Eschna 
cyanea. Common in this neighbourhood. Specimens from Cricklewood, 
Dudden Hill, Kingsbury, Northwood, &c. — JS. grandis. Not very 
common, and difficult to catch. Cricklewood and Pinner. — M. juncea 
and vE. mixta. My impression is that one or other of these species 
used to frequent a pond many years since in the grounds of Amos 
Grove, Southgate ; but I have not seen either of them lately, and 
have only a single British specimen of each in my collection. — 
Brachjjtron pratense. I once saw a solitary example, when the summer 
was well advanced, of what I am almost certain was this species, in 
Water Lane, Cricklewood. Under the impression that I had missed 
my stroke, I incautiously opened my net, when it immediately flew 
out, much to my dismay. Water Lane, now being rapidly surrounded 
by buildings on either side, no longer serves as a locality for the ento- 
mologist. My three examples of this species are from Basingstoke 
Canal, Byfleet. 

LibeUididcB. — Libelluhi depressa. Common. Dudden Hill, Kingsbury, 
Cricklewood, ponds on Northwood Common. Often difficult to secure, 
from the fact of one of its favourite settling places being full length 
along a bramble spray. — Stjmpetrum striolatwn (= vxdgatum). Wan- 
stead Park, Essex ; Northwood Common ; Dudden Hill, Cricklewood. 
— Lihellula quadrhuaculata. I think I have seen this species in Wan- 
stead Park. I imagine it must also occur in this neighbourhood 
[e.ij. Cricklewood, Kingsbury, Hendon, &c.), but I cannot speak 
positively as to having seen it myself here. 

AjrionidiB. — Lestes spoiisa. Dudden Hill; Wanstead Park, Essex. 
— Pyrrhosoma minium,. Dudden Hill ; Wanstead Park, Essex. — 
Erythrumma najas. Wanstead Park, Essex. Of the four blue species of 
AgrionidcB, to wit, eleyans, cyathiyenim, pnella, pidcheUum, I believe I 
have all from the stretch of water in Wanstead Park, and that eleyam 
and pulcheUum, if not the remainder, occur at Dudden Hill ; but I 
cannot speak positively as to the distinguishing marks of these 
species until carefully examined and pronounced on by an expert ; as 
also my series of the same from Argyleshire and the New Forest. 

ENTOM. — APKIL, 1897. L 



122 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

So far as I am awave, in uo one locality in the immediate North of 
London are so many dragonflies to be met with as in Wanstead Park 
— twelve kinds : — 

JhlschnidcB. — ^schna cyanea, jE. grandis. 

LibellulidcB. — LiheUuJa depressa, L. quadrimaculata, Synipetruin 
vuhjatum. 

Agrionid(c. — Agrion pulchellum, A. puella, A. clegans, A. cyathigenim 
(probably all these number of individuals most abundant on flags 
and water-lily leaves), Lestes sponsa, Erythromma najas, Pyrrhosovia 
minium. Erythromma najas is very pugnacious, and chases away any 
other dragonfly that settles on the same water-lily leaf as itself. — 
(Rev.) F. A. Walker ; Dun Mallard, Cricklewood. 

Parasites of Bombyx rubi, &c. {ante, p. 69). — Mr. Arkle has sent 
me specimens of Apanteles dijficilis, Nees. Doubtless the parasite of 
Arctia caia was the closely allied Apanteles cairn, Bouche. Mr. Arkle 
has also kindly sent me one of the cocoons of the heather-feeding 
sawfly, which I hope to breed. I find no sawfly with this food-plant 
in Cameron, Andre, Brischke, or Kaltenbach ; the cocoon greatly 
resembles that of one of the Ophionid^e, being almost exactly like that 
of Ophion luteum or Paniscus cephalotes. — Edward A. Fitch ; Maldou. 

The Diamond Jubilee. — It has been suggested to us that the 
lepidopterists of the British Islands should commemorate Her 
Majesty's long reign by forming a thoroughly representative collection 
of the butterflies and moths found in the United Kingdom, and 
presenting the same to the Natural History Museum at South Ken- 
sington. Possibly such a scheme may be considered too large an 
affair to undertake ; there is no reason, however, why an attempt 
should not be made to extend and improve the existing collection 
of British Lepidoptera in the Museum, which is certainly not as com- 
plete as it should be. If a committee were formed to work out the 
initial details, there is no doubt that any appeals for assistance in the 
shape of specimens would be liberally responded to. We shall be 
very pleased to have the views of our readers upon this subject. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

AcHERONTiA ATROPOs AT Tenbury. — I was the recipient of a very fine 
pupa of A. alropos, sent me on Feb. 18th, by a lady residing in Tenbury. 
From her letter I understand that the perfect insect paid her beehives 
several visits in July and August, and in October three pupse were 
unearthed in her garden. I liave since followed the instructions for forcing 
given by Mr. G. F. Mathew (Entom. xxix. 328), the results of which I 
eagerly await. — H. W. Bell-Marley ; Ravenscourt Park, London. 

AcHERONTiA ATROPOS IN SaFFOLK. — I have not noticed amongst the 
many records of the capture of this insect in 1890 any from Suffolk, and 
I might say, though somewhat late, that two were taken in Ipswich ; one 
was in the pubHc park. A friend who showed me the specimen mistook it 
for a piece of bark Ofi the grass, and was about to give it a sharp blow with 



RECENT LITERATURE. 123 

his walking-stick, when the motion of the air caused it to move its wings. 
The larvae have been found feeding in a potato field in the west end of the 
town. — Claude A. Pyett ; Waterloo Road, Ipswich. 

Callimorpha HERA, &G., AT Dawlish. — Whilst staying at Dawlish for 
a fortnight, in the middle of August last year, my brother and I were for- 
tunate enough to catch, amongst other things, six specimens of C. liera, 
three with red hind wings, two with orange, and one with yellow. We also 
saw another example with red hind wings, but failed to secure it. Three 
out of the seven seen were flying about, and the sun was shining brightly 
at the time. We also took one Thecla hetula and a worn Argynnis paphia. 
Pararge egeria was very common in nearly all the lanes. We did no 
collecting at night. — C. E. Bedford; Murwance, Acton, W., March 1st. 

Early Appearances. — Throughout the past month (February) the 
weather, as far as this part of the country is concerned, has been remarkably 
mild and bright. On three separate occasions Vespa vulgaris was observed, 
and on one especially bright day a fine V. crabro (female) was noticed flying 
around a window, evidently enjoying its winter's flight. A few days later 
an hybernated Vanessa urticcB was observed resting on a gravel-path. — 
Augustus D, Imms ; " Linthurst," Oxford Road, Moseley, Worcestershire, 
March 4th, 1897. 

Gonopteryx rhamni. — On Feb. 27th my brother noticed a G. rhanini 
flying in a street here.— C. E, Bedford ; Acton, March 1st, 1897. 

Phigalia j)edaria (pilosaiia). — My first capture of the season was a fine 
male P. pilosaria, which I found at rest on a lamp at Old Colwyu, when 
passing through on the evening of January 6th. — R. Tait, Jun. ; 15, Rec- 
tory Road, Crumpsall, Manchester. 

Entomological Expedition to the Himalayas. — I am leaving 
England next week upon an entomological expedition to the Eastern 
Himalayas, and shall be glad if you will permit me to take this opportunity 
of informing correspondents that the whole of the specimens which I hope 
to obtain, with the exception of a series which I shall retain for my own 
collection, have alreadv been disposed of. — W. Harcourt-Bath ; Birming- 
ham, March 4th, 1897. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

The Hemiptera-Homoptera {Cicadina and Psyllina) of the British Islands: 
a Descriptive Account of the Families, Genera, and Species in- 
digenous to Great Britain and Ireland, with Notes as to Localities, 
Habitats, dr. By James Edwards, F.E.S. Pp. 261. Appendix, 
Index, and two plain plates. London : L. Reeve & Co. 1896. 
This is a valuable addition to the series of excellent works ou 
British Entomology published by Messrs. Reeve & Co. 

In 1876, when the ' Catalogue of British Hymenoptera,' by Messrs. 
Douglas and Scott, was produced, the number of species then known 
to occur in these islands was 268 ; at the present time our author 
finds that the number does not exceed 307, and four of these are now 
described as new. "The least satisfactory feature of this work is, 
probably, the record of localities ; but the meagre nature of this arises 



124' THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

from a cause quite beyond the control of the author, to wit, the paucity 
of collectors of these insects." Now that we have a thoroughly trust- 
worthy work on Hemiptera-Homoptera to aid us in identification, we 
may reasonably anticipate not only that considerable additions will be 
made to our knowledge of the distribution, within our limits, of the 
known species, but that species new to the list may also be detected. 

A large-paper edition, with twenty-eight coloured plates, is also 
published. 



The Lepidoptera of the British Islands: a Descriptive Account of the 
Families, Genera, and Species indigenous to Great Britain and 
Ireland, their Preparatory Starjes, Habits, and Localities. By 
Chakles G. Barrett, F.E.S. Vol. iii., pp. 896. London: L, 
Eeeve & Co. 1896. 
This volume treats of the Bombycidae, commencing with family 

ten, and a part of the Noctufe. Altogether thirty-three genera and 

ninety-nine species are dealt with. 



Economic Entomology fur the Farmer and Fruit-grower, and fir Use 
«s rt, Text-book in Agricultural Schools and Colleges. By John 
B. Smith. Pp. 481. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. 
1896. 

Although this liberally illustrated text-book is intended more 
especially for American students, it contains much that will interest 
British entomologists. 



Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Association of Economic 
Entomologists. (Bulletin No. 6. New Series. U.S. Department 
of Agriculture. Division of Entomology.) Washington. 1896. 

Bibliography of the More Important Contributions to American Economic 
Entomology. By Sabiuel Henshaw. Pt. v. L-Z. Pp. 179. 
(U.S. Department of Agriculture. Division of Entomology.) 
Washington. 1896. 



OBITUAEY. 

We hear with regret of the death of Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson, of 
Ashton-ou-Ribble, which took place at about the end of February last. 
He was an untiring collector, and a frequent contributor of notes on 
field work, &c., to the entomological magazines from 1856 to a quite 
recent date. He first obtained Cidaria reticulata in 1856, but the 
identity of the species was not discovered until 1861, and no other 
examples were found in the Lakes District uutil 1876. In 1877 he 
reared this insect from larvje, and the following year he bred Penthina 
postremann. He was especially successful in his work among the 
Micro-Lcpidoptera, and added several species to our list, some of 
which were new to science. Mr. Hodgkinson was elected a Fellow 
of the Efltomologieal Society of London in 1890. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX. 



MAY, 1897. 



[No. 408. 



AN ISO LA BIS ANNULIPES, Lucas. 
By W. J. Lucas, B.A. 




On April 5th last I received from Mr. G. Nicholson, of Kew 
Gardens, two living specimens of Anisolabis annuUpes, an insect 
having a wide range, but inhabiting somewhat warmer countries 
than our own. Both specimens were females. They reached 
England in odd rubbish that was packed around some orchids 
and other plants that had come to the Gardens from Ootaca- 
mund, in the Presidency of Madras. A few days later Mr. 
Nicholson forwarded me, in spirit, another specimen, a very 

ENTOM. — MAY, 1897. M 



126 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

small one, though apparently of the same species, which had 
arrived in this country in sugar-cane from Mauritius in August, 
1894. Kew, therefore, constitutes the second locality (if locality 
it may he called) for this earwig in England. The first was at 
Tavistock, in Devon, where, in 1894, Mr. H. Swale discovered the 
species in an old haker's shop* in large numbers among the ashes 
under the furnace. They had their nests in the crevices of the 
pillars that supported the oven and in the floor. He made out that 
they were first observed about 1885, and as they were still there 
last year the colony is evidently well established. As, however, 
the home of this earwig is in the Mediterranean countries, Africa, 
Central and South America, Southern Asia, &c., it is hardly 
likely to permanently take up its abode here, at any rate out 
of doors. 

AnisolahU anniiUpes is shining black in colour, with a yellowish 
lateral margin to pronotum. Antennne of sixteen joints, the three 
basal ones being reddish, the next eight very dark with lighter 
apex and base, the next two white, and the last three again 
dark. Elytra and wings are both absent. The forceps are 
short and stout, without teeth, but with slightly wrinkled inner 
margin : in the male the right leg of forceps is more incurved 
at the point than the left. There are thirteen divisions to the 
body of the male and eleven to that of the female, the first three 
forming the thorax, the next nine and seven respectively the 
abdomen, while the last or anal one bears the forceps. The 
flattened legs are pale yellow in colour with a dark band round 
the middle of the femora and another at the base of the tibiae. 
Length of male, including forceps, 12 mm. ; of female, 15 mm. 
The specimen figured is a female. 

21, Knight's Park, Kingston-on-Thames, April 12th, 1897. 



LEUCTINODES VAOANS. 



Aphytoceros vagans, Tutt, Ent. Rec. i. p. 203 (1890). 
Leiictinodes longipalpis, Warren, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 
ix. p. 391 (1892). 

Although made known to science through the capture of a 
specimen at Chepstow, this species of the Pyralidae cannot be 
regarded as British. Warren's type of L. longipalpis, in the 
National Collection at South Kensington, is from the Transvaal, 
and Sir George Hampson, who has seen the Chepstow type and 
compared it with the African one, is of opinion that both insects 
are specifically identical. — R. S. 

* Ent. Mo. Mag. 1894, p, 124. 



127 



MELANISM AND CLTMATAL CONDITIONS. 
By G. W. Smith. 

Mr. Harcourt-Bath enters upon this subject {ante, p. 97), and 
contributes some new suggestions as to the origin of melanism 
in Rhopalocera. He has omitted, however, to take into account 
the melanic tendencies exhibited by certain British insects in- 
habiting the environs of our manufacturing towns, and which 
have been reported to have perceptibly increased during the last 
fifty years. In the celebrated melanism controversy of 1893, 
there was only one theory satisfactorily condemned with reference 
to this particular form of melanism, namely, that of moisture 
increasing melanic tendencies in insects ; such a view being 
refuted by the presence of light-coloured species, such as Macro- 
(faster arundinis, LWiosia nmscerda, &c., in especially marshy 
districts. We may therefore disregard this idea altogether. It 
was at that time proved by Lord Walsingham that dark-coloured 
species were benefited in the struggle for existence by being 
able to take advantage of intermittent gleams of sunshine ; and 
Mr. Eobson wrote, "At present we may confidently assert that 
whatever impedes the direct rays of the sun has a tendency to 
create melanic forms in Lepidoptera." I think perhaps Mr. 
Bath has mistaken what he terms the old-fashioned ideas on 
melanism ; for no one has supposed, since Lord Walsingham's 
theory, that the absence of sunshine has the direct physiological 
effect of producing dark coloration : it was generally accepted, 
according to that theory, that melanic varieties of light-coloured 
species survived through the agency of natural selection by 
reason of their being able to take advantage of broken, change- 
able weather. 

I may here mention Mr. Birchall's view, which appeared 
before Lord Walsingham's and resembled the latter in principle : 
" As it appears certain that greater strength of constitution and 
more powerful and acute perceptive faculties are, from some yet 
unknown cause, associated with dark colours in the Vertebrata, 
may we not presume that insects are subject to the same law, 
and that dark varieties of Lepidoptera are able to spread and 
increase under adverse conditions, whilst the lighter coloured 
types fail to do so, and are consequently eliminated in the 
struggle for life, and that the occurrence of melanic forms may 
be thus reasonably explained as a simple case of the survival of 
the fittest." 

Mr. Jenner Weir also, speaking before the London Entomo- 
logical Society, said : "In the mountains of Switzerland and 
the Tyrol the clearness of the atmosphere was nearly as great 
(as in the lowlands of Italy, Spain, &c.), but constantly inter- 
rupted by dense mists and clouds, and it is precisely in these 

M 2 



128 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

altitudes that melanism becomes the rule rather than the ex- 
ception ; many of the topomorphic varieties are melanic, and 
many of the Alpine species are very dark ; Pieris napi var. 
hryonice may be given as an example of the former, and the 
males of Melitcea cijnthia of the latter. This uncertain condition 
of the weather is characteristic of the climate of the British Isles. 
The result is that our indigenous Lepidoptera are, as a rule, 
darker in colour than the continental, and the tendency to 
melanism increases northwards, till it may be said to culminate 
in the Shetlands." 

I cannot see the force of objections based on the existence of 
such " zanthochroic" forms as P. ajwllo, P. delius, &c., at high 
levels in the Alps and Pyrenees. One law is not necessarily 
universal for all species, especially when they belong to different 
groups. 

Mr. Harcourt-Bath has no doubt pointed out a vera causa in 
the preponderance of organic over physical environments, but 
his theory must not be pushed too far. He cannot disregard 
physical environment as a factor in the origin of melanism in 
the light of the increased melanic tendencies in insects inhabiting 
districts neighbouring on our manufacturing towns, and the 
views expressed upon this tendency. The melanism controversy 
of 1893 is conveniently summarized in * The British Naturalist ' 
for 1893, pp. 61-71. 

College, Winchester, April, 1897. 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTEEA OF IRELAND. 
By W. F. de Vismes Kane, M.A., M.R.I. A., F.E.S. 

(Continued frona p. 107.) 

Tephrosia punctularia, HI). — Nowhere at all plentiful. 
Wicklow (Tinahely, Bw.) and Kerry (B.) ; Mucross and the 
Upper Lake of Killarney ; Clonbrock, Co. Galway, scarce. 
Some specimens from this locality have the spots very large 
on a clear whitish ground, so that they have a superficial 
resemblance to Cleora glahraria. 

Gnophos obscuraria, HI). — Widely spread along the Irish 
coast, and often very abundant ; but scarce inland at the few 
localities it has been reported from, namely Mallow, Co. Cork 
(Stawell) ; Clonbrock [R. E. D.) and Eecess, Co. Galway. I have 
seen no black forms, nor any of the pale chalk varieties. Those 
at Howth are as light as any Irish examples I have met with. 
At Minehead, Co. Waterford ; Clogher Head, Louth ; and New- 
castle, Co. Down, they are somewhat darker in tone. 

[Dasyclia ohfuscaria, Hb. — Erroneously listed by Birchall as 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF lEELAND. 129 

having been taken by Mr. Bristow in Wicklow. A subsequent 
record in the ' Entomologist ' of 1867, p. 251, has not been con- 
firmed by subsequent capture.] 

PsEUDOTERPNA PRUiNATA, Hufii. — Generally distributed, and 
abundant. 

Geometra papilionaria, L. — Throughout Ireland, but usually 
scarce. Not very uncommon about Killarney, Kenmare, and 
Glengariff, Co. Kerry ; and Mallow, Co. Cork {Stawcll) ; New 
Ross, Wexford {B. H.) ; Clonbrock {R. E. D.) and Oughterard 
(Halbert), Co. Galway ; Wicklow (B.) ; Killiney (S.) and 
Rathfarnham, Co. Dublin ; Castle Bellingliam [Thornhill) ; 
Drumreaske, Co. Monaghan ; Farnham, Cavan ; Enniskillen 
{Partridge) and Belleisle, Co. Fermanagh ; Maghery, L. Neagh 
{J.); Cromlyn {Mrs. B.), Westmeath. 

Geometra vernaria, Hb. — Birchall's Wicklow record must be 
deleted. One specimen was taken on a wall in Eccles Street, 
Dublin, by the late well-known entomologist S. R. Fetherston- 
haugh, Esq. ; perhaps introduced accidentally on an imported 
plant of Clematis vitalha. 

loDis lactearia, L. — Common in woods throughout Ireland. 

Hemithea strigata, Midi. — Scarce. Curiously enough it is 
usually reported as Nemoria viridata by beginners, which insect 
has not yet been taken in Ireland. Single examples for the 
most part have occurred as follows : — Ardara, Co. Donegal {J.) ; 
Knocknarea, near Sligo {R.) ; Ardrahan [Miss N.), Moycullen 
[Miss R.), Clonbrock {R. E. D.), and near Galway {A.) ; Athlone 
{Willcox) and the Tipperary shore of L. Derg ; Farnham, Cavan ; 
Cromlyn (Mrs. B.) and Killynon {Miss R.), Co. Westmeath ; 
Cappagh, Co. Waterford {Miss V.); Ballinadee Rectory (L.), 
Drimoleague (D.) and Cork (6'.) ; Kenmare, Co. Kerry; Grey- 
stones, Co. Wicklow. 

ZoNosoMA PUNCTARiA, L. — One example taken by Mr. Dillon 
and one by myself at Clonbrock, Co. Galway. 

ZoNosoMA linearia, H6.— Three at Clonbrock, Co. Galway 
{R.E.D.). 

ZoNosoMA oRBicuLARiA, Rh. — Occurs Sparingly at Clonbrock 
{R.E.D.). 

ZoNosoMA PENDULARiA, Clerck. — Local, and sometimes fairly 
abundant. Irish specimens are unusually richly tinged with 
rose colour when fresh. Co. Wicklow {B.) ; Cookesborough near 
MuUingar {Miss R.) ; Clonbrock {G.V.H.), Ardrahan, fairly 
numerous; Co. Galway; also at Favour Royal and Altadiawal, 
Co. Tyrone; Killarney {W.). 

Hyria muricata, Hiifii. — Said by Birchall to be common on 
the heaths of the south and west. I have never met with a 



130 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

specimen. A few have occurred at Clonbrock, Co. Galway, of 
the Lancashire type. 

AsTHENA CANDIDATA, ScJiif. — A vsry local species. Powers- 
court, one by Prof. Hart. At Ardrahan and at Merhn Park near 
Galway it occurs in certain spots not uncommonly. 

AsTHENA SYLVATA, Hh. — Scarce. Powerscourt, one {G. V. H.) ; 
and it is recorded by Birchall also from Co. Wicklow. In Co. 
Galway it occurs at Ardrahan, Kilcornan, Merlin Park, Clon- 
brock (i?. jE. D.), and near Galway (A.); Markree Castle, Co. 
Sligo ; and Killarney. 

Venusia cambrica. Cart. — Powerscourt, Co. Wicklow (B.) ; 
Howth, a curious variety, with lineolate markings and few spots, 
taken by Prof. Hart ; Favour Pioyal and Altadiawal, Co. Tyrone ; 
L. Gill (K.) and Markree Castle, Co. Sligo ; near Derry (C.) ; 
Newcastle, Co. Down (TF.) ; Clonbrock, Co. Galway, one 
{R. E. D.) ; Westport, Co. Mayo (IF.) ; Killarney. 

Acidalia dimidiata, Hufn. — Often very abundant, and widely 
spread. 

Acidalia bisetata, Hnfn. — Everywhere common. Y'dr.^fim- 
hriolata occasionally occurs, and is very often reported as 
A. tvigcminata. I believe Birchall's record of the latter has 
thus crept into the Irish list by mistake. 

Acidalia rusticata, Fb. — Two or three at Clonbrock, Co. 
Galway {R. E. D.). 

Acidalia virgularia, Hb.—M.x. Birchall's record of this as 
common has always been a puzzle to me. One example at 
Clonbrock, by Mr. Dillon. I have also a statement that it has 
occurred at Killiney, Co. Dublin, but I have seen no specimens. 

Acidalia ornata, Scop. — Mr. Dillon reports the capture of a 
few at Clonbrock, Co. Galway. 

Acidalia MAEGiNEPUNCT at A, Gozc. — Widely distributed on the 
coast line, and often numerous. Earely occurs inland. All the 
examples I have seen are either of a dingy fuscous grey scarcely 
spotted, or of a speckled grey, with deeply-shaded marginal bands 
and large spots. Up to the present 1 have seen no approach to 
the light grey Eastbourne forms. The grey limestone coasts of 
Clare may perhaps produce pale variations. This species some- 
limes comes to sugar. The second brood does not seem to vary 
from the first. The following are a few of the localities where it 
is more or less plentiful : — Howth ; Malahide ; Bray Head ; 
Arklow ; Old Head of Kinsale ; Dunmore ; Ballycottin i3ay ; the 
coast of Kerry generally ; Clonbrock, one ; Merlin Park near 
Galway; Kilkeel, Co. Down (IF.); &c. 

Acidalia subsericeata, Haw. — I have very little knowledge 
of the distribution of this species. It is very common at Howth, 



THE GENUS GYMNOPLEURUS. 131 

and at Tramore, Co. Waterford ; Clonbrock, one (/i.i^. D.)? Co. 
Galway. 

AciDALiA iMMUTATA, L. — Common in many places, and widely 
distributed. Castle Bellingham (G. V. H.) ; Killynon, West- 
meath {Miss R.) ; Toberdaly, King's Co. ; Knocknarea, Sligo 
(R.) ; Moycullen {Miss R.), Leenane, Recess, and Clonbrock, Co. 
Galway ; Glengariff and Killarney, common ; Minehead and 
Cappagh, Co. Waterford. 

(To be continued.) 



ON THE GENUS GYMNOPLEURUS, Illiger; WITH A LIST 
OF SPECIES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW 
GENERA. 

By John W. Shipp. 

(Continued from p. 66.) 
[ORIENTAL REGION.] 

65. cyaneus, Fab., Ent. Syst. Suppl. p. 34 ; Macleay, Horse Ent. 

p. 515. 
Tranquebar. 

66. granulatus, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. p. 65, 1792 ; Macleay, Horee 

Ent. p. 516. 
.= dejeani, Cast., Hist. Nat. ii. p. 70; Westermaii, Dej., 

' Cat. 3 ed. p. 150. 
— gemmatus, Har., Col. Hefte viii. p. 117. 
= kcenigi, Donovan, Ins. t. 2, f. 3. 
India or. ; Pondicherry. 

67. impressus, Cast., Hist. Nat. ii. p. 73. 

indicus, var., Cast., I.e., p. 73 (note). 
India or. 

68. indicus, Cast., Hist. Nat. ii. p. 73. 

eximus, Dej., Cat. 3 ed. p. 151. 
India or. 

69. kocnigi, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. p. 65; Macleay, Horae Ent. 

p. 515 ; Don., Epit. Ins. Ind. 1800. 
-- guttatiis, Lin., Gmel. ed. 1, i. p. 1558 (Mongolia). 
=-- scriptus, Pall., Icon. p. 7, t. a, f. 7 (Tartary). 
India or. ; Mongolia. 

70. lacunosus, Klug., Symb. Pliys. v. t. 41, f. 5. 

Arabia. 

71. maculosus, Macleay, Hora Ent. i. 2, 1821, p. 517. 

= bengalensis, Gory MS. 

= exanthema, Wied., Zool. Mag. ii. 1823, p. 22. 
India or. ; Bengal. 

72. melanarius, Har., Col. Hefte i. 1867, p. 76. 

Java ; Sumatra. 



132 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

73. miliaris, Fab., Maut. Ins. i. p. 17 ; Oliv., Ent. i. 3, p. 107, 

t. 18, f. 164 ; Ent. Syst. Suppl. p. 817. 
India or. 

74. mundus, Wied., Zool. Mag. i. 3, 1819, p. 162. 

= capicola, Cast., Hist. Nat. ii. p. 70, 1840. 
India or. ; China. 

75. opacus, Eedt., Hiigel Kasclim. iv. 2, p. 516. 

= wiedemanni, Dej. MS. 
Himalaya Mountains ; India or. 

76. parvus, Macleay, Horae Ent. p. 517. 

India or. 

77. ru/icornis, Mots., Etud. Ent. iii. p. 63. 

Shanghai. 

78. sinaatas, Oliv., Ent. i. 3, p. 160, t. 21, f. 189 ; Fabr., Syst. 

El. i. p. 60. 
— - leei, Donovan, Chin. Ins. t. i. f. 4. 
China; Java. 

79. sinararjdifer, Walk., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3rd ser. ii. 1858, 

p. 208. 
Ceylon. 

80. spilotus, Macleay, Horpe Ent. i. 2, p. 517. 

-^ scahwsus, Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 150. 
India or. ; Java. 

81. sunqitiiosus, Cast., Hist. Nat. ii. p. 71. 

India or. 

82. morosus, Fairm., Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6) vi. p. 319. 

var. of sinuatns, Bates, Ent. xxiv. Suppl. p. 73. 
Yunnan. 

83. iiiconsjnciLus, Waterh., Ann. Mag. Nat Hist. (6) v. 1890, 

p. 371. 
E. India; N. W. India (Mhow). 

84. siihtilis, Waterh., Ann. Mag. Nat Hist. (6) v. 1890, p. 371. 

E. India; N. India. 

85. honiel, Waterh., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) vi. 1890, p. 410. 

India. 

86. sinc/idaris, Waterh., Ann Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) vi. 1890, p 410. 

Corea. 

87. rtssa»(,f?;ts?s, Waterh., Ann. Mag Nat. Hist (6) vi. 1890, p. 411. 

India. 

88. hrahminm, Waterh., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) vi. 1890, p. 411. 

China. 

89. strlatiis, Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 33, 1875. 

Singapore. 

90. (ethiops, Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 34, 1875. 

Ptangoon. 

91. planus^ Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 35. 

Penang. 

92. stipes, Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 85. 

Philij^pine Islands. 



THE GENUS GYMNOPLEURUS. 133 

93. calcar, Sliaip, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 36 ; Har., Deutsch. Ent. 

Zeit. 1877, p. 39. 
? = duhins, Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 36. 
Celebes ; Menado. 

94. celehieus, Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 37. 

Celebes. 

95. rudis, Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 37. 

Lombok. 

96. sparsus, Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 38. 

Borneo. 

97. productus, Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 38. 

Laos. 

98. maiirus, Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 34 ; Har., Deutsch. Ent. 

Zeit. 1877, p. 38. 
Borneo ; Sarawak. 

99. ahax, Sharp, Col. Hefte xiii. p. 39. 

Cambodia. 

[PAL^AECTIC REGION.] 

100. ackulatus, Gebler, Bull. Ac. Petr. viii. 1841, p. 372; Bull. 

Mosc. 1859, p. 465 (329); Reitter, Ver. Nat. Vereines 
Brunn, xxxi. p. 164 (43), 1892. 

= violaceus, Ballion, Bull. Mosc. xliii. 1890, p. 331. 
Lenkoran; TranscaspianEegion; Turkestan; Kirgishia. 
101 cantharus, Erichson, Lis. Nat. iii. p. 757 ; Reitter, Ver. 
Nat. Vereines Brunn, xxxi. p. 164 (43). 

var. cyanescens, Mots., Bull. Mosc. 1849, iii. p. 101. 
Turkestan ; S. Europe ; Algeria ; Syria ; Kleinasien ; 
Caucasus. 
102. fiagellatus, Fabr., Syst. Ent. i. p. 29, 1775; Mant. Ins. i. 
p. 17 (1787) : Eabr., Syst. El. i. p. 59 (1801) ; Fabr., 
Ent. Syst. i. p. 66 (1792) ; Gmel., Linn. Syst. Nat. 
i. 4, 1555, 226; OHv., Ent. i. 3, pp. 162, 199, pi. 7, 
f. 51, a, b ; Oliv., Trad, allem. i. p. 101, pi. 47, 
f. 10, 11 ; Macleay, Horte Ent. ed. Leq. p. 60 ; 
Oliv., Encycl. Meth. 5, p. 174 ; Dumeril, Diet, des 
Sc. Nat. V. p. 281; Latr., Hist. Nat. x. p. 97 ; Latr., 
Gen. des Crust, et Ins. 2, p. 78 ; Band., Laf. 
Monogr. p. 46 ; Suckow, Naturf. p. 212 ; Fischer, 
Entom. i. p. 144, pi. 13, f. 4 ; Illiger, Mag. ii. 
p. 202; Boit., Man. i. p. 315 ; Casteln., Hist. Nat. 
ii. p. 72 ; Muls., Col. Fr. Lamell. pp. 57, 58 ; Reitter, 
Ver. Nat. Vereines, Brunn, xxxi. 1892, p. 164. 

= coriarius, Herbst, Kafer. ii. p. 309, t. 20, f. 4. 

= scabratus, Fabr., Ent. Syst. iv. app. p. 436. 

= stictopterus, Linn., ed. Gmel. i. 4, p. 1558. 

ydiV. asperatus, Muls., Col. Fr. Lamell. p. 58; Mots., 
Bull. Mosc. 1849, iii. p. 103; Stevens, Dej. Cat. 
3 ed. p. 150. 



134 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

var, clupcohtttis, Muls., Col. Fr. Lamell. p. 58. 

var. coujiagratus, Mots., Bull. Mosc. 1849, iii. p. 102. 

var. confiisus, Muls., Col. Fr. Lamell. p. 58. 

var. crihellatus, Mots., Bull Mosc. 1849, iii. p. 102. 

var. rugulosus, Muls., Col. Fr. Lamell. p. 58. 

var. serratus, Fischer, Lettr. a Paiid. 1821, p. 11 ; Ent. 
Euss. i. p. 145, t. 13, f. 5. 

var. sutnralis, Mulls., Col. Fr. Lamell. p. 58. 

var. variolosus, Mots., Bull. Mosc. 1849, iii. p. 102. 

Mediterranean Eegion ; France, Basses Alpes ; Syria ; 
Caucasus ; Transcaspian Region ; Turkestan ; 
Siberia ; West China ; North Africa. 
103. geofroce, Fuess., Verz. Schweiz. Ins. 1775, p. 2, 14. 

= geoffroce, Sulz., Abgek. Gesch. p. 18, pi. i. f . 7 ; Panz. 
Symb. Ent. pi. 5, f. 5, 6, 7, 8 ; Panz., Ent. Germ, 
p. 1,8. 
igeojfrocs), Rossi, Faun. Etr. i. p. 15 ; Rossi, ed. Helw. 
i. p. 16; Ponza, Coleop. Salut. p. 22; Scriba, 
Journ. i. p. 54, 1790; Brahm., Rhein. Mag. p. 693. 
{geoffroiji), Sturm., Verz. i. p. 78, pi. 3 ( ,? ) ; Har. Col. 

Hefte vii. p. 113. 
(geofroy), Duftsch., Faun. Austr. i p. 161 (c?); 
Fischer, Ent. Russ. i. p. 142, t. 13, f. 3. 

= lyilularis, Fab., Ent. Syst. i. p. 67, 1792; Fab.. Syst. 
El. i. p. 60 ; Herbst., Kafer. ii. p. 311, t. 20, f. 5 ; 
Sturm., Deutsch. Lis. i. p. 74, 1, t. 4, f. 5 ; De Vill., 
C. Lin. Ent. i. p. 22 ; Schnied., Mag. i, p. 346 ; 
Preyssl., Bcemisch. Ins. i. p. 46; Romer, Gen. Ins. 
pi. 1, f. 7 ; Macleay, Horae Ent. ed. Leq. p. 59, <? ; 
Oliv., Encycl. Meth. v. p. 174; Schiiff., Icon. i. 
pi. 3, 7 ; Harrer, Besch. p. 34 ; Dumeril, Diet, des 
Sc. Nat. V. p. 281 ; Muls., Lett. i. p. 284 ; Panz., 
Schaff. Icon. p. 5 ; Walcknar, I'aun. Par. i. p. 9 
Latr., Hist. Nat. xvi. p. 96 ; Latr., Nouv. Diet 
d'Hist. Nat. iii. p. 61 ; Band., Laf. Monogr. p. 47 
Suckow, Naturg. p. 214; Sturm., Deutsch. Ins 
Faun. p. 74, p. 11 (<?det.); Boit., Man. i. p. 314 
Casteln., Hist. Nat. ii. p. 70, pi. 4, f. 2, S ; Muls. 
Col. Fr. Lamell. pp. 54, 55 ; Reitter, Ver. Nat 
Vereines Brunn, xxxi. 1892, p. 163. 

= mopsus, Pallas, Icon. 1781, p. 3, t. a, f . 3 ; Erichs., 
Ins. Nat. iii. p. 755, 1848. 

=^ cantharns, Illiger, Mag. ii. p. 201, 1823. 

= siniiatns, Fourc, Ent. Paris, i. p. 15. 

= suhcganeus, Brulle, Exp. Mor. p. ? 

var. atratalus, Mots., Bull. Mosc. 1849, iii. p. 100. 

var. hidentatus, Muls., Col. Fr. Lamell. p. 55. 

var. dorsalis, Muls., I.e. 



NEW HYMENOPTERA FROM NEW MEXICO. 135 

var. glahriiisculus, Muls., I.e. 

var. indisthictus, Muls., /. c. 

var. kevifroiis, Muls., I. c. 

var. Iceviusculus, Muls., I. c. 

var. taherculatus, Muls., I. c. 

var. ohtusus, Muls. & Rey, Ann. Soc. Ag. Lyons (4), ii. 

p. 298. (Basses Alps). 
Mediterranea Region (Gibraltar, Malta, Sicily, Spain, 

France, Italy, Greece, Algeria, Morocco, &c. ; 

Austria ; Bohemia ; S. Germany ; Caucasus ; 

Turkestan ; Transcaspian Region. 

104. janthinus, Cast., Hist. Nat. ii. p. 71. 

Barbary. 

105. sturmi, Macleay, Horae Ent. ii. p. 512 ; Macleay, Horse 

Ent. ed. Leq. p. 59, ? ; Erichs., Nat. Ins. iii. 
p. 758, 1848. 
= pilularis, Sturm, Verz. i. p. 79. 
= cantharus, Dufts., Faun. Austr. i. p. 162, 
= convexiusadus, Mots., Bull. Mosc. 1849, iii. p. 101. 
= atronitkliis, Macleay, Horse Ent. ii. p. 513. 
Mediterranean Region ; Syria ; Algeria ; Spain ; 
Austria ; Siebenbergen. 
Gymnopleunis. Habits, &c., noticed — Lucas, Bull. Soc. Ent. 
Fr. (6) i. pp. Iviii, lix. 

(To be continued.) 



NEW HYMENOPTERA FROM NEW MEXICO, U.S.A. 
By T. D. a. Oockeeell. 

PHILANTHID^. 

Cerceris acanthophilus, n. sp. 
(?. Length about 8 mm., black, with light yellow markings, 
closely punctured all over, the punctures very large, so as to produce 
a sLibcancellate effect. Pubescence silvery, but very sparse, only con- 
spicuous on lower part of face. The light yellow markings (on face 
nearly white) are as follows : — All of clypeus, except anterior edge, 
supraclypeal mark pointed above ; lateral face marks occupying all 
the area between clypeus and eye, and extending upwards, gradually 
narrowing to an abrupt broad ending on orbital margin, a short 
distance above level of antennte ; mandibles, except the dark rufous 
ends ; scape, except a dark patch at end above ; a broad but 
interrupted band on prothorax (but not tubercles) ; tegulas, except 
the hind margin ; a pair of widely-separated spots on scutellum, 
postscutellum, distal ends of femora, first four tibi» entirely, basal 
three-fifths of hind tibiee, tarsi (becoming slightly rufous towards 
ends), two small spots close together on first abdominal segment, and 



ISC) THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

coutinuous bands on segments 2 to 6. Clypeus slightly convex, the 
lateral portions separated by a notch, which appears as a small black 
spot. Base of mandibles overlapped by a brush of hairs. Scape short 
and stout, somewhat curved ; flagellum pale rufous beneath, first joint 
about one-fifth longer than the second. Tegulne with a hyaline margin. 
Wings hyaline, apex strongly fuliginous, nervures and stigma black. 
First abdominal segment subglobose, a little longer than broad ; second 
very similar to those following. Apex and venter entirely black. The 
anterior edge of the clypeus is black, and feebly tridentate. 

Hah. — Deming, N. M., in numbers flying round a bush of 
Zizijplius hjcioidcs, July 9tli, 1896. I cannot identify this with 
any described species ; and Mr. Fox, after comparing it with the 
collections at Philadelphia, writes, "apparently distinct from any 
here." It would seem to be near Cjinitima, Gv., from Illinois ; 
but it differs in colour of stigma, absence of spot behind eyes, 
and has more yellow on the prothorax. Among the N. M. species 
it is recognised by the black and yellow legs and abdomen, 
without any ferruginous, the absence of spots on vertex, the 
spotted scutellum, the supraclypeai mark, and the first abdo- 
minal segment not elongate. Specimens have been sent to 
Amer. Ent. Soc. and U. S. Natl. Mus. 

I have before me other examples of C. acanthopliiUis, with the 
following data. Four at flowers of Solidago canadensis, Las 
Cruces, N. M., August 24th and 26th. Two on flowers of 
Bocrhaavia erecta, Las Cruces, August 23rd. They show 
remarkable variation in size; the smallest (from Boerhaavia), 
6 mm. ; the largest (from Solidago), 9^ mm. The markings are 
constant, except that the 6 mm. example has a band (instead of 
two spots) on first abdominal segmeut. 

^ EucERCERis viTTATiFRONS, Cvesson, var. TRICOLOR, V. nov. 

3 . Length, 10 mm. Black, with yellow, cream-colour, and 
rufous markings. Face pale lemon-yellow, with two black stripes ; an 
oval yellow patch behind upper part of eye ; hind margin of prothorax 
with tubercles, large patch on upper part of pleura, two large pear- 
shaped transverse patches on scutellum, postscutellum, and large 
patch on side of metathorax, cream-colour. Tegulfe cream-colour, 
with a small basal spot and the hind third shining rufo-fulvous. 
Wings hyaline, marginal cell and apex fuliginous ; stigma fuscous. 
Legs ferruginous, coxt? and first four femora behind blackened ; a 
large patch on first four femora, and stripe on first four tibiae, shining 
cream-colour. Abdomen black, with six entire cream-coloured bands, 
the first tivo se(jmi'7its fi'rnn/i)tous. 

//ai.— Las Cruces, N. M., August 5th (C. H. T. Townsend). 

PEMPHREDONID^. 
J Spilomena foxii, n. sp. 
$ . Length about 3 mm. ; entirely black, except that the scape is 
orange near the end on one side, the funicle is orange on one side, the 



NEW HYMENOPTERA FROM NEW BIEXICO. 137 

knees, tibiaB at ends (front tibias almost entirely), and tarsi are orange. 
Wings hyaline, beautifully iridescent, nervures brown, stigma very 
large, dark vandyke-brown. Vertex shining, with distinct sparse 
punctures, ocelli in rather a high triangle, distance between the hind 
ones not so great as that between one of them and the eye. Meso- 
thorax and scutellum rather dull, with a minute subtessellate sculpture. 
Abdomen smooth and shining. A compound microscope shows a 
minute lineolate sculpture on the cheeks, and a sparse extremely short 
white pubescence on the dorsulum. The lineolate sculpture is also 
seen on the sides of the face, above the antennae, accompanied by very 
sparse punctures ; also on the venter of the abdomen, where it runs 
into a minute tessellation. Flagellum finely pubescent. 

Hah. — Santa Fe, N. M., July 5th, in Mr. Boyle's garden, on 
or about the foliage of an apricot tree (Ckll. 3322). Named after 
Mr. W. J. Fox, the monographer of the N. Amer. Pemphredonidae, 
who first recognised it as distinct. A second species of Spilomena, 
taken at Santa Fe on July 29th, differs at once by the orange 
antennae, tegulfe, and entirely orange legs. 

MUTILLID.E. 
Photopsis mesillensis, n. sp. 
<?. Length about 7 mm. ; head (except black eyes and ocellar 
region), thorax, and first abdominal segment ferruginous, remainder 
of abdomen, except the fuscous apex, shining black. All these parts 
very sparsely clothed with long pale glittering hairs, densest and most 
conspicuous on the abdomen. Antennae rufo-testaceous ; legs very pale 
ochreous, the middle and hind femora more or less infuscated. Head 
small and round, eyes very prominent ; mandibles dark at tips, their 
outer margin with a prominent tubercle or blunt tooth some distance 
from the base. Vertex with strong very sparse punctures. Antenn® 
long, first joint of flagellum about two-thirds length of second. Tegulfe 
testaceous. Mesothorax with strong very sparse punctures ; meta- 
thorax coarsely reticulate, convex, not abruptly truncate. Middle 
tibia with two spurs. Wings dull hyaline, minutely hairy, stigma 
fuscous, nervures almost colourless ; two submarginal cells and one 
recurrent nervure, which joins the second submarginal at about one- 
third from its base ; first submarginal narrow, second large and sub- 
triangular ; marginal cell with its poststigmatal portion about as long- 
as stigma, its tip not truncate, though blunt. About two-thirds of 
stigma included in marginal cell. Petiole joint long and narrow, its 
suture with the second constricted above. In certain lights the hind 
margins of the abdominal segments appear narrowly shining testaceous. 
Apex with two spines. 

iJ«?>.— Mesilla, N. M., at light, July 30th, 1896. In colour 
this resembles C. nigriventris, Fox, from Lower California, but 
that is much larger, and otherwise different. 

APIDiE. 
Melissodes menuacha, Cresson, var. submenuacha, v. no v. 

<T. Length about 13 mm. ; antennae, 9i^ mm. Mandibles black, 
without any yellow spot. Nervures dark. 



138 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Hah. — Las Cruces, N. M., at flowers of Helianthus animus, 
Sept. 22nd (Ckll.) ; at flowers of Verhesina encelioides, College 
Farm, Sept. 11th (Ckll.) ; also three others, taken at Las Criices 
by Prof. Townsend, Aug. 5th. This resembles il/. aimgcnia, but 
is a little larger, the clypeus more covered, nervures darker, and 
the apex of the abdomen is broadly submarginate, sometimes 
entire. 

What I have considered to be typical menuaclia (always with 
the yellow spot on mandibles) does not occur in the Mesilla 
Valley, but is common at Santa Fe (in August, at flowers of 
Argemoue and Grinddia) ; and was also taken by me at La 
Junta, Colo., at flowers of Lepacliys, and in Fremont Co., Colo. 
It is almost exactly like aurigenia, but uniformly a size larger. 



y 



ANDEENID^. 

Andeena aliciarum, n. sp. 

? . Length about 10 mm. Black ; head, thorax, and legs with 
short rather dense grey pubescence, feebly tinged with ochreous dor- 
sally. Head ordinary ; face about as broad as long, not densely 
pubescent ; clypeus pale lemon-yellow, with the sides black, almost 
exactly semicircular large cream-coloured lateral marks, filling the 
area between the clypeus and the eye. Mandibles dark. Basal process 
of labrum prominent, deeply emarginate, so as to appear as a pair of 
rounded tubercles. Flagellum brown beneath from the fourth joint to 
the end, the first joint longer than the two following combined. Sides 
of vertex with large sparse punctures, irregularly placed. Mesothorax 
coarsely and very closely punctured ; enclosure of metathorax rugulose, 
bounded by an impressed line. TeguljB rather dark testaceous, but 
transparent. Wings yellowish-hyaline, apical margin broadly dusky, 
nervures fuscous, stigma dull fulvous ; second submarginal cell small, 
higher than long. Pubescence on inner side of basal joint of tarsi 
blackish fuscous. Abdomen dullish, very closely punctured, the hind 
margins of the segments broadly testaceous. Apical hair-bauds on 
segments 3 to 5, very dense on 5 ; second segment with the band 
represented by lateral patches. The under surface of thorax and 
abdomen, hind tibiit), and sides of metathorax, carry a great quantity 
of bright yellow pollen. 

Hah. — Orgara Pass, N. M., on the east side, Sept. 29th, 1896. 
This resembles A. aliciiB, Piob., in having a yellow clypeus in the 
female, though the yellow is more reduced than in alicice ; the 
punctures of the abdomen in allcia are at most very feeble and 
sparse, quite different from aliciarum. It also resembles A. piil- 
chella, Eob., but that is larger, and different in several ways. 
There is, further, some degree of affinity with A. aureocincta, 
Ckll., especially with regard to the abdomen. 

MesUla, N. M., U. S. A., Nov. 26th, 1896. 



139 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The Probable Cause of the Decadence of British Butterflies. — 
In the interesting discussion on this subject (ante, pp. 55, 102, 104). 
LyccEiia arion is referred to as one of the species now on the point of 
extinction. I have spent several years among the Cotswolds, and my 
experience leads me to think that L. arion is often considered scarcer 
than it really is. Not that I know of any spot where it is abundant, 
but it turns up singly or in small batches in various localities. I have 
spent hours wandering over the spot where it was so abundant twenty- 
seven years ago ; but though L. icanis, L. adonis, L. an/iolus, and 
L. minima are all found there, I have not seen arion within three miles 
of its former haunt, nor have I heard of its capture in that locality. 
Only last year I learnt that several — I think twenty-seven was the 
number — had been taken, while several others were seen, on a steep 
hillside, along which I have passed about twenty times in a season 
without seeing any, so capricious is it in its choice of localities, I 
know of eight localities where it has been taken in the last five years, 
but would not set out with any confidence of finding it in any of them 
in the coming season. Only a small proportion of the captures each 
year get reported in the magazines, the majority being kept "dark," 
as the captors are not subscribers to the ' Entomologist,' &c. 

Mr. Harcourt-Bath considers the isolation from the Continent as 
the primary cause in the extinction of species. Isolation is a necessary 
factor in the production of variations from the type, and Mr. Harcourt- 
Bath believes in local variation. If there is this variation in the 
different localities, then there must be isolation and inbreeding, for 
the introduction of new blood would preserve the type and lessen the 
amount of variability. If inbreeding is as injurious as Mr. Harcourt- 
Bath assumes, then those isolated continental local varieties must be 
dying out too, for many of the mountain forms are more widely sepa- 
rated from their fellows of the same species than are our English 
forms from those of the Continent. 

I cannot agree with Mr. G. H. Conquest " that agriculture is 
practically the sole cause of the now comparative rarity of L. arion," 
for there are many slopes to all appearances exactly suited to its 
requirements — abundance of Thymus serpyllum, and not over-grazed — 
where 1 have searched in vain for both the larvae and the imago. 
Burning the herbage may destroy some larvfe, but it cannot extermi- 
nate a species like arion. 

The abundance or scarcity of a species is due to climatal causes, 
most insects being extremely sensitive, especially in the early larval 
stages, to changes of heat and cold, drought and moisture, the larvae 
perishing very often from no apparent cause. The conditions most 
favourable to each species are necessary to enable a small percentage 
to reach maturity, and then these conditions cannot suit each species 
alike. Similar instances occur in botany, plants being most extraor- 
dinarily abundant some years and scarce in the intervening periods, 
for which we are unable to find a satisfactory solution. Perhaps the 
instance that most readily occurs to me is the extraordinary abundance 
of Ophrys apifera in 1885 on the Cotswolds, while it has been scarce 
ever since in those spots where one could not walk without treading on 



140 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

it then, and now considerable search is necessary to discover two or 
three plants. — Harold J. Burktll ; 21, Avenue Victoria, Scarborough. 

The Tephrosia Discussion. — It is perhaps fortunate that we have 
few species of Lepidoptera to perplex us to the same extent that the 
two insects known as hiundularia and erepusciilaria have done. Happily, 
however, there appears reasonable prospect of our being put in pos- 
session of facts of a more satisfactory character than the bulk of those 
of which we have present knowledge. The microscope is to be 
brought to bear on structural details of the imago, and we are to have 
comparative descriptions of the ova, larvae, &c. Several careful workers 
are engaged in investigating these important matters ; and it is pro- 
bable that the results of their research will definitely settle the "one 
or two species " question. — R. S. 

On the Irish Tephrosia biundularia. — I have read with the 
greatest interest Mr. Kane's valuable note on the occurrence in 
Ireland of the species which he records under the above name {ante, 
p. 105), and should like to offer one or two remarks thereon. In order 
to avoid possible confusion in the future, it seems necessary to point 
out that the single-brooded Irish Tephrosia with which he deals is not 
the T. hiundularia of Borkhausen = abietaria, Hw. = laricaria, Dbld., 
Sta. Man. {vide South's List, p. 12 ; Briggs, in E. M. M. xxxii. p. 36 ; 
and Ent. Rec. viii. p. 76), but is the true T. crepuscidaria of Hiibner, 
which Doubleday, in his second Catalogue, incorrectly calls biundularia, 
an error in which he is followed by most present-day English writers ; 
hence Mr. Kane's mistake. If our entomologists do not care to follow 
me in resuscitating Goetze's obsolete name of bistortata (1781) for our 
double-brooded species, Stainton's 'Manual' (ii. p. 28, 29) may quite 
safely be used as authority: — T. crepuscidaria, Hb., Sta. Manual = 
Mr. Kane's Irish species ; T. laricaria, Dbld., Sta. Manual = bistortata, 
Goetze, which is not yet recorded for Ireland. With regard to the 
"important matter" of the colour and pattern variation "in con- 
junction with a different period of emergence," which I understand 
Mr. Kane to say would settle for him the question of the existence of 
two species if placed "beyond controversy by long series with full 
data," plenty of our English collections furnish such ; and if no one 
has adduced particular instances in recent contributions to the con- 
troversy, it is probably to avoid repetition of what has already been 
repeatedly published to that effect (see, for example, Entom. xix. 98, 
158, &c.). I suppose the matter will not be allowed to rest until every 
provincial entomologist has seen with his own eyes series of the two 
insects, arranged with full data, in the way Mr. Kane suggests. It is 
evidently useless for writers to say that the;/ have series so arranged. — 
Louis B. Prout ; 216, Richmond Road, N.E., April 12th, 1897. 

Tephrosia biundularia (or T. crepuscularia?). — Now that the 
time has come round again for the appearance of Tephrosia biundularia, 
the following extracts from my note-books may interest the readers of 
the 'Entomologist.' Into the controversy as to whether or not 2\ cre- 
puscularia and T. hiundularia are one and the same species I am not 
capable of entering, as I have never seen the larva of what is known 
as T. crepuscularia. But I hope to get eggs during the season, and to 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 141 

make a comparison of the larvse. I have italicised what appear to me 
to be important features : — 

First observed on May 2nd and 5th, 1888. Bred specimens 
emerged in my breeding-pots from larvae beaten off bircli in Delamere 
Forest the preceding summer. June 2nd, 1888, took a specimen at 
rest off an oak trunk in Delamere Forest. April 20th, 1889, took 
several specimens off oaks. May 24th, 1890, took one; 2Gth, took a 
number off oaks as usual, plentiful. June 13th, 1891, took six ; from 
these I obtained eggs — oval, brilliant verdigris-green, no ribs or pat- 
tern ; deposited in chinks of chip-box, surrounded with white down ; 
hatched June 30th; fed larvfe on sallow. The following is a descrip- 
tion of the larvae : — 

July 7th. Dark brown, with black head. Segments two, three, 
four, and last two or three, plain ; the other segments have irregularly 
blotched white divisions. On the sides of the latter, on each segment, 
is an irregular trefoil-shaped blotch of the same white. Some of the 
larvfe are almost black, others are brown, but all have the white mark- 
ings referred to. They prefer willow or sallow to oak. Proper food- 
plant birch. 

July 12th. Head light brown. Caterpillar much the same as on 
the 7th, except that it is a lighter brown, and the white ornamenta- 
tions are more irregular in shape. 

August 9th. Colouring very variable ; general aspect reddish or 
hazel-brown. Head small and reddish brown, sligluly notched on 
the top. All the segments reddish brown on dorsal area, the three 
middle segments being always of a darker brown ; third segment has a 
large ivell-dejined excrescence or enlargement on each side ; the twelfth seg- 
ment is slightly humped on its dorsal surface ; this hump is in the for)n of 
two notches. The legs, claspers, and under surface are always of a 
darker brown (sometimes almost black) than the dorsal surface. 
From the anal segment of this under surface there is always an 
indication of a yellowish stripe more or less continued towards the 
head. There is always a medio-dorsal dark brown stripe, very distinct, 
from head to anal segment ; a subdorsal, well-defined (in most cases), 
but interrupted, very dark brown stripe, branching to the notches on 
twelfth segment and then to the anal claspers. Below this is a lateral, 
wider, pale yellowish or whitish stripe marbled with warm russet-brown 
shades, especially towards the extremities ; this stripe contains the 
dark brown rings or spiracles with yellowish centres ; it follows or 
branches right down the first of the anal claspers, and always appears 
upon them as a prominent wide double-line ornament of warm russet 
and pale yellow ; it then reappears on the anal segment, and usually 
terminates in the anal clasper. Below this spiracular stripe the dark 
hazel under surface begins, after another stripe like the one branching 
to the notches. Variations are seen in all these shades, stripes, and 
colours ; they are either very light (giving the caterpillar the appear- 
ance, when extended from or on its anal claspers, of a small light- 
coloured hazel or birch twig) ; ox very dark, when the caterpillar appears 
to be beautifully marbled with black, various shades of russet-brown, 
and yellow. In a few cases the prevailing shade of the larva is light 
grey, the mid-segments being a darker grey, the broad lateral stripe 

ENTOM. — MAY, 1897. N 



142 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

whitish, and the notched twelfth segment smoke-coloured. The 
caterpillars were now (August 9th, 1891) beginning to pupate in 
the soil. 

On March 22nd, 1892, the first T. himiiMaria emerged ; 26th, 
searched in Delamere Forest for the species, but without result. 
April 4th, 5th, and 8th, one imago emerged each day ; 10th, two 
emerged ; 11th, three emerged, obtained eggs from those which had 
previously emerged; 12th, one; 18th, one; 21st, six; 23rd, two. 
May 1st, several ; 22nd, eggs from this brood hatched. June 6th, 
took two specimens at rest in Delamere Forest. 1893, 1894, and 
1895, failed to find the species in either of these years. 189G, took 
one specimen at rest in Delamere Forest, March 28th ; another on 
April 4th ; and two on April 18th ; Mr. Crab tree, four. Mr. Hargreaves 
took several during March, some almost black. One of Mr. Crabtree's 
was very beautifully but yet darkly marked ; it resembled the typical 
T. crepuscular ia, the only one of the kind, to my knowledge, seen in 
the Forest. April 25th, took five females and two males off tree 
trunks. They seem to rest on any sort of tree, palings, &c. June 
24th, a larva, bred from eggs laid by the last brood (I lost all the rest 
through not being able to attend to them one day), went down to 
pupate. I failed this year (1896) to find any summer brood. — 
J. Arkle ; Chester. 

Immigrant Cockroaches. — Though I'erijyJaiwta americana and 
Phyllodromia f/ermanica are now well established in these islands, 
it may be interesting to note two instances in which they appear to 
have been taken in the act of immigrating. On March 1st last, Mr. 
Bell-Marley sent me two of the former, which, after considerable 
trouble, he secured on February 20th in Covent Garden, where he 
does not think they are established ; while on April 5tli I received from 
Mr. Nicholson, of Kew Gardens, an immature specimen of the latter 
(P. tiennanica), which had arrived on the 3rd, from Ootacamund in the 
Madras Presidency, on living plants. — W. J. Lucas. 

High-Flat Setting. — On reading the discussion on high-flat 
setting, I am reminded that its advocacy is no new thing. It was 
strongly recommended by two or three ardent reformers in the days of 
the ' Entomologist's Weekly Intelligencer,' but it then found little 
favour, and comparatively few converts have been made since ; nor do 
I think that there is the faintest probability of many being forth- 
coming in the near future. British entomologists certainly do not 
desire to deter others from collecting insects which are not British, nor 
is there any wish on their part to force their ideas as to the best 
methods of setting upon those who prefer other methods ; for incon- 
siderable and unimportant as these islands seem to be in the estima- 
tion of some of your correspondents, there is still room in them for 
more than one idea on more than one subject. 

No doubt a common system of setting would have its convenience, 
as would also a common monetary or fiscal system, or a common 
language ; but we " hardened Britishers " do not feel disposed to " fall 
into line" with the rest of the "civilised world," upon a poiut where 
we consider ourselves far in advance of other people, and where 
progress in their direction would mean a movement towards the rear. 



NOTES AND OBSEBVATIONS. 143 

For, to those who prefer the English style, a well-set specimen is a 
thing of beauty and a joy for ever ; whereas a continental specimen, 
impaled on a long clumsy skewer, is a painful and distressing object. 
But of course there are differently constituted minds and varying 
standards of beauty, and where the uninstructed insular eye sees only 
ugliness and contortion, the enlightened cosmopolitan may be more 
happily circumstanced, for possibly 

" Some biclden band 

Uuveils to him the loveliness 
Which others cannot understand." 

But I should like to ask for somewhat fuller information, on behalf 
of those among us who do not confine themselves simply to the Lepi- 
doptera ; for on the Continent it is the custom not to set Hymenoptera 
or Diptera at all, but simply to impale them at the top of long stakes. 
Are we to adopt the more advanced methods of the civilized world in 
this respect also, or shall we still be permitted to follow our own 
savage instincts and endeavour to set our specimens properly ? 

But consider further, what Mr. Sabiue has already so cogently 
urged — the immense amount of inconvenience and heavy loss the pro- 
posed "reformation" would involve to the vast majority, in order to 
save a small minority a quite inconsiderable amount of trouble. For 
most British set insects can be easily relaxed and reset in the con- 
tinental manner, if desired, and collectors of continental specimens 
would require very few of them ; whereas, if the continental method 
of setting became general here, our cabinets would be rendered useless, 
and our entire collections would have to be reset, or replaced by fresh 
specimens ; and this would entail so much labour, expense, and loss 
of time, that most of us would require a new lease of life before we 
were justified in incurring it. The parrot cry of " insular prejudice^" 
which is so commonly urged against collectors of exclusively British 
insects, is almost unworthy of notice ; for it is obvious that everybody 
must decide for himself how far he will go, and draw the line some- 
where. We " islanders " have no objection whatever to others collect- 
ing the insects of the entire universe if they can ; but it is expedient 
for most of us to confine ourselves to a particular part of the earth's 
surface, and that portion which constitutes our own country appears 
most convenient to the vast majority. 

That collectors who are in a hurry to get together a heterogeneous 
collection, by indiscriminate exchanging with all sorts and conditions 
of men, should sometimes be dissatisfied with the result, seems to be 
quite in accordance with the known laws of Nature. They should 
confine their exchanging to those whose methods of setting suit them, 
and not endeavour, vainly, to suppress other people's individuality in 
order to absorb it into their own. — W. H. Harwood ; Colchester. 

Tinea cochylidella, Stn. — Mr. Bankes (E.M. M. 2, viii. p. 79) 
states that he has examined the " unique specimen described by 
Stainton in Ins. Brit. Lep. Tin. p. 32 (1854) as Tinea cochylidella, 
n;sp.," and is of opinion that it is only "a strongly aberrant speci- 
men of T. ruricolella, Stn." He further considers that the last named 
is quite distinct from cloacclla, Haw. — K. S. 

N 2 



144 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Butterflies do not always Settle on Flowers of their own 
COLOUR. — On one of the lovely days last week I was sitting in my 
garden here, watching the gambols of a trio of small tortoiseshell 
butterflies, which were enjoying, like myself, the glorious sunshine ; 
rock cress (Arabis alpinn) and wallflowers were out in profusion, but 
little else save a few primroses and forget-me-nots. The colours 
of some of the wallflowers were so balanced as to match, in propor- 
tion, the reds, yellows, and blacks of the gay little flutterers ; and one 
would have supposed that their nectar was just as sweet as, and could 
have been imbibed with greater safety than, that of the Arabis ; and 
yet, so far as my observation went, they invariably settled upon the 
white flower ; that is, when they were not frolicking in the air or 
settled on the ground or grass. Bees, too, though they were not so 
exclusive in their choice, seemed to prefer the white blossom, upon 
which they were far more conspicuous than they would have been 
upon the darker blossoms. — Hy. Knaggs ; Folkestone, April 6th, 1897. 

Aberrations of British Lepidoptera. — We are pleased to observe 
that the figures of varieties of Lepidoptera published in the ' Entomo- 
logist ' are so interesting to our French contemporary ' Le Naturaliste ' 
that they, together with the remarks thereon, have been reproduced in 
that journal. 

Committee for the Protection of Insects in Danger of Extermi- 
nation. — At the meeting of the Entomological Society of London, held 
on the Tthinst., the following Memorandum of Association was adopted, 
and signed by the President, the Council, and many members : — 

" We, the undersigned, being desirous of protecting from extermi- 
nation those rare and local species of insects which are not injurious to 
agriculture nor to manufactures, do hereby agree by our own example, 
and by the exercise of our influence over others, to discourage the 
excessive collecting and destruction of those species of insects which, 
from their peculiar habits or limited range, are in danger of extermi- 
nation in the United Kingdom. We further agree to accept, for the 
purposes of this Association, such list of species in need of protection 
as shall be drawn up, and from time to time, if necessary, amended, 
by tlie Committee of the Entomological Society of London appointed 
to this end." 

A copy of this Memorandum of Association has been forwarded for 
signatui-e to each of those societies which have expressed themselves 
as in sympathy with the objects of the Committee. — Chas. G. 
Barrett, Bon. Sec; 39, Linden Grove, Nunhead, S.E. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD EEPORTS. 

Early Appearance of Lyc^na argiolus. — On March 19th the son 
of Mr. Jeffries, of this town, took a freshly emerged female M. argiolus; is 
not this an unusually early date for ibis species to be on the wing ?— 
Spotswood Graves ; Tenby, March 25th, 1897. 

This evening I was surprised to find a perfect male specimen of Lycmia 
argiolus settled on a wall in our garden.— J. F. Bird; Rosedale, 1G2, 
Dalliiig Road, Hammersmith, W., April 13th, 1897. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 145 

Aqrotis cinerea at Reading. — lu his uotes from Reading (ante, 
p. 117) Mr. Nash stated that the capture of Agrotis cinerea at Reading is 
unprecedented. I beg to say that I captured a specimen here on May 3rd, 
1893, and recorded it (Entom. xxvii. p. 71) ; I also have three specimens 
captured here last year. — W. E. Butler ; Hayling House, Reading, 
April 23rd, 1897. 

[Mr. Nash has written to say that "all the trap captures, &c., should 
have been under the heading ' Notes from Gloucestershire.'" — Ed.] 

Notes frojc Reading. — Phygalia pedaria, taken at light, Jan. 5th. 
Hybernia leucophcBaria and Anisopteryx (Escularia were observed on Feb. 
7th, on an old fence. On Feb. 14th Bombya: riibi emerged in breeding- 
cages placed by the kitchen fire. Hybernia viarginaria occurred at light 
on Feb. 2'-2nd, and Nyssia hispidaria was found on tree-trunks on the 24th 
of the same month. On March 8th I noticed Gonopteryx rhamni flying in 
my garden. Endromis versicolor, the first imago, from ova deposited by a 
female taken April 6th, 1890 (Entom. xxix. 166), emerged March 10th. 
Fine male Tephrosia crepuscularia were taken on March 20th and 29th, 
and worn females of the same species on the last mentioned date and on 
April 4th.— W. E. Butler; Hayling House, Reading, April 4th, 1897. 

Illuminated Moth-traps, 1896. — I enclose a list of insects taken in 
my traps last year and not previously recorded. It was a very good season 
for light here, and the bulk of the insects contained in my old lists oc- 
curred again, the best being Smerinthus populi (several), Nudaria mimdana 
(extremely common), Notodonta trepida (common), N. trimacula (common), 
Xanthia aurago (a few; this species was common here last year on sugar), 
Asteroscopiis spjldnx (over 250 males ; no females), Aventia flexula, Eury- 
niene dolobraria, Selenia lunaria, Boarmia repandata var. conversaria, 
Geoinetra papiUonaria [males, only), Acidalia iwitaria [the last six species 
all quite common), Eupitliecia coronata (two), Lobophora viretata (first 
brood common, second fairly so), Tinea seinlfulvella (both broods common). 
It is, I think, very curious to notice how some insects refuse to come to 
light. I observed this especially in D. cultraria, which was very plentiful 
in May all round the traps, but not one was taken; while D. falcataria and 
D. binaria, both of which were very scarce, were both taken; in fact,/aZ- 
cataria was obtained in no other way. The same applies to Anchocelis 
rajina, which was exceedingly common on sugar close to the traps, and was 
never taken ; whereas A. pistacina, which was very little, if at all, com- 
moner, was taken frequently. On looking over my old lists, I find I 
included in one of them Agrotis corticea. This was an error, as 1 subse- 
quently found that the insect was only an extreme form of A. segetum. I 
do not think A. corticea occurs here, at any rate I have not come across it. 

The following are new to the " light list," viz. : — LitJwsia sororcula (three), 
Arctia caia, Spilosoma fuliginosa (one male), Trichiura cratcegi (one male), 
Bombyx neustria, Drepana falcataria (a few males), I), binaria (a few 
males), Thyatira batis (a few males), Cymatophora duplaris (one male), 
Acronycta alni (one male), A. rumicis, Leucaiiia comma, Hydrmcia viicacea, 
Mavwstra sordida, Apamea basilinea, Caradrina morpheas (one male), 
Agrotis puta, Noctua augur, N. baia (two), N. castanea var. neglecta, 
Calymnia di£ims (one), Habrostola triplaaia (one), Flusia iota, Zonosoma 
pendidaria, Acidalia dilutaria, A. marginepunctata, Halia vauaria, Emme- 
lesia alchemillata, Eupithecia venosata (a few), E. fraxinata (two), E. albi- 
punctata, E, subciliata (the only one I have known here), Hypsipet(8 



146 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

trifasciala (two), Mthoiippe procellata (one), M. rivata, M. (jaliata, Aiiticlea 
ruhidata, Cidaria prunata (one), Chcsias rufata (otie), Scoparia duhitaUs, 
S. mercurella, S. tnindcolella, S. augustea (one in Oct., 18U5), Ptero2>horHS 
monoddctijlus, Cramhns perlellns, C. horluellus, Ephcstia huhniclla (one, 
Nov. JOtli, 1895 1, FJiodophcca consocieUa (one), R advenella (one), Oncocera 
ahenella (one), Tortrix conjlana, Lcployramma scahrana (one), Peronea 
viixtana (one), P. schalteriana, P. crUtana, P. ferriirjana, Teras contami- 
■nana, Dictyojiteryx hen/manniaiia, Penthina corticana, P. bctiilatana, 
OrthotcF.nia striana, Phkcodes immundana [one], Padisca occultana, Carpo- 
capsa spleiididana (one), Catoptria scopollana (or possibly cana), EiipccciUa 
maculosana, Xanthosetia zoegana (one), Argyrolepia badiana, Lemnato- 
pJiila phri/r/anella, Talceporia pseudo-bombi/ceUa, Tinea lapella, Swamnier- 
dammia combinella (one), HyponomeiUa caynayellm, Anesychia decern- 
f/iUteUa (one), Cerostoiua radiatella, Harpipteryx xylostella (one), Teleia 
kiuneralis (one), Butalis grandipenins (one), Gracilaria alchimiella (several). 
— E. F. Studd ; Oxton, Exeter, March 17th, 1897. 



SOCIETIES. 



Entomological Society of London. — March Srd, 1897. — Mr. E. 
Trimen, F.R.S., President, iu the chair, Mr. George W. Bird, of the 
Manor House, West Wickhara, Kent; Mr. Alfred H. Martineau, of 
Solihull, Warwickshire ; Mr. Hubert C. Phillips, M.R.C.S., of 83, 
Shirlaud Gardens, W. ; Mr. William A. Vice, M.B., of 5, Belvoir 
Street, Leicester ; and Mr. Colbran J. Wainwright, of 147, Hall Eoad, 
Handsworth, Birmingham, were elected Fellows of the Society. The 
Secretary announced that the Committee appointed to consider the 
question of the protection of British insects in danger of extermination 
had unanimously resolved that it was desirable to form an Association, 
the members of which should agree to discourage, by their own ex- 
ample and by their influence, the excessive collecting of all those 
species of Lepidoptera which from their habits appeared to be in 
danger of extermination ; that this resolution had received the approval 
of the Council, who would refer the matter back to the Committee, iu 
order that definite proposals for the formation of such an Association 
might be drafted, and it was hoped to lay these proposals before the 
Society for discussion upon April 7th. Mr. Champion exhibited, on 
behalf of Messrs. Godmaii and Salvin, a portion of the Elateridte, and 
the Cebrionida3 and Rhipidocerida?, recently worked out by him in the 
• Biologia Centrali-Americana.' -The Elateridfe included 531, the 
Cebrionida? 29, and the Rhipidocevidfc 14 species, a large proportion 
of which were described as new. He stated that his labours had been 
much facilitated by the free access to the very extensive collection of 
ElateridpB formed by the late E. W. Janson, and by the loan of many 
types from Dr. Candeze, who had lent valuable aid. He called 
attention to the excessive rarity of the males in the Elaterid genera 
Clialculcpidius and Seiniotns (the contrary being the case in the genus 
Scaptoleniis of the CebrionidaB, and also in many Elateridae), and to 
the fact that the sexual characters of Semiutus had been misunder- 
stood, the supposed males being really females. In the "fire-flies" 



SOCIETIES. 



147 



{PijrophorHs), a genus contaiaiiig a lavge iiuinbsr of exfcromaly closely- 
allied forms, imporfcaut specific characters were detected in the 
genitalia of the males. One species, Meristhus scobinula, Gaud., was 
common to Central America and China. He also exhibited a specimen 
of Eudfctus ijlraiuli, Redt,, found by himself at Mendel, in the Austrian 
Tyrol, in July last. This is a rare European species of Staphylinidtp, 
a black variety of which (/7. wJdtel, Sharp) had once been found in 
Scotland, on the summit of Ben-a-Bhuird. Mr. Jacoby showed a 
Halticid beetle, taken in Mashonaland by Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, and 
remarkable for a prolongation of the hind tibia beyond the tarsal 
articulation, into a very long serrated process. Mr. Elwes showed a 
series of Papilionidae of the machaon group, from North America, 
including P. machaon and P. oreyonia from British Columbia, P. brucei, 
P. bairdii, and 7'. zolicaon from Glenwood Springs, Colorado, and the 
latter species from British Columbia. He stated that there was a 
tolerably complete gradation from P. onyoiiia (= viachaon) thvongh 
P. brucei to P. zolicaon, that none of the characters which had been 
relied on for separation were of real value, and that the structure of 
the genitalia afforded no assistance. Although P. bairdii appeared to 
be very distinct in appearance and habits, it was associated with the 
other forms in Colorado, and Mr. W. H. Edwards stated that he had 
bred both P. bairdii and P. oregonia from eggs of the same female of 
either of the two forms. Mr. J. J. Walker mentioned that he had 
bred P. zolicaon from larvffi found on Situn, at Esquimault, Vancouver 
Island, and that neither larva nor pupa was distinguishable from that 
of P. machaon. Mr. 0. H. Latter read a paper on " The Prothoracic 
Gland of Dicranura vinula, and other notes," in continuation of his 
previous communications on the subject. A fresh use of the formic 
acid secreted by the larva was described ; it was employed to alter the 
silk secreted in spinning the cocoon, in order to convert it into the 
well-known horny mass. If the acid was prevented from actiug, as by 
supplying the larvae with bits of blotting-paper soaked in an alkali, to 
be utilised in making the cocoon, the silk thus protected from the 
action of the acid retained its usual fibrous structure. Sir George 
Hampson communicated a paper on " The Classification of two sub- 
families of Moths of the Family Pyralidge— the Hydrocampinae and 
Scopai'iange." 

March 11th.— M.V. Roland Trimen, F.R.S., President, in the chair. 
Mr. Henry Hague, care of the Clydesdale Bank, 80, Lombard Street, 
E.C., was elected a Fellow of the Society. Mr. Butterheld, present 
as a visitor, exhibited a series of thirty- three male and six female 
Phigalia pedaria, taken near Bradford, Yorkshire, on Feb. 14th-17th, 
1897. Twenty-one males were typical in having a greater or less 
development of the four transverse bars, The remaining twelve were 
without bands, and varied in colour from black to smoky olive ; they 
were decidedly less in point of size, ranging from l^V in. to l^V in., 
as against lj\ in. to l^-i in. in the banded forms, and were also poorer 
in scales and "'slightly deformed. He had only met with this variety 
once before in the last twenty years, and suggested that the eruption 
of small, black, and depauperized forms might have been produced by 
dryness and want of food in the larval conditions, the trees having 
be^n extensively defoliated in the preceding year. Mr. Tutt, in the 



148 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

course of the subsequent discussion, agreed with this view. Mr. 
Porritt said that the melanic variety had occurred to his knowledge 
for several years in the Bradford district, and that similar varieties, 
e.g. in A. hetnlaria, showed no signs of depauperization. Mr. Kirkaldy 
exhibited an example of the rare macropterous form of Vella currens, 
Fabr., taken at East Grinstead, and one of Cicadctfa montana, Scop., 
from Brockenhurst. Mr. Burr exhibited a series of grasshoppers with 
red and blue hind wings of the family ffidipodidse, to show the re- 
markable variation in colour seen in this group. Ked, blue, and 
yellow forms are found alike in the same species, the blue being due 
to the failure of the red pigment, and therefore an incipient albinism, 
the yellow being a further form of albinism. Mr. Champion com- 
municated a paper on the Elateridas and Rhipidoceridfe collected by 
Mr. H. H. Smith at St. Vincent, Grenada, and the Grenadines, and 
exhibited the specimens. Dr. Forel also communicated a paper on 
the Formicidffi collected by Mr. Smith in the same islands. — W. F. 
H. Blandfobd, Hon. Sec. 

April 7th. — Mr. Roland Trinien, F.R.S., President, in the chair. 
The following Memorandum of an Association for the Protection of 
Insects in danger of extermination, which had been drawn up by a 
Committee appointed for the purpose and approved by the Council, 
was laid before the Society and signed generally by those present : — 
"We, the undersigned, being desirous of protecting from extermination 
those rare and local species of Insects which are not injurious to 
Agriculture nor to Manufactures, do hereby agree, by our own example 
and by the exercise of our influence over others, to discourage the 
excessive collection and destruction of those species of Insects which 
from their peculiar habits are in danger of extermination in the United 
Kingdom. We further agree to accept for the purposes of this Asso- 
ciation such list of species in need of protection as shall be drawn up 
and, if necessary, from time to time amended by the Committee of the 
Entomological Society of London appointed to that end." The draft 
of alterations and additions to the Society's Bye-laws, recommended 
for adoption by the Council, was read for the first time, Mr. 
McLachlan showed, on behalf of Mr. Gerald Strickland, a magnified 
photograph of Jh-achi/cerus aptenis, obtained by direct enlargement in 
the camera, and extremely clear in definition and detail. Mr. Tutt 
exhibited some of the silk used by Tephrosia historta to cover its ova, 
and discovered by Dr. Riding. It was contained in a pouch at the 
extremity of the abdomen in the form of dense bundles about 2 mm. 
long, and resembling in miniature locks of wavy flaxen hair. Hitherto 
all such coverings were supposed to consist of scales from the anal 
segment. Papers were communicated by Prof. Miall, F.R.S., on 
" The Structure and Life-history of JJmnohia replicata," and by Messrs. 
Godmau, F.R.S., and Salvin, F.R.S., on " New Species of Central 
and South American Rhopalocera." 

South London Entomological and Natueal History Society. — ■ 
Fehruary 25tli, 1897. — R. Adkin, Esq., F.E.S., President, in the chair. 
Mr. Bishop, of Kingston-on-Thames, was elected a member. Mr. 
Billups exhibited, for Mr. Sauze, some seventy species of Diptera, 
Coleoptera, Neuroptera, &c., which had been taken during the last 



SOCIETIES. 149 

year. Mr. Tutt, specimens of Ar/lais (Vanessa) urtica, var. ichnusa, 
from Corsica, and remarked that Mr. Merrifield's experiments had 
resulted only in an approximation to this var. He also showed speci- 
mens of llutis cerisi/i, var. dojrolii, from S.E. Europe. Mr. Adkin, 
two series of Pachnobia hyperhorea (aJpina), one from Rannoch and the 
other from Shetland, and made remarks on its local variation and its 
unaccountable intermittent appearance. In the discussion which 
followed, Mr. McArthur gave his experience of its appearance in 
alternate years. Mr. Tutt suggested that the species still retained 
its boreal habit of remaining two years in a larval condition. Mr. 
Adkin instanced Uetinia resmella as having a jjrecisely similar habit. 
Mr. Mansbridge, a smoky var. of Spilosoma luhricipeda from York. 
Mr. Tunaley, a large number of species from Aviemore, including long 
and very varied series of Erehia crJhiops, Eupithecia sobrinata, Larentia 
didytnata, Thera simulata, T. Jinnata, Cidaria immanata, Emmelesia 
minorata, Pcedisca opJithalmicana, Gelechin popiddla, and others, espe- 
cially selected to show the range of variation occurring in that locality. 
Mr. Tunaley read a paper entitled "Notes and Observations in a 
Holiday in the Black Forest of Scotland from July 29th to Sept. 10th, 
1896." In a few words he described the geographical surroundings 
and the geological formation of the district, together with an account 
of the weather he experienced and some remarks on the necessary 
equipment for collecting among the Scotch mountains. He then took 
the more prominent species, and described the variations, peculiar 
habits of life, and their protective resemblances. Several of the species 
were noted as having different times of appearance at different elevations, 
e. g. E. (cthiops. He said that Cloantha solidaf/inis at rest on a fir-post 
closely resembled a piece 5f curled bark, and pointed out the extensive 
variation in the central band of T. jxiniperata. The paper was inter- 
spersed with apt remarks on Scotch characteristics and terse descrip- 
tions of the environment of each species. In the discussion which 
followed, Mr. Tutt compared the habits of E. (tthiops in the Alps with 
those of the species in Scotland, and also contrasted the allied species 
E. lif/eci, which hid in the fir trees on the disappearance of the sun. 
Mr. Barrett said that Epinephele ianira also roosted in the branches of 
trees at sunset. 

March 11th. — The President in the chair. Mr. Lucas exhibited 
living nymphs of the dragonfly, Pyrrhosouia mmmm, from Oxshott. 
Mr. Tutt, a pine-branch with a nest of a gregarious europterid moth, 
sent from Cannes by Dr. Chapman ; it was presumably that of Cnetho- 
campa pityocampa. He then gave the results of a recent examination 
of the ova of Tephrosla crcpuscularia (bistortata) and T. bhindidaria, 
illustrating his remarks with black-board diagrams from drawings made 
under the microscope that day. There were three distinct batches of 
ova : (1) of T. crepuscidaria, (2) of T. biundularia, and (3) of the result 
of a cross between the two species, a female of the former and a male 
of the latter. The shape and texture of the three batches were well- 
differentiated ; those of T. biundularia were smaller, somewhat oval in 
shape, of a yellow colour, and more opaque ; whilst those of T. crepus- 
cidaria were cylindrical with rounded ends, of a pearly-green slightly 
transparent and iridescent. The ova which were the result of the 
cross were intermediate in size, slightly more rounded at one end than 



150 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the other, and more variable inter se than either of the other batches, 
which were remarkably constant in their characters. He was indebted 
to Mr. Bacot for the opportunity of examining these batches side by 
side under the microscope ; that gentleman had succeeded in breeding 
the species at the same time, and had forwarded him the ova on the 
same day as they were laid. He did not know whether each batch was 
the product of a siugle female, or not. Mr. Tutt then referred to the 
alleged occurrence of T. biundidinia in Morayshire, and said that the 
opinion of several members was that Mr. Adkin's specimen was only 
T. crepuscuJaria. Mr. Home's specimen from the same district was 
now exhibited, and he (Mr. Tutt) said that it was identical with the 
Perthshire specimen, and of the same type as the Central European 
forms of T. crepuscnlan'ti. Mr. Montgomery, larvae of Mania inaura 
which he had obtained from Mr. Young, of Rotherham. Mr. Adkin, 
specimens of Abraxas f/rossulariata, in one of which the yellow band 
extended across two-thirds of the hind wing, and in the other the 
yellow colour was reduced in intensity to a very pale buff. He also 
showed an example of Arctia caia with the fore wings much suffused 
with brown, and with the blue-black blotches of the hind wings much 
run together. A long discussion took place on the protection of insects 
in danger of extermination, and finally the following resolution was 
adopted : — " That the thanks of the South London Entomological and 
Natural History Society be given to the Committee of the Entomo- 
logical Society of London for the protection of species of insects in 
danger of extermination ; that the Society strongly approves of the 
work ; and that the members present pledge themselves to use their 
personal efforts to further the objects of the Committee." 

March ^oth. — The President in the chair. B. H. Waters, Esq., 
48, Fiusbury Pavement, E.C., was elected a member. Mr. McArthur 
exhibited specimens of Mehoiippe hastata from various localities, and 
said that he had never taken the species in Shetland, nor had he seen 
the food-plant there. Rev. E. Tarbat, a gynandromorphous specimen 
of Melananjia ijalatea, taken at Swanage ; the markings of the under 
side followed those of the upper. Mr. Mansbridge exhibited a bred 
series of Anchocelis riijina from Huddersfield, which were less uniformly 
tinted than the southern examples of this species usually are. Mr. 
Tutt, specimens of Phigalia pcdaria (pilosaria), taken near Bradford by 
Mr. Butterfield [vide Rep. Ent. Soc. Lond., March 17th, ante, p. 147] . 
Mr. Mansbridge said the black was of a different kind to that of the 
melanic specimens he had seen from the West Riding. Mr. Tutt 
reported that Mr. Clarke had taken Tcphrosia crejniscularia this spring 
from the wood which Mrs. Bazett had asserted did not produce it, 
and so confirmed the statement made by Mr. Henderson last October. 
Rev. E. Tarbat also reported the species from woods near Reading. 
Mr. Turner, living larvfe of Cleora lichcnaria, taken in Ashdown Forest, 
and remarked on their wonderful resemblance to the lichen upon which 
they fed. He also made a few remarks on the district in anticipation 
of the proposed visit of the Society at Whitsuntide. Mr. Adkin, series 
of Abraxas (jrossidariata, bred from Perthshire larvfe, including a notice- 
able var. with fore wings having a broad white central band with a 
large circular black discoidal spot, and hind wings also having a large 
discoidal spot. A paper entitled '< Representative Species," by Prof. 



SOCIETIES. 151 

A. Radcliffe Grote, A.M., was then read by Mr, Tutt. It dealt at 
some length with the identical and parallel species which existed in 
the two continents. The evidence pointed to a continuous land con- 
nection between the nearctic and pala?arctic regions. Mr. Tutt said 
he had no doubt that the two faunas had been distributed from the 
circumpolar region while tbere existed a subtropical climate there. 
It was announced that the ' Proceedings ' for 1896 were now ready for 
distribution to members. 

Jpril 8th. — The President in the chair. Mr. South exhibited the 
following Georaetridffi from Europe and Eastern Asia : — Eustroma 
reticulata and var. cerosa, the latter larger and more golden yellow. 
Cidaria sUaceata, Chinese specimens, both larger and smaller than 
European. C. cort/lata, Eastern examples, very typical. C. picata, 
some Chinese specimens, larger and more yellow than European. 
jSlclanippc proccUata, some were larger than European, and some with 
grouind colour suffused with fuliginous. Mr. Lucas, specimens of an 
exotic earwig, Amisnlabis annulipes, which could be distinguished from 
other British species by two white joints near the tip of the an- 
tennas. The distinctly ringed femora give it its specific name. 
It was found in 1894 at Tavistock, but the specimens exhibited came 
from Surrey [figured ante, p. 125] . Mr. Adkin, a fine series of red 
forms of Ticniocampa f/racUis from the New Forest and Rannoch. Mr. 
Tutt read a paper entitled " Some Considerations of Natural Genera, 
and Incidental References to the Nature of Species." — Hy. J. Turner, 
Hon. Report Sec. 

Cambridge Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
February 12th, 1897. — Dr. Sharp, President, in the chair. The 
President showed a remarkable stridulating apparatus in a larva 
of the coleopterous genus Passalus, recently sent by Mr. C. Hose from 
Borneo. Tiiis larva possesses two pairs of largely-developed legs, 
while each leg of the third pair remains a mere rudiment, but is much 
altered in form, so as to be like a small paw, with four or five chitinous 
digits at the extremity wherewith to play on a striated area on the 
coxa of the leg before it. He remarked that Passalid larvas are very 
abundant in logs in the tropics, and that Mr. Champion had informed 
him that he had heard stridulation proceeding from such logs in 
Panama. The President also said it was difficult to imagine what use 
such ah elaborate organ could be to larvje, especially when they led a 
life of the kind mentioned. He also demonstrated the stridulation of 
Coleoptera by means of a large individual of the longicorn genus 
Batocera, which produced a rather loud sound when the appropriate 
movements were made. Mr. Fleet exhibited some Coleoptera, in- 
cluding the blister-beetle and Apion astragali, taken at Cambridge 
some years ago by Mr. Rippon. 

Februari/ 26th. — Annual Meeting. — Dr. Sharp in the chair. Prof. 
I^ewton, the Professor of Zoology, was elected an honorary member. 
Mr. Harmer, of King's College, was elected President for the following 
year. Dr. Sharp exhibited a larva of one of our common Geotrupes, 
and called attention to its stridulating organ, in which one pair of legs 
work upon the pair in front of them. He said that this beetle, in the 
imago state, also possesses a stridulating organ, but it is situated in a 



152 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

different position anatomically, and therefore not corresponding with 
the larval organ. The latter is lost in the imago, and it is clear that 
this elaborate structure exists solely for the larval state ; but Dr. Sharp 
acknowledged that he was unable to guess what use such a structure 
could be to a larva, leading as this does an underground life, and 
having, as far as we know, no relations with the lives of other 
individuals of its own species that could be influenced by any sound 
it might make. 

March 12th. — The President in the chair. Dr. Sharp exhibited, on 
behalf of Dr. Havilaud, part of his magnificent collection of Termites. 
His method of preparation consists in placing the various forms of a 
species found in one nest in glass- tubes divided into compartments by 
cotton-wool and filled with spirit. A photograph" of a termitarium of 
Teriiu's mcdaijanus, taken in situ after it had been sectionised, showed 
the royal cell in the middle of the structure, and the chambers for 
growing fungi — this species being a fungus grower — about the 
periphery. Portions of this nest and individuals taken from it were 
exhibited. The nest is composed of thin fragile laminte of a pottery- 
like structure ; but the royal cell, composed of this substance, is very 
thick and solid. The fungus-chambers are not constructed of clay, but 
of comminuted vegetable matter, subsequently cemented together. 
The specimens taken from this nest included two queens and one 
king from the royal cell, large and small soldiers, and large-headed 
and small-headed workers. — L. Doncaster, Hon. Sec. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — Feljruary 15th, 1897. — Mr. 
R. C. Bradley in the chair. Exhibits :^By Mr. Bradley, unusually 
tine large specimens of Cimhex sylvarum from Sutton. By Mr. A. H. 
Martineau, bramble stems containing pupte of aculeate Hymenoptera, 
and explained how he collected them in this manner ; also cocci of 
cochineal as imported ; also VespaB, to show their position during 
hybernation — they hang by their mandibles, with their legs all drawn 
up and their wings under the body, the wings to some extent support- 
ing the body. By Mr. G. W. Wynn, varieties of Cerastes vaccinii and 
C. spadicea, taken at sugar at Hanbury Park; one of C. vaccinii had a 
pretty chestnut thorax, with chestnut marginal bar and fringes and 
some at the base of the fore wings, the rest of the fore wings being 
greyish, giving the appearance of a chestnut insect with greyish bars. 
By Mr. Eountain, local bred Nijssia hispidaria. By Mr. C. J. Waiu- 
wright, rare Diptera, including Orthoneura brevicornis (a pair from 
Sutton), Chryso(jaster virescens, female (from Sutton), and Chilosia 
berganetammi. 

March 15^/(.— Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. 
Exhibits : — By Mr. R. C. Bradley, various Lepidoptera. By Mr. A. 
H. Martineau, Odijncrus livipes from Wyre Forest, a rare insect, which 
he said seemed to be well established at Wyre, as Mr. Bradley had 
also taken specimens there on another occasion ; he also showed 
Sphecodes nii/er, male. By Mr. Bethune-Baker, two drawers containing 
a portion of the Papilionida", with the genus Parnassiits and its allied 
genera ; they included Luehdorjia puziloi from Vladivostock, Sericinus 
telamon from Eastern Asia, Ismene helios from Switzerland, &c., and a 
fine rich dark variety of Doritis apollinus from Asia Minor, with a great 
deal of red and more black than usual. — C. J. Wainwkight, Hon. Sec. 



SOCIETIES. 153 

Lancashire and Cheshire Entomological Society. — March 8th. 
The President, Mr. S. J. Capper, F.L.S., F.E.S., in the chair. Mr. 
Fred Birch read a paper entitled " An Excursion to Cassiope-lsind, 
with a sample of its Entomologial Fauna," in which he graphically 
described a visit to the grand Langdale Pikes, in Westmorland, in 
search of this the only alpine species of butterfly occurring in England, 
which he was successful in capturing, along with Ciambus fnrcateUus 
and other rare mountain species. The Rev. A. M. Moss also read a 
paper entitled " Notes on Chlaria reticxdata from Windermere," in 
which he recounted his experience in taking this species in the larvffi 
and imago stages. Both papers were well illustrated by numerous 
specimens. Mr. Moss also exhibited a drawer of Bombyces, with life- 
histories. Mr. J. G. Mason, a long series of Tmiiocampa opima, bred 
a week previously. Mr. John Watson, Colias hyale and vars. j^olio- 
graphus and simoda, C. erate var. sareptensis and ab. erioptera, and C. 
romanovi. — T. N. Pierce, Hon. Sec. 

The Nonpareil Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
December Srd, 1896. — Mr. Harpur exhibited a block of solid African 
ebony in which was a large boring, out of which he had extracted the 
body of a caterpillar very much like Cossus Ivjniperda in shape and 
colour, and probably an African representative of that species. Mr. 
Walmer exhibited insects from the New Forest. Mr. Lusby exhibited 
a good series of Ocneria dispar with a series of P. bucephala. Con- 
cerning L. dispar a curious fact came to light. Last autumn Mr. 
Gurney gave some eggs of the species (all laid by the same female) to 
Messrs. Lusby, Craft, and Newbery. The larvfe resulting from these 
were fed up ; Mr. Lusby's on red-flowered hawthorn, and those of 
Messrs. Craft and Newbery on white-flowered hawthorn. Mr. Lusby 
could get nothing else to feed his larvaa upon, and the leaves he said 
were large, old, and tough. The images resulting from these were 
fine large specimens, whilst those of Messrs. Craft and Newbery were 
small and stunted. Mr. Craft showed a box of bred insects from Not- 
tingham. Mr. Newbery exhibited a series of Hybernia aurantiaria and 
H. defoliaria, both sexes, with a variable series of Cheimatobia brumata, 
taken at Wood Street on November 28th. 

December Vlth. — Messrs. Gurney and Martin exhibited series of 
H. aurantiaria and H. defoliaria, taken at Wood Street. It would 
seem that both species, and also C. brumata, were very plentiful, 
although the specimens were not quite as large as usual. Mr. 
J. A. Clarke exhibited twelve specimens of Lycmut mjon ; these included 
two typical males from Cumberland and two ordinary females from 
Box Hill. The remainder were female specimens from Cumberland. 

March Ath, 1897. — Mr. Huckett exhibited a case containing hand- 
some series of A. yrossxdariata , among which were some very fine dark 
and suffused forms ; also series of A. prunaria, L. salads, and P. syrin- 
garia. Mr. Schooling exhibited series (bred from egg) of A. remutata, 
M. galiata, and M. rivata. He took galiata at Ramsgate, and in 
gathering bedstraw as food for the larvae he obtained eggs of rivata, 
which he fed on knot-grass and then dandelion during hybernation. 
In July he also took J. aversata, from which he obtained eggs, reared the 
subsequent larvas, and the imagines emerged about August, all females. 



154 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Mr. Smith exhibited a specimen of the Australian species Afjarista 
fjli/cintr, taken in the Spaniards Lane (Hanipstead) at dusk. The 
opinion was that either it had been accidentally imported into this 
country in the pupa state, or else had escaped from the cage of some- 
one breeding the insect in that neighbourhood. He also showed male 
and female specimens of the great water-beetle [Di/tiscns manihudis). 
Mr. Harpur, Jun., exhibited P. pilosaria, H. Icucophiearia, and A. cbscu- 
lario, taken last week in Highgate Woods. 

March 18th. — Mr, Pearce showed Sesia scoUafurmis and P. alpina, 
both bred from Scottish larvfe, which he stated were obtained in 
exchange for dark vars. of H. abniptaria. Mr. Pickett exhibited very 
fine foreign insects ; preserved larvre of A. atmpos and S. convohuli, 
taken at Folkestone; also larvfe of M. chuia, M. artemis, A. paphia, 
S.fiiiji, and E.jacubica (? locality). Mr. Stevens had on view a pretty 
series of Dianthcecia, including carpophiii/d, capsincola, and ciicabali. 
Mr. Stillwell, three specimens of a beetle imported in a truss of alva 
from Sweden ; these were very like our Mdalontha vuhjaris, of which 
there was a specimen in the box. Mr. J. A. Clarke exhibited a very 
fine bred series of N. hispidaria , bred from ova deposited by a female 
taken on an oak near Chingford Hotel. The specimens were remark- 
ably light. Several members promised to read papers at future 
meetings. 

April 1st. — The chief feature of this meeting was the series of 
Brephos parthenias taken recently at Epping by several members. 
Mr. Croft, Jun., exhibited a very light female specimen of H. ianira. 
A very fine and long series of 1\ miniosa (fifty specimens) was shown 
by Mr. Samson ; they were bred this year from seventy larvae taken 
near Winchester. Mr. Pickett exhibited a fine series of K. versicolor. 
He said they were bred from pupte sent by a gentleman in Kent. The 
curator, in passing the exhibit, remarked that they were probably 
Tilgate specimens from their size. Mr. Pickett also exhibited pre- 
served larvfe of 0. fascelina, A. alni, H. rupicapraria, C. hera, A. paphia, 
B. roboraria, S. fciffi, and B. ritbi. Mr. Lusby exhibited a series 
of B. parthenias, taken at Epping in 1895. On being compared with 
those captured this year, an inferiority in size was distinctly notice- 
able. Mr. Stevens exhibited two English A. crotwyi, with chrysalis 
case; and also male and female A. prodromaria, the male bred, and 
the female from Richmond Park. He also showed specimens of A. 
hetuJaria from Wimbledon. — F, A. Newbery, Pieportini/ Secrctanj. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Abstract of Proceedings of the South London Entomolociical and Natural 
History Society for the year 1896, toyether with the President's 
Address. Pp. 132. Pubhshed at the Society's Rooms, Hibernia 
Chambers, London Bridge. March, 1897. 

Once again this successful and increasingly popular Society pre- 
sents us with its annual volume, and we note with satisfaction that 
the date of publication is an earlier one than it has been for some 



RECENT LITERATURE. 155 

years past. It is to be hoped tliat this improvement will be maintained 
in future. In the President's Address reference is made to the question 
of " Collector v. Entomologist," and certain lines of experimental 
work suggested to the collector or practical entomologist who may 
desire to assist in elucidating some of the questions connected with 
variation, heredity, and the general laws operating in the production 
of species. 

The ' Proceedings ' will be found to embrace a good deal of 
instructive matter, and the papers generally are excellent. Among 
the latter we would especially direct attention to Mr. Enock's " Life- 
history of Cicindela canipestris" ; " Further Notes on Triph ana comes, 
Hb. [orhona, Fab.)," by Mr. E. Adkin; "Is Cold the Cause of Melanism 
in Scotch Specimens of l^riphana orhona, Hufn. [comes, Tr.) ? " by Mr. 
Tutt ; "What is the Cause of Melanism in the Scotch Specimens of 
TripJmna comes, Hb. [orbona, Fb.)? " by Mr. Adkin ; and " Notes on 
AcidaUa marginepunctata and Cyaniris (Lycana) arglolus," also by 
Mr. Adkin. 

The figures of portions of the male antennae of Hybernia aurantiaria 
and H. defoUaria, reproduced from photographs by Mr. F. Clark, are 
of great interest ; and the same remark applies to the drawings of C. 
aryiolus depositing ova, and those showing larvae of the same species 
resting on flower-buds of ivy. 

Beport of Observations of Injurious Insects and Common Farm Pests, 
during the year 1896, ivith Methods of Prevention and Iktnedy. 
Twentieth Keport. By Eleanor A. Ormerod. Pp. i-x, 1-160. 
London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, & Co., Limited. 

1897. 

The importance of Miss Ormerod's annual volume is now so widely 
acknowledged, and its value so generally understood, that it seems 
unnecessary to do more than announce publication of the Report for 
1896. It may be noted, however, that although "many kinds of 
agricultural insect infestations were present during the year, no special 
attack was seriously prevalent over the whole island." Altogether 
some thirty injurious insects are referred to, and of these eleven belong 
to the order Lepidoptera, and six to Coleoptera. The article on 
(Jarpocapsa pomonella (the codlin moth), and that on the two parasitic 
flies — Cephenomyia rufibarbis and Lipoptera cervi, are each of considerable 
interest. In the chapter on Musca domestica a great deal of informa- 
tion concerning the life-history of the species is brought together. 



Notes on Lepidoptera Collected in the Edinhurqli District. By William 

Evans, F.R.S.E. (Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist., No. 22, pp. 89-110, 

April, 1897.) 
Preliminary List of the Neiiroptera and Trichoptera of Yorkshire (omitting 

Psocidce and Ephemeridce). By G. T. Porritt, F.L.S., F.E.S. 

('Naturalist,' April, 1897, pp. 115-126.) 
hnaginal Discs in hisccts. By Henry S. Pratt, Ph.D. ('Psyche,' 

February, 1897, pp. 15-30.) 



156 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

A New Hypothesis of Seasonal-Dimorphism in Lepidoptera. By A. G. 
Mayer. {Op.'cit., pp. 47-50.) 

Ichneumonides d'Afrigue. By Dr. J. Tosquinet. (' Memoires de la 
Societe Entomologique de Belgique,' v., pp. 430. 1896.) 

Le Coccinujlie Italiane virenti siu/li aiinuni. Parte III. I. Diaspiti. 
By Prof. Antonio Berlese. Firenze. 1896. This part con- 
tinues the work from p. 203 to p. 477. There are two hundred 
figures in the text, and twelve lithographic plates, two of which 
are coloured, and two others tinted. 

A Check-List of the CoccidcB. By T. D. A. Cockerell. ' Bulletin of 
the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History,' vol. iv., 
article xi. Springfield, Illinois : H. W. Rokker. 1896. 

The Principal Household Insects of the United States. By L. 0. Howard 
and C. L. Marlatt. With a chapter on " Insects affecting dry 
Vegetable Foods." By F. H. Chittenden. (' Bulletin ' No. 4. 
New Series. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Division of 
Entomology.) Pp. 130, numerous figures in text. Washington: 
Government Printing Office. 1896. 

Insects afecting Domestic Animals : an account of the species of importance 
in North America, ivith mention of related forms occurrimj on other 
amimals. Prepared under the direction of the Entomologist, 
by Herbert Osborn. ('Bulletin' No. 5. New Series. U.S. 
Department of Agriculture. Division of Entomology.) Pp. 302, 
fully illustrated. Washington : Government Printing Office. 
1896. 

Insects affecting the Cotton Plant. By L. 0. Howard, Ph.D. (U.S. 
Department of Agriculture. Division of Entomology.) 

An Essay on the Development of the Mouth-parts of certain Insects. By 
John B. Smith, Sc.D. Pp. 24, plates 3. Eepriuted, November, 
1896, from Transactions of Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. xix. 

New Mallophaga (pt. ii.), from Land-Birds ; together with an Account of 
the Mallophagous Mouth-parts. By Vernon L. Kellogg. Pp. 118, 
plates 14. Palo Alto, California : Leland Stanford, Jr. Uni- 
versity. 1896. 



OBITUARY. 



We regret to announce that Mr. Clarence Fry died suddenly on 
the golf links at Northwood, near Watford, on April 10th last. It may 
be said that indirectly we were largely indebted to Mr. Fry for our 
present knowledge of the insect fauna of the Hebrides, Shetlauds, &c., 
as he at one time liberally supported professional collectors in their 
expeditions to these remote portions of the kingdom, and so fostered 
an interest which subsequently became more fully developed. His 
collection of British Lepidoptera, which comprised many local and 
rare species, was disposed of at Stevens's, March, 1896 (Entom. xxix. 
164). Deceased was the well-known photographer of Kensington. 
He was about fifty-seven years of age. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX.] JUNE, 189 7. [No. 409. 



ON THE GEOGRAPHECAL DISTRIBUTION AND POST- 
GLACIAL DERIVATION OF THE PAL^ARCTIC AND 
NEARCTIG ALPINE RHOPALOCERA FAUNAS. 

Bv W. IIarcourt-Bath. 

In studying the intricate and complex themes which con- 
stitute the subject-heading of the present essay, a good deal 
will be gained from obtaining a preliminary insight into the 
theories of those botanists who have contributed treatises on 
the distribution and derivation of the alpine floras in the exten- 
sive regions under consideration. 

The geographical and vertical distribution of the Rhopalocera 
in a very great degree is so intimately connected with the distri- 
bution of their pabula that it is reasonable to suppose they have 
closely followed the various migrations of the flora upon which 
they are so dependent, both antecedent to and after the termina- 
tion of the glacial period. It follows therefore that, in order to 
intelligently comprehend their present distribution, as well as 
their post-glacial derivation, we must possess a certain know- 
ledge of the closely kindred science of pbyto-geography. 

We will flrst of all take a glance at the geographical distri- 
bution of the alpine Rhopalocera fauna which exist at the 
present day upon the different and diverse mountain systems in 
the two regions under consideration. As the genus Erchia is 
the most extensive and typical group among the alpine butter- 
flies, it will serve to illustrate with a certain degree of accuracy 
the facts relating to the whole. 

In the Pala3arctic and Nearctic Regions combined this genus 
numbers nearly sixty species,* all but seven or eight being con- 

-■• These and the following figures only profess to be approximatelj^ correct. 
BNTOM. — JUNE, 1897. O 



158 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

fined to the first named, the remainder occurring exclusively in 
the Nearctic Area. 

In the Paleearctic Region there are apparently six principal 
centres of distribution, three of them being situated in Europe 
and the other three in Asia. The Alps of Central Europe con- 
stitute the metropolis or headquarters of the alpine Pihopalocera 
fauna, containing in the genus Krchia alone as many as twenty- 
five species, that is, nearly one-half of the species inhabiting the 
whole of the northern hemisphere. On either side of them we 
have the Pyrenees and the Carpathians, containing about twelve 
and eleven species respectively ; then there is a great gap until 
we arrive in Western Siberia, in the neighbourhood of the Thian 
Shan, with ahout eleven species ; and the Altai and Amur, 
tending in a north-easterly direction, and containing respectively 
about fourteen and eleven species apiece. Both north and south 
of this great central series of mountain chains running through 
Europe and Asia the number of alpine forms of butterflies 
rapidly diminishes. Thus in Europe north of the Alps we have 
about seven species of Erdna in the Cevennes and Auvergne in 
South-eastern France, some six or seven species in the Jura, 
five each in the Vosges and the Piiesengeberge, four in the 
Schwarzwald or Black Forest, four in the Hartz, and three in 
the Ardennes. All these mountain ranges are more or less in 
direct continuation of the great central alpine chain, of which 
they topographically constitute an integral part. In the Ural 
mountains, far away to the north-east on the confines of Eussia 
in Europe and Siberia, about five species exist ; in the Scandi- 
navian mountains there are three, and in Lapland, still further 
north, four; while England and Scotland only possess two each, 
and Ireland one. Three of the species, however, which occur 
in the more northern limits of the distribution of the genus, are 
not true alpine forms. I refer to Erehia ligea, E. (ethiops, and 
E. medusa, all of which are found in the Ardennes, and one in 
Great Britain ; so that the only true alpine species which we 
possess in this county is Erehia <3jjy>>//7-o», occurring upon the 
mountains of Cumberland and Westmoreland, the Grampians 
in Scotland, and the Connemara group in the West of Ireland. 
South of the Alps the same increasing paucity takes place pre- 
cisely ; thus in the various mountain ranges of the Iberian 
Peninsula there are only two or three, including one endemic 
form ; while only one species, I believe, occurs on the elevated 
chain of the Sierra Nevada in the extreme south. The Apennines 
in Italy only contain four or five species at the outside, while the 
Dinaric Alps in Dalmatia and the Balkans in Turkey are in a 
similar predicament ; two or three species only are found in the 
mountains of Greece, and three in Armenia and Asia Minor ; 
while the very elevated and extensive but isolated chain of the 
Caucasus, in the same latitude as the Pyrenees, only possesses 



ALPINE RHOPALOCERA FAUNAS. 159 

five or six. There are no species whatever inhabiting the range 
of the Atlas in Northern Morocco and Algeria. 

Turning now to the remainder of the region: in Arctic 
Siberia to the north about five species occur ; south of the 
central ranges their numbers diminish to two in the Persian 
Highlands, and a similar number in the vast chain of the 
Himalayas. 

In the Nearctic Eegion, four species only are found in the 
Rocky Mountains, and five in the tundras of the north ; while 
no species of this genus are found at all in the Alleghany or 
Appalachian system in the east. 

Now what do the foregoing facts prove ? In my estimation 
they furnish us with an approximate estimate of the extreme 
distance south to which the alpine Rhopalocera fauna were 
driven during the climax of the glacial period, at least in the 
PaliTearctic Piegion. 

In preglacial times these butterflies were probably found in 
company with their pabula throughout the whole of the northern 
portion of the Europasian Area, their range extending to well 
within the Arctic Circle. Upon the advance of the ice-cap they 
retreated south until they reached the six great chains of moun- 
tains which I have already described. Many of the species were 
probably unable to surmount the barriers which they furnished, 
and consequently perished ; while the majority perhaps forced 
their way through them by means of transverse passes and 
valleys, and survived in the sheltered and more hospitable areas 
which they would provide immediately to the south. That the 
butterflies did not retreat much further equatorwards I am 
thoroughly convinced from the fact of so few species being found 
upon the mountain chains to their front Moreover, we have 
every reason to suppose that the climatal and phyto-geographical 
conditions must both have been favourable to their survival in 
the South of Europe especially, even during the climax of the 
glacial epoch ; so that I cannot agree with Hofmann's hypothesis 
that the alpine Rhopalocera fauna was entirely driven out of 
Europe, the greater portion into Asia, and a few into Africa, 
from whence he supposes they returned when the climate again 
became warmer. 

On the other hand, I think we might fairly assume with a 
certain degree of safety that a few species even survived in 
certain favourable spots to the north of the Alps, the Pyrenees, 
and the Carpathians, where the land was not submerged beneath 
the shroud of snow and ice with which most of the north of 
Europe was enveloped. At any rate there are some powerful 
reasons for supposing that the remainder of Europe south of the 
mountain chains indicated were capable of affording a safe refuge 
to the alpine butterflies, contrary to the views expressed by 
Hofmann, before mentioned. 

o2 



160 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I have given elsewhere (Entom, xxix. 3*20-324) my reasons for 
supposing that the alpine Pihopalocera fauna did not retreat as 
far south as the north of Europe during the glacial period. That 
the climatal conditions were not so severe as supposed hy Hof- 
mann in order to have extirpated tlie whole of the Rhopalocera 
fauna of Europe is proved by the paucity of alpine forms which 
are found on the various mountain ranges in the extreme south 
of the Continent at the present day. The same thing must 
have been the case in the other portion of the Palaarctic Area, 
judging from the fact that there are so few species found on the 
Himalayas and the mountains of Northern Persia to the south. 

All these facts seem to prove that the great majority of the 
alpine forms of butterflies therefore found a sanctuary during 
the climax of the glacial period to the immediate south of the 
three great chains of mountains on either continent. 

Hofmann is most probably correct in concluding that the 
great bulk of the European Pihopalocera fauna have been 
originally derived from the Asiatic Area, though not, as he sup- 
poses, after the termination of the glacial epoch ; but I think he 
is incorrect in imagining that the post-glacial alpine forms were 
not directly derived from the south. According to the investi- 
gations of Sir Joseph Hooker, the alpine flora of the Himalayas, 
the Alps, and Pyrenees have had remarkably little lateral con- 
nection with each other in post-glacial times. It is reasonable 
to suppose therefore that the alpine PJiopalocera have accord- 
ingly not been directly derived from the East in a similar man- 
ner. The butterflies being so dependent upon the plants for 
their pabula must have been in large measure circumscribed by 
their migration. On the other hand, it may be probably true 
that the great majority of the Austral or Lowland forms immi- 
grated westwards from Asia at the termination of the glacial 
epoch. 

In the case of the Nearctic Continent, fully taking into con- 
sideration the more extreme glaciated conditions which pre- 
vailed there, I think the alpine butterflies were not driven any 
further south than the latitude of 30'^ N. ; but there are so few 
alpine forms occurring in that region that it would not be safe to 
draw the line so closely as one is able to do in the Eastern 
Hemisphere. Moreover, the physical conditions of the two 
regions are very difterent, the elevated chain of the Cordilleras 
running at right angles to and crossing the equator, while all the 
principal mountain ranges of the Palaearctic Eegion are in the 
reverse direction, that is, nearly parallel with the equatorial belt. 
The fact that closely allied genera to that of Erdna occur in the 
Andes of South America, and again in the highlands of South 
Africa, may be explained on the hypotheses that they were 
derived from the regions to the north during the glacial epoch ; 
in the former case by means of the elevated chain of the Cor- 



ALPINE RHOPALOCERA FAUNAS. 161 

dilleras crossing the Equator, and in the hxtter by the assist- 
ance of the mountain ranges in Abyssinia and their continuance 
southward through Zanzibar. Whatever differences these butter- 
flies possess at the present day in order to enable them to be 
placed in distinct genera from that of Erehia may be owing to 
the change effected in post-glacial times by reason of the differ- 
ences experienced in the organic environment. The only other 
contingency I can discern is that these southern genera repre- 
sent pre-glacial forms which existed in a cosmopolite condition, 
both geographically and vertically, in both hemispheres, as I 
have reason to suppose was the case with the genus (Enis 
or its immediate stirps in pre-glacial times (see Entora. xxix. 
345-349). 

Asia north of the Himalayas is probably the original homo 
from whence the present alpine Khopalocera fauna of both 
Europe and North America were indirectly or originally derived. 
In the former continent, during Miocene times, a very different 
fauna and flora existed to that which is the case at the present 
day. This fauna and flora, which was exceedingly rich according 
to the palreontological evidence, and partook of a subtropical 
nature, was, during the succeeding Pliocene period, gradually 
extirpated, and gave place to one which made its way from the 
east, more in harmony with the less genial climatal conditions 
which subsequently prevailed. 

It was during this epoch, or the early part of the Pleistocene 
period which followed, that the present alpine Ehopalocera fauna 
of Europe or their immediate stirps was primarily derived. 
During the glacial period, as I have endeavoured to prove, the 
greater part of them survived in the more hospitable regions in 
the neighbourhood of the Mediterranean, the lowland forms 
only seeking a shelter further south still, namely, in Asia Minor 
and in Africa north of the Sahara Desert. It will therefore 
appear that Hofmann is incorrect in supposing that the whole 
of the post-glacial European Pihopalocera fauna have been 
directly derived from regions situated outside its pale. Not 
only am I supported in this contention from the fact of the 
extensive paucity of the alpine Rhopalocera in the South of 
Europe compared with the exceeding richness of that existing in 
the Alps and the Pyrenees, but also from the researches of Sir 
Joseph Hooker, who has proved the small amount of lateral 
connection also between the different mountain ranges as regards 
the derivation of their respective alpine floras. 

Birmingham, March 17th, 1897. 



1G2 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

COBDYCEPS ENTOMOnilHIZA (Dickson), A VEGETABLE 
ENEMY OF HEPIALUS LUFULINUS LAEVJ5. 

By F. V. Theobald, M.A., F.E.S. 

We are all well acquainted with the fungoid disease, Empusa 
viiisca, that often causes such havoc amongst the abundant 
house fly and other Diptera, but beyond this we do not often 
come across vegetal parasitism in insects in this country, 
although some seventeen insect fungi are recorded. It is only 
when insects are present in very large and abnormal numbers 
that these parasitic diseases, due to vegetable parasites, seem to 
appear. Kecently there seems to have been a considerable 
increase, anyhow in cultivated areas, of the larvie of the garden 
swift moth {H. lajmUiius), especially in the south-east of England, 
and notably in Kent. Not until recently, however, have I been 
able to detect any natural enemies at work upon them, save a 
single species of Anihocoris, which I have referred to before in 
these pages, but which I am sorry to say has had no effect in 
lessening their numbers, and so helping to allay the damage the 
ravenous //. lupulinus larvfe occasion. During the latter part of 
February, Mr. Kennard, of Linton, in Kent, sent me a number 
of so-called " vegetable caterpillars," which he could not account 
for, and which he had noticed in bis garden in certain areas on 
and off for the last fifteen years. These turned out to be the 
larvffi of 11. lupulinus that had been invaded by a parasitic 
fungus of the genus Cordi/ccps. Although many of the speci- 
mens differ very much in form from the previous figures, they 
are undoubtedly those of the species entomorrldza described 
by Dickson* in 1785, and subsequently noticed by Tulasne, 
Saccardo, Currey, Cook, and others. 

Many of the larvae showed no signs of having been invaded 
by a fungus, they simply remained in the soil as yellowish brown 
shiny bodies, like " mummies " of Hepialus larviie. On cutting 
these open, they were seen to be full of a solid white or creamy 
mass of matter, which under the microscope was shown to be 
composed of closely compacted fine mycelial threads. This 
fungus completely invades the larva, and even destroys the 
chitinous skin, yet retaios most perfectly every detail of the 
larval structure. A number of the larvae were covered externally 
by a white or dirty-yellow coarse mycelium, esijecially over the 
anterior half of the body (figs. 1 & 2/>) ; this is also noted by Cook 
in his * Vegetable Wasps and Plant Worms.' Others, and those 
that are most interesting, have developed and proceeding from the 
side or beneath near the head the large fruit-bearing body so 
characteristic of the genus Cordyceps. This structure grows out 
from the buried larva into the air. It is swollen at the free end, 
and the stem in old specimens is deeply striated longitudinally 
■■'■■ riant. Crypt. Britt., p. -22, t. 3, fig. 3. Dickson, 1785. 



COKDYCEPS ENTOMOKRHIZA. 



163 



(fig. 3) ; other specimens, especially before they are ripe, have 
smooth stems (fig. t2). This solid stem, which is variable m length, 
according to the depth of the larva under the ground, is sterile, 
the spore-producing area being the globose capitulum (fig. la). 
Several specimens resembled Greville's C. gracilis * which is 
now considered merely a variety of eiitomorrhiza (fig. Ih). The 




L_b 



Fig. 13. 

clubbed erect body is reddish browii, and in some darkened 
at the capitulum, others have rusty brown capitula, whilst 
yet others are yellowish, resembling the variety recorded 
by Greville from Shetland. Internally the globose head con- 
tains a number of cavities, or perithecia, when ripe, em- 
bedded in the soft stroma of the capitulum. Each cup-shaped 
perithecium opens to the exterior by a small round aperture, 
when the spores contained in them are ripe. There are 
eight thread-like filaments in each perithecium, which break 
up into a number of oblong spores. These spores are then 
passed out of the openings on to the soil and in the air, a 

- Scot. Crypt. Flora, pi. 86. 



16i THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

necessary item in the distribution and increase of this parasite. 
The "fruits" last for a considerable time, but shrivel up when 
dried, and decay away from the "mummy" larva below long 
before the larva becomes disintegrated. Sometimes the para- 
sitised larvffi lie flat in the ground, but the majority, especially 
those with the fruit-bearing body, are at right angles to the 
surface of the soil. One some distance from the surface had the 
stem quite white, much bent, and three inches long. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Kennard I had the opportunity 
of examining these creatures in the soil. They were only to be 
found round peony roots, and seldom more than two feet away 
from the plants, although living li(puliniis larva" could be found 
in all parts. This fact of their presence only near peony roots 
may be of some importance in regard to the life-history of this 
fungus, possibly some of the early stages may take place on that 
plant. The life-history of none of these fungi is known. Some 
authorities su^jpose that the various Isarias that also affect 
insects are stages of Cordijceps. Cook, however, we must 
remember, seems to have found them in abundance at the roots 
of coltsfoot at Hitchin. 

Many of these "vegetable larvae" and the earth in which they 
were found were obtained with the idea that other areas might 
be infected with this disease. Experiments in this direction 
have not been altogether satisfactory, although numbers of sound 
hipnliiius larvfe from other localities kept in this contaminated 
soil became invaded by this fungus when kept in a damp heat. 
Those kept in a dry heat showed no signs of being attacked. 

Several other kinds of " surface larvae " (NoctuaO were also 
subjected to the same treatment, but none developed the disease, 
although kept under exactly similar conditions as the Hepialus 
larvae. The ripe spore germinates rapidly if placed on a healthy 
larva of the latter genus, the mycelial thread entering the 
spiracle, and commences at once to invade the organs, leaving 
the alimentary canal until last. As a rule the larva seems to 
have reached maturity before it dies, but I have found some 
quite small larvae dead in the soil. 

At present our knowledge of the vegetal enemies of insects 
is not sufticient to enable us to carry out any experiments 
successfully in regard to their use as a means of keeping down 
an excess of insect pests. The only good results attending such 
experiments have been in regard to Isaiia dcnsa,^' of Giard, a 
parasite that has been sufficiently abundant in France to be 
cultivated on a large scale and sold to farmers as a means of 
destroying the " white grubs " of the Melalonthidae, a family 
much subject to vegetal parasites, species of Cordijccps often being 
abundant on them. Some success has also attended Professor 
Snow's employment and distribution of the Sporotriclium globuli- 
/cnun of Spegazzini, as an antidote for the destructive "chinch 
■'' ' Comptes Eendus,' jo. 1079. 



ON A NEW SPECIES OF PAPILIO FROM UGANDA. 165 

bug" in the States There seems some doubt, however, about the 
identity, &c., of the fungus employed in the latter case. ]3efore 
any really successful work can be done in this subject, if it is 
to be done, we must know a great deal more of the life-history 
of the parasitic insect fungi than we do at the present time. 
Wye Court, Wye, April 2iid, 1897. 



ON A NEW SPECIES OF PAPILIO FROM UGANDA. 
By the Hon. Walter Rothschild. 

Papilio mimeticus, sp. nov. 
This most remarkable butterfly is closely allied to Papilio 
rex, Oberth. ; but while that s^jecies is almost the exact mimic 
of ]\Ieliiida formosa, Salv. & God., Papilio mimeticus mimics 
Melinda morgeni mcrcedonia, Karsch. 

^ Upper side. — Fore wings : differ from P. rex in Laving the 
basal area deep chestnut instead of orange-rufous ; in this chestnut 
area is a longitudinal pale streak behind cell, not present in typical 
P. rev. The creamy spot near apex of coll is half, obliterated. The 
ci'eam-coloured discal spots are much smaller, and four in number 
instead of seven ; those between veins four and six and the one between 
veins seven and eight being absent. The subraargiual spots are much 
smaller. Hind wings : basal white spots much smaller, the first one 
before the cell almost obliterated by black scales. The fourth discal 
spot between veins two and three reduced to a tiny line ; of the 
remaining discal series only one is present ; those between veins three 
and six absent ; that one between veins six and seven reduced to a 
mere dot. The double row of post-median spots much reduced in 
size. One of the most striking differences, however, between P. rex 
and P. mimeticus is that while in P. rex the ground colour of the hind 
wings is uniform black, in P. mimeticus the disc of the wing is dull 
chestnut, this colour extending along the abdominal margin to near 
apex of vein. 

Under side shows the same differences as above, in addition to which 
the two anterior white marginal spots are absent. The two discal spots 
between veins four and six, though much reduced in size, are also 
present. On the hind wing the first basal creamy patch has no black 
scaling, and there is an additional discal creamy spot between veins 
five and six. Also the chestnut disc of hind wings is not so distinct 
as on the upper side. Oberthiir, in his original description of P. rex 
(Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1886, p. 114), says : abdomen black above, white 
on sides and below ; but m my specimen of P. re.v from Uganda 
Protectorate the under side is black with a narrow but distinct median 
white line, and in this agrees entirely with P. mimeticus. 

Hah. Msarosaro, Uganda, December 20th, 1896. 

This is the choicest capture of a very fine collection sent me 
by Dr. Ansorge, whose care in labelling and collecting ought to. 
prove a lesson to all entomologists. 



166 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

ON THE GENUS GYMNOPLEURUS, Illiger; WITH A LIST 

OF SPECIES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW 

GENERA. 

By John W. Shipp. 

(Couclucled from p. 135.) 

Probably virens, Erichs , will be found to be synonymous 
with lavicollis, Cast. ; but I have not thoroughly satisfied 
myself yet on this point. 

Wahlhcrgl, Boh., is not quite distinct from splendeiis, although 
regarded as such by some authors. It is, however, a good variety 
of sjdcndcns. 

I have placed tlioracicus, Har., as a var. of ignitm, Klug., as I 
have seen varieties which are intermediate between the two, and 
I only regard thoracicus as the extreme highly-coloured form of 
ignitus. 

The existing genus may be further divided as follows : — 

A. Species having the posterior angles of thorax produced 

into a distinct obtuse point, and having the basal half 
of the lateral margins of thorax strongly emarginate 
and slightly refiexed. Body generally flatter. First 
segment of abdomen with the side margins straight or 
slightly convex, edged with a very strong longitudinal 
carina. Frontal carina never extending past the disc 
of head - - - Paragymnopleunis , Shipp. 

B. Species having the posterior angles of thorax blunt, 

basal half of lateral margins of thorax bicarinate. 

First segment of abdomen concave, with no marginal 

carinse extending the whole length ; the carina being 

broken and evanescent in the centre. Frontal carina? 

produced at the base of head, convergent. 

a. Frontal carinas always visible. Epipleura of elytra 

not produced into a spine near the humeral 

angles . - . . Gymnopleurus, 111. 

h. Frontal carinas obsolete or nearly so at base of head. 

Epipleura of elytra produced into a short sharp 

spine near the humeral angles. 

Spinogym iwplcurus, Shipp. 

Paragymnopleurus, n. g. 
Clypeus dentate and slightly reflexed in front, with the edge 
split into six teeth, the basal two mostly obsolete, or with the 
front produced and sharply cleft. Frontal carinas only reaching 
the centre of the head ; sides produced so as to almost divide 
the eyes. Labial palpi 3- jointed ; the first very large and broad, 
the second smaller, and the apical joint very small and rounded. 
Labial palpi and labrum very hairy. Maxillary palpi 4-jointed : 



THE GENUS GYMNOPLEURUS. 167 

basal joint very small, rounded ; second joint longer ; third, half 
as long as the second ; and the apical joint swollen in the 
middle, and as long as the other three. Mandibles membranous. 
Antennae 9-articulate, the first joint having the base produced 
and narrowed almost to a point at the junction with the 
head; the last three forming the club. Thorax more or less 
trapezoidal ; anterior portion narrow, with the angles acute ; 
lateral margins curved outwards, with the basal half strongly 
emarginate. Posterior angles produced to a distinct point, with 
the posterior margin slightly curved ; a deep cicatrix on each 
side near the lateral margins. Base of elytra as wide as 
thorax ; humeral angles pronounced ; lateral margins very 
strongly sinuated just below the humeral angles. Epipleura of 
the elytra scarcely visible, except at the base ; apical prominences 
generally pronounced, with the apical angles very acute. Dorsal 
surface of the first, second, and part of third distinct in the 
elytral sinuation ; pygidium triangular. Metasternal keel rather 
prominent. Anterior tibiae with three sharp teeth at apex of 
exterior margin, the rest of the margin being serrated. The 
apical spine is broadly bispined in the males. Anterior femora 
with a small but distinct tooth or tubercle in the centre of the 
longitudinal carinae. Spurs at the apices of the intermediate 
and posterior tibiae not soldered. Posterior tibiae rather strongly 
curved inwards at extremity, with each of the longitudinal 
carinae distinctly serrated, obliquely truncated at apex. 

Type of the genus, simuitus, Fb. 

The following may be referred to Paragymnopleurus : — 
assamensis, Waterh. ; inclanaiius, Har. ; morosus, Fairm. ; 
azureus, Fab. ; sylendens, Cast. ; latus, Hope ; &c. 

Gymnopleurus, lUiger. 
Clypeus not so sharply dentate, mostly only cleft in centre, 
sometimes 4-dentate. Frontal carinae extend to the base of 
head, and convergent. Trophi the same as in Paragymno- 
pleiuiLs, except that the basal joint of the labial palpi is always 
much narrower and more rounded. Labrum not contracted 
towards apex. Thorax and anterior margin contracted, angles 
acute, sides rounded, posterior angles not prominent, almost 
obsolete in some species ; posterior half of lateral margins 
bi-emarginate. Basal portion of elytra hardly as wide as thorax ; 
elytral sinuation strong. Epipleura of elytra obsolete, the lateral 
margins being vertical and widely bicarinate the whole length ; 
rather strongly truncate at apex. Dorsal surface of the first 
segment of the abdomen not visible, the carina meeting with the 
margin of the elytra ; the exterior portion of the first segment 
of the abdomen visible is the sides, which are rounded, and not 
carinate on the outermost portion. The second segment has the 
dorsal surface visible, and is carinated on the exterior portion, 



168 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Avhen the carina becomes evanescent ; the carina then runs to 
the pygidium, which is trianguhir, with an obtuse apex. Meso- 
sternal keel rather pointed. Anterior tibiaj with three teeth on 
exterior margin, and with the apical spine obtusely pointed in 
the males. Anterior femora with a small tubercle in the apical 
third. Intermediate and posterior tibiae as in Paragijmnopleurusy 
but rather shorter ; tarsi laterally compressed. 

Type of the genus, G. geojroa, Fuessl. 

The following may be referred to the genus Gymnoplcunis as 
restricted: — Jicujcllatus, Fab.; stanni, Macleay; aciculatus, 
Gebler; lacunosus, Klug. ; fulgidas, Oliv. ; olivieri, Cast.; 
ignitus, lihig. ; h i colo r, hutv. ; cumisccDis, y^ied.; c oelat as, YJied.; 
ka'iiigi, Fab ; &c. 

Spinigymnopleurus, n. g. 

Much the same as Ggmnoplcuras, but differs in having the 
anterior tibiiB shorter, and the teeth on the exterior margins 
wider apart. Frontal carinas scarcely visible to base. The 
posterior angles of the thorax are terminated by small tubercles. 
The lateral carinse of the first segment of the abdomen runs 
from near the humeral curve towards the centre of the elytra 
and meets the upper carina, which runs round the margins of 
the elytra. The extreme posterior portion of the first segment 
of the abdomen is simply carinate, whilst the anterior portion is 
bicarinate. The second segment is rounded at the sides, with 
the carinae reflexed close under the lateral margin of the elytra. 
The lateral margins of the elytra are similar to Gymnopleurus, 
except that they have a sharp spine at the curve opposite the 
humeral prominences, just as the sinuation begins. This s^jine 
is slightly pointing outwards, and is situated on the extreme 
margin. 

Type of the genus, tristis, Cast. 

The following may be referred to this genus : — plicatus, 
Fairm. 



NEW SPECIES OF SOUTH AMERICAN EUM0LPIDJ3. 
By Martin Jacoby, F.E.S. 

Chalcoplacis gigas, n. sp. 

Metallic violaceons-blue ; tbe basal joints of the auteni:fe fulvous; 
head distinctly, thorax finely and closely, punctured ; elytra semi- 
regularly punctate-striate. Length, J , B lines, J , 4^ lines. 

' Of broad, subquadrate-ovate shape, entirely dark blue ; the head 
rather strongly but not closely punctured, slightly transversely de- 
pressed between the eyes ; clypeus more strongly punctured, its 
anterior edge concave ; the autennfe not extending to the middle of 
the elytra, the basal joint blue above, the following two joints fulvous, 



NEW SPECIES OF SOUTH AMERICAN EUMOLPID.E. 169 

the rest black, third and fourth joints equal, terminal joints thickened ; 
thorax in the male at least three times broader than long, the sides 
strongly rounded and widened at the middle, the anterior angles 
slightly produced outwards, the surface finely and rather closely 
punctured, the interstices at the sides slightly wrinkled and with a 
rather obsolete fovea ; scutellum much broader than long ; elytra not 
wider at the base than the thorax, with a short transverse depression 
below the base, scarcely more strongly punctured than the thorax, 
the punctures arranged in closely approached semi-regular rows, 
distinct to the apex ; below very sparingly pubescent ; femora rather 
swollen. 

Hah. — Cayenne. 

Of this, the largest species of the genus, I possess a male and 
female specimen ; the latter is of almost double the size and 
width, but does not differ in other respects ; both sexes are of a 
much more ovate shape than is generally the case with species 
of this genus. 

Chalcophana impressipennis, n. sp. 

Dark rufous ; the antennae (the basal three joints excepted), the 
apex of the tibiae, and the tarsi blackish blue ; thorax irregularly 
punctured ; elytra finely punctate-striate, metallic cupreous or green, 
margined with fulvous at the sides, the disc with two or three short 
costae below the base, the latter with oblique deep humeral depression. 
Length 4|-5 lines. 

J . Head rather finely and sparingly punctured at the vertex, the 
middle with a foven, more strongly punctate; clypeus subquadrately 
elongate, smooth, bounded behind by a deep groove ; labrum and 
palpi rufous; antennae long, bluish black, the basal three joints rufous ; 
thorax strongly narrowed in front, the anterior angles acutely pro- 
duced, the sides strongly rounded, the disc irregularly impressed with 
larger and smaller punctures ; scutellum rufous ; elytra much pointed 
posteriorly, cupreous or green, the lateral margin and the epipleur^e 
narrowly rufous, the shoulders bounded within with a deep, oblique, 
longitudinal depression, followed by two or three very short costfe at 
the sides, the depression deeply punctured, the rest of the disc finely 
and evenly punctate-striate, the rows not geminate and rather dis- 
tant, the punctures finer towards the apex, the suture raised at the 
posterior half ; under side and \Qgi rufous ; the apex of the tibiae and 
the tarsi blackish blue, clothed with yellowish pubescence ; breast and 
abdomen impunctate ; the prosternum smooth, rather broad. 

Hah. — Bolivia. 

I only know the females of this species, which is one of the 
largest of the genus and distinct on account of the deej) intra- 
humeral groove of the elytra and the short costae below this 
groove at the middle of the sides ; but whether this species is 
but the female of C. suavis, Har., which is described as having 
neither basal depression nor costae, it is impossible to say, since 
the author does not mention what sex he had before him. 



170 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Chalcophana boliviana, n. sp. 

Fulvous ; the antennfe (the basal two joints excepted), the tibiae, 
and tarsi black; thorax impunctate; elytra dark bluisli, the apex 
greenish, finely punctate-striate, the sides with three short costns at 
the middle. Length 4 Ihies. 

? . Head nearly impunctate, with a few fine punctures only, the 
middle with the usual fovea ; clypeus broad, convex, impunctate ; 
antenna) black, the basal two joints fulvous, terminal joints distinctly 
thickened ; thorax strongly transverse, the sides rounded, the anterior 
angles thickened but not prominent, the surface nearly impunctate or 
with some extremely fine punctures, fulvous ; scutellum of the same 
colour ; elytra rather finely punctured in single rows, which become 
geminate here and there below the middle, below the base is a distinct 
depression which is followed by three short costfe, the shoulders are 
acutely raised as well, and a longer costa below them extends to tlie 
apex at the sides ; under side and femora fulvous ; the entire tibi» 
and tarsi black. 

Hah. — Bolivia. 

Of this species, of which three specimens are contained in my 
collection, I also know only the female ; the elytra are of rather 
peculiar coloration, bluish anteriorly, greenish near the apex. 
The species may be known by the nearly impunctatejiead and 
thorax and the black tibiic and tarsi. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES ON THE SYNONYMY OF NOCTUID MOTHS. 
By Arthur G. Butler, Ph.D., F.L.S., &c. 

(Continued from vol. xxix. p. 284.) 

Abrostola, Ochs. 

Walker's second species of /I. oralis, Guen., is A. asclepiadis, 
and (on turning up the reference to the register of accessions) I 
find that it is a European specimen purchased from Becker. 
Walker's carelessness in making certain of the localities recorded 
in his catalogue has been a source of considerable confusion. 
Iiuiuridia ahrostoloides is an Abrostola near A. urentis, 

EURHIPIDiE. 
Inguka, Guen. 
Ingura ahrostoloides. 
Ingura ahrostoloides, Guenee, Noct. 2, p. 311, n. 1119 (1852). 
Edema producta, Walker, Lep. Het. 5, p. 1031, n. 4 (1855). 
United States. In Coll. B. M. 



NOTES ON THE SYNONYMY OF NOCTUID MOTHS. 171 

Ahrostola devincta, Walk., is allied to this species, and still 
more closely to Imiura fuscescens, Walk., which is a variety of 
/. ianodcs, Guen., without the whitish apical spot. 

Ingnra limodes. 

Ingura lunodes, Guenee, Noct. 2, p. 310, n. 1117 (1852). 

Edema fuscescens, Walker, Lep. Het. 5, p. 1031, n. 5 (1855). 

Rio Janeiro, Honduras, St. Domingo, and Jamaica. In 
Coll. B. M. 

" Ingura subapicalis " and I. cristatrix differ from typical 
Ingura in their upright slender palpi ; those of the New World 
species being broad, thickly scaled, and porrected. The Indian 
species I have called Callingura. 

EUTELIID^. 
EuTELiA, Hiihn. 
Eutelia dentifera. 

Eutelia dentifera, Walker, Lep. Het. Suppl. 3, p. 818 (1865). 

£. p^tZc/icrrima, Grote (see Check-List, p. 33, n. 816). 

United States. In Coll. B. M. 

It is possible that Grote's name may have priority ; but as 
his Check-List gives no references I cannot settle the point. I 
leave it to those who know where to look for the description.* 
E, exqnisita, Saalm., appears to be the same as E. howkeri, Feld. 
Both figures are bad, but Saalmiiller's is by far the worse of the 
two. We have E. howkeri from Kilima-njaro. 

Marasmalus, Grote. 
Marasmalus injicita. 

Eutelia injicita, Walker, Lep. Het. Suppl. 3, p. 818 (1865). 
Marasmalus histrio, Grote (see Check-List, p. 33, n. 818). 
United States. In Coll. B. M. 

Targalla, Walk a 

Cryassa, Walk., and Penicillaria (part), Guen. 

Targalla hi fades. 

Cryassa hifacies. Walker, Lep. Het. xv. p. 1745 (1858). 
Eutelia impleta, Walker, /. c, Suppl. 3, p. 822 (1865). 
Ceylon. Types in Coll. B. M. 

'■'■'■ These notes were all written before the publication of Prof. Smith's 
useful Catalogue. — A. G. B. 

f In this genus the antennae are simple in both sexes. 



172 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Targalla repleta, 

Eutelia repleta, Walker, Lep. Het. Sappl. 3, p. 821 (1865). 
E. jiJiisioides, Walker, /. c, p. 822 (1865). 
Ceylon and S. India. Types in Coll. B. M. 

Ta rf/a Ua j)a Uiatrix. 
Penicillaria palliatrix, Guenee, Noct. 2, p. 305, n. 1113 (1852). 
Targalla injida, Walker, Lep. Het. xiii. p. 1008, n. 1 (1857). 
Penicillaria ladatrix, Walker, I.e., xv. p. 1773 (1858). 
Java, MoLilmein, and Ceylon. Types in Coll. B. M. 

Penicillaria, Gnen. 
Penicillaria n lu/atrix. 

Penicillaria nugatrix, Guenee, Noct. 2, p. 303, n. 1110 (1852). 

Eutelia simplex, Walker, Lep. Het. Suppl. 3, p. 821 (1865). 

Almorah and Jubbulpore. In Coll. B. M. 

Walker simply noted the Almorah specimens as from North 
India. His type of Eutelia simplex is a broken and somewhat 
rubbed example, without any locality label. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The Comma Butterfly of America. — In " Some Miscellaneous 
Results of the Work of the Division of Entomology" '''■ Mr. Howard, 
the entomologist, gives an interesting account of two species allied to 
our Vanessa [Poliigonia) e-album. These are considered under the 
heading " Hop Merchants," a term generally used in reference to the 
chrysalids, but sometimes applied to the imagines also. He says, 
" An interesting superstition holds among hop-growers, to the effect 
that when the golden-spotted chrysalids are plentiful the crop will be 
good and the price high, while if the silver- spotted ones are plentiful 
and the golden ones are scarce the price will be low." 

The two species dealt with are Puli/gonla intenw/atiouis, Godart, 
and Pubjdonia eoiuma, Harr. The last named is the smaller species, 
and almost exactly identical with our Comma butterfly. 

In his remarks on the habits and natural history of P. comma, 
Mr. Howard states : " In the hop-growing regions of New York the 
insect is double-brooded, the butterflies hybernating and flying in the 
early spring, living on into the latter part of May and even June. 
The first brood of caterpillars lives, in the main, upon elm ; and young 
elm trees recently set out are frequently injured by the loss of almost 
their entire foliage in the spring Aside from the elm, this 

•■■ Bulletin No. 7, New Series. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Division of Entomology. Washington, 1B97. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 173 

eavly brood may also feed upon nettle and false-nettle. The adulfc 
butterflies developing from the first brood of larvfe begin to breed at 
the end of June, and fly until late in August. In hop-growing regions 
the majority of the eggs of this set of butterflies are laid upon hop- 
vines. The resulting caterpillars feed well on in August, and the 
butterflies which are to hybernate make their appearance from the 
latter part of this month until the latter part of September. They 
enter hybernating quarters almost immediately, since they are rarely 

seen in October The hybernating form has been called harrisii, 

and the summer form dnjas. The distinction between the two forms 
is not as marked as with the preceding species (P. interroijationis), nor 

is the relegation to distinct broods as marked In its southern 

range the species is three-brooded, the first brood being composed of 
dryas, the second of both forms, and the hybernating brood of harrisii 
only." 

The ova of P. comma, like those of P. interrofjationis, are deposited 
in depending columns or chains, varying in number from two to nine 
eggs. " Frequently several of these columns will be found upon a 
single leaf, usually upon the under surface, but occasionally upon the 
stem or upon the tendrils. Although frequently a large number of 
eggs are thus found upon the same leaf, the caterpillars are in no 
sense gregarious. On hatching they almost invariably migrate to 
other leaves, and each one lives singly. At first it feeds without con- 
cealment on the under surface of the leaf, then it begins to draw the 
outer edges together by silken threads as a sort of protection, appa- 
rently, from the daylight, as it feeds mainly at night. The young 
larvaB are dark-coloured and nearly black, but grow lighter with 
successive moults." 

Seeing how very much alike are the imagines of the English and 
American Comma butterflies, it seems remarkable that the method of 
egg-laying and the habits of the larvffi should be so very diflerent in 
the two species. Mr. Frohawk, in his very detailed account of the 
life-history of V. c-album (Entom. xxvii. pp. 257-202, 287-289), says, 
" The ova are laid singly, and principally on the upper surface of the 
leaf, and generally many upon one leaf" {I.e. p. 258). Then, with 
regard to the habits of the larvae, he states (/. c. p. 2G2) that they are 
gregarious, " living in small companies, but sometimes many will 
crowd upon a certain leaf." — K. S. 

Sesia tipuliformis an Injurious Insect. — Among other interesting 
articles dealing with injurious insects in the March issue of the 
' Journal of the South-Eastern Agricultural College ' is one on H. tipu- 
liformis, an insect that is not always well represented in collections. 
It would appear, however, that in some places at least the species is 
common enough to be regarded as a pest. Under the name " Currant 
Borer," it is well known to fruit growers, and seems to be dreaded by 
them for the havoc it creates among all kinds of currant bushes. 
Certain suggestions are advanced, as being more or less likely to 
prevent attack or to clear out the insect from any place it may be in 
possession of. Probably a good plan would be to invite one or two 
practical entomologists to visit tlie infested plantation about the end 
of April or beginning of May, when the Sesia is in pupa ; the prunings 
ENTOM. — JUNE, 1897. P 



174 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

would be removed and effectively disposed of, at any rate the insects 
produced from them would never have a chance to renew their attack. 

ClYNANDROMORpnous Lepidoptera. — HeiT Oskar Schultz has pub- 
lished a list of Gynandromorphous (Hermaphrodite) Macro-lopidoptera 
of the PaliBarctic fauna. He refer.-! to the literature of the subject, 
and gives particulars of instances which woi-e not previously known or 
recorded. The 30G (123 species) enumerated are distributed among 
the families as follows: — Khopalocera, 151 (48 species); Hphingidte, 
43 (39 species); Bombycida3, 131 (39 species); Noctuidae, 11 (9 species) ; 
Geometrid;e, 27 (16 species). 

Attention may also be called to " Die Lepidopteren-Z witter meiner 
Sammlung." This is a list of 161 gynandrous specimens in the 
collection of the author, Herr Max Wirthott, of Breslau ; there are 
four plates, on which 72 of the examples are represented. Since the 
year 1761 about 400 cases of gynandromorphism in Lepidoptera have 
been made known. 

Uniformity in Setting Lepidoptera. — With reference to this sub- 
ject, one of the reasons put forth by some of your correspondents in 
favour of the adoption of the foreign method of setting, in substitution 
for that more generally in use in this country, appears to be that those 
entomologists who study continental as well as British Lepidoptera 
cannot do so conveniently, on account of the unsightly appearance 
given to their collections by having a mixture of high- aiad low-set 
insects in their cabinets. This is undoubtedly a drawback to those of 
us who are fortunate enough to be able to extend their studies to the 
continental species, but surely the difficulty can be got over by having 
separate collections of British and continental specimens— all those 
insects captured abroad being kept in a distinct collection from those 
captured in this country. This might not perhaps afford quite the 
same convenience in comparing British and foreign examples of the 
same species, but surely the extra trouble of comparing two series of 
insects in two separate cabinet-drawers, instead of in the same drawer, 
would be trivial. Whether the high or low method is the best is, and 
always will be, a matter of opinion. Each very likely has its own 
advantages over the other. To my mind the "happy medium" of 
having the insect set at the centre of the pin, as described by Mr. 
Tunstall (Entom. xxix. 800), is the best. This method keeps the 
insect well off the bottom of the drawer, without giving it the "painted 
cardboard" appearance which is always suggested to my mind on 
looking at a specimen set in the strict continental style. I rather 
fancy this "happy medium" has been very largely adopted in this 
country by most of our leading entomologists (I mean those who collect 
only British species and who have not taken up the continental system 
of setting), and it is erroneous nowadays to suppose that " British 
setting" means allowing the insects to rest on the bottom of the 
drawer of the cabinet. Uniformity in the setting of British specimens 
is most desirable for very many obvious reasons, and if the leading 
entomological societies of this country would act on the lines suggested 
by Mr. Tunstall, they would be doing an excellent work ; but I cannot 
see the necessity for the adoption of the continental method. — H. 
AiNsuE Hill ; 9, Addison Mansions, Kensington, W. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 175 

I did not reply to the CLiticism on my remarks before, because 
I wanted to see the opinions of others. As, however, so few have 
taken part in the discussion, I can only come to one coucUision, r/c, 
that British collectors do not intend to adopt the flat unnatural method. 
Mr. Jacoby has not a word to say in favour of the unnatural style, but 
only abuse for the natural style, — the "exploded idea of looking 
natural" Mr. Jacoby chooses to call it,— and he says that putting 
insects on pins is not natural. He says our insects rest on the bottom 
of the cases. In old collections it might have been so. Certainly no 
modern collections are so set. I can quite understand any foreigner, 
accustomed to see (in his own country) insects set in any particular 
way, thinking therefore such way must be the proper one, but that ia 
no reason why it should be so. Yes, I distinctly remember seeing the 
cases of Mr. Elwes exhibited at the Entomological Society a few years 
ago, and remarking to a neighbour how unlifelike and wooden they 
looked, and he quite agreed with me. Mr. Jacoby wishes to know the 
advantage of the "natural" method. It speaks for itself, I should 
think, in being more lifelike, coming as near Nature as possible. — ■ 
W. Dan NAT T. 

[We fear that some of our correspondents are rather wandering 
from the main subject in this discussion. The point appears to be — = 
Is it possible for lepidopterists in this country to arrive at some under- 
standing with regard to the preparation of specimens for the cabinet, 
so that there may be something more nearly approaching uniformity 
in setting tjian exists at present ? The high-flat system has been 
advocated because it seemed to those who have adopted it to possess 
advantages over any modification of the English method. If, however, 
the continental style does not commend itself, one is not compelled to 
accept it. In fact, one is not bound to set one's specimens in any 
particular style, or even to set them at all. The whole thing is entirely 
a matter of individual fancy, and so long as exchange negotiations are 
not entered upon, no one will venture to object. When, however, it is 
considered desirable to extend a collection by exchange, the question 
of uniformity in setting will present itself, and it seems only reasonable 
to assume that the convenience of the minority will have to give way 
to the requirements of the majority. — Ed.] 

Temperature and other Experiments on Lepidoptera. — At the 
Royal Society's Soiree, which took place on May 19th last. Dr. Stand- 
fuss exhibited some of the remarkable specimens he had obtained by 
the application of artificial temperature, either during the pupal stage 
of a species, or throughout its metamorphoses from the egg. In 
another series there were examples of the results of crossing between 
the typical forms and well-defined varieties of a species. All these 
most interesting, and in some cases extraordinary, specimens, together 
with a selection of the artificial temperature forms bred by Mr. Merri- 
field (also exhibited at the soiree), are now to be seen in one of the 
table cases in the insect gallery at the Natural History Museum, 
South Kensington. We would strongly advise all who are interested 
in the variation of Lepidoptera to take an early opportunity of seeing 
this very instructive exhibition, which will probably only be accessible, 
in its present complete form, for a limited period. 



176 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Hybrids. — Any information, either original or previously published, 
respecting hybrids, will be most acceptable to Mens. A. Suchetet, 
Chateau d'Antiville, par Breaute (Seine Inferieure), who is engaged 
upon a book dealing with hybrid insects, fishes, and reptiles. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD EEPORTS. 

AoRONYCTA ALNiAT Trefriw, North Wale3. — A fine specimen of this 
moth emerged horn tlie pupa this evening in my breeding-cage. I 
obtained the larva on the 5th of last August, sitting in a semicircular 
position on an alder leaf. I put a small piece of rotten wood in the cage, 
into which it bored its way in about three days afterwards, closing up the 
hole in such a way that it was almost impossible to detect it. The gallery 
is just two inches long, the pupa and shrivelled-up skin of larva occupying 
the farthest half. — Francis D. Bland; Trefrivv R.S.O., North Wales, 
May 17th, 1897. 

Abraxas grossulariata bred in December. — On October 15th last, 
my attention was called to a larva of Abraxas grossulariata in the last 
stage. This I took indoors ; it pupated on Nov. 19lh, and the moth 
emerged on Dec. ^llh. No doubt this was a case of partial second brood, 
but had I left the larva in the garden it would probably have died instead 
of pupating. On the 11th inst. I took a nearly black larva of this species, 
showing only traces of the usual white and orange markings, — Alfred 
Sicn ; Villa Amalinda, Burlington Lane, Chiswick, May 17th, 1897. 

Lepjdoptera in 1897. — Looking at the fact that an exceptioually 
small number of items for the " Captures and Field lleports " section have 
been received, it would appear that either collectors are very busy, and so 
leaving their records for a later period ; or that insects are scarce, and con- 
sequently there is little to chronicle. I am rather inclined to suppose that 
the entomological season so far has not been altogether brilliant. Last 
Saturday (May 15th) I put in a few hours in the afternoon at Norlhwood, 
in Middlese.K ; the only Lepidoptera that I observed were a few specimens 
of Sijrichthiis malvcE, and one or two species of Tinea?. Very few lar\ce 
were obtained, and with the exception of Taniocamjia jJojnded, which were 
very small, I failed to meet with any of the species 1 have found at the 
same time and place in other years. — Bichard Soutu ; 100, Bitherdou 
Bead, Upper Tooting, S.W., May '^Oth, 1897. 

Velia cuRRiiNs, Fobv., IN SCOTLAND. — 1 havc iu my collection three 
examples of the macropterous form of V. currcns ; they were taken during 
the month of August, 1893, at Musselburgh from the river Esk, where this 
form was quite common. — B. M. Leakk ; 15, AUeyn Park, W. Dulwich, 
S.E., May 2nd, 1897, 

AcHEROKTJA ATROPos AT Beverley, 189G-7. — Duriiig the autumn of 
last year about thirty larvse and pufee of this moth were found in and 
around Beverley ; but only six have produced perfect insects so f&r. 
These were all reared by S. Copeland ; five emerged iu October, while the 
sixth delayed appearance until April 17th ; all having been treated the 
same way, and kept in the house. Several collectors have lost pujte; 



SOCIETIES. 177 

D. Maltoii obtained seven, Dr. Savage four, R. Clierry one, and myself five, 
but all failed to come to perfection. Other collectors have single pupae 
siill living — Mrs. Hewetson, Mrs. Bruce, Mr. K. C. llugill, and Mr. T. 
Dixon. They have for ihe most part been kept either under soil occasionally 
damped, or on the soil covered with moss which has been kept slightly damp. 
Some larvfe pupated on the top of the soil, others under it. 1 should be 
glad to know whether this has been a correct method of forcing them, and 
whether any have been known to be reared without being damped ; also what 
bad effect gentle handling has upon the pupse. — (Kev.) A. Newenham ; 
Beverley, Yorkshire, 

[The treatment of the pupae of A. otropos has frequently been referred 
to in recent volumes of the 'Entomologist'; see ante, p. 75, and xxix. 
p. 20-2.— Ed.] 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. — May 5th, 1897. — Mr. Roland 
Trimen, F.R.S., President, in the chair. Mr. C. H. Peers, of Harrow 
Weald, was elected a Fellow of the Society. Mr. J. J. Walker 
exhibited an earwig, Aptcryr/ida arachidis, Yersin, new to Britain, and 
recently found in large numbers in chemical works at Queenborough. 
It had been probably imported among bones. Mr. Burr also showed a 
complete series of the British species of Forficulid^c. Mr. Enock 
showed eggs of IStcno])soci(s cruciatas, L., containing parasitic larvae of 
Alaplus fuscnlns, Hal., the male of which would probably prove to be 
Alaptus iiiinimiis, Hal. Mr. Merrifield exhibited the results of tempe- 
lature experiments on the pupa; of Pieiis dtiplidicc, ^Iditaa didyma, 
and other species. He thought that changes produced by abnormal 
temperatures might be classed as follows : — 1, enhancement or dimi- 
nution of intensity of colour ^Yithout alteration in the form of the 
markings ; 2, substitution of scales of a different colour, scattered or 
in groups ; 8, imperfection in the development of scales or their pig- 
ment. Mr. Tutt showed a series of insects collected at Cannes in 
March, and remarkable for their early emergence. Dr. Dixey read a 
paper on "Mimetic Attraction," in which he dealt with the steps by 
which a wing-pattern, as in South American Pieriua?, could be modi- 
fied in various directions so as to secure a mimetic result, and with 
the theories of mimicry put forward by Bates and Fritz Miiller. Mr. 
Blandford also exhibited and discussed series of homccochromatic and 
mimetic Neotropical species of butterflies, chiefly of Heliconiid^ and 
Helicouioid Danaidae. The discussion was continued by Prof. Poulton, 
who showed similar groups of several genera, remarkable as having 
been collected and sent to England as examples of a single species, 
and by the President, and it was ultimately adjourned to June 2nd. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
April 22nd, 1897. — R. Adkin, Esq., F.E.S., President, in the chair. 
Mr. Malcolm Burr, Bellagio, East Grinstead, Sussex, was elected a 
member. Mr. Waters exhibited a number of the " casts " of both the 
owl and the rook. These irjectanienta were examined, and the former 
contained bones and starlings' skulls, &c., while the latter contained 
corn-husks and beetles' wings mainly. Mr. Barrett, the only known 



178 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Scottish specimen of Colias In/die, captured in Dmnbartonshire by Mr. 
Mallock. He also exhibited a var. of Cnjwodes e.vtdis, taken by Mr. 
Percy Bright in Unst, which form was at one time considered a 
distinct species and termed lladcna maiUanU, together with tlie same 
species from Ivannoch and Iceland. Mr. Auld, a varied series of 
Ciicullia chamoinlUiC from Lewis. Mr. Eobt. Adkin, a series of Ihjbeinia 
iino-i/inaria (pmi/t'ininaria), the progeny of a pair received from Mr. 
Hewctt, of York. About sixty per cent, of the males were of the 
black form and followed the parents, while the whole of the females 
were dark. He also made remarks upou the scaling and pigmentation. 
Mr. Mera, a larva of Callinioriiha Item which had fed all the winter, 
and was in its last stage. 

Maij 13<//.— Mr. R. South, F.E.S., Vice-President, in the chair. Mr. 
Stanley Edwards exhibited a small scorpion, which he had captured at 
Digne, in the south of France, together with a specimen of the field 
cricket, from the same locality. He also exhibited a pupa of Cliaraxes 
jasius, and stated that Dr. Chapman had sent him larva; of this species 
from Cannes earlier in the year. Mr. Tutt made remarks upon the 
condition of vegetation and insect life as observed by Mr. Edwards and 
himself during a week's holiday at Easter in the south-east of France. 
The weather there was superb, but yet the vegetation was, at 1900 ft. 
above the sea, but little in advance of that in the south of England. 
With the development of insect life there was no comparison, for in 
one day he had seen no less than fifty-two species of Lepidoptera. In 
the corner of one field were to be seen all our three MelitjTeas fi.ying to- 
gether. Mr. Lucas exhibited a mature and two immature specimens 
of Leucophcea surinamcnsis = indlca, an Indian species of cockroach, 
taken in the forcing pits at Kew Gardens. Mr. Montgomery, young 
larvffi of ApaiHca uphiixjmimna in the stems of the ribbon-grass, and 
contributed notes on its habit of leaving its old burrow and selecting a 
new stem. Mr. South, a series of Atuplddasus sirataria [prodiomana], 
and remarked on their small size, while the larvtD had been unusually 
large. Mr. Auld, a varied series of Boanuia cinctaria taken this year 
in the New Forest. Mr. II. Moore, specimens of the rare insect 
Fseudopontia paradoxa, with drawings showing its anomalous venation, 
its bifid scales, and the isolated position of each scale on the wing- 
membrane. He contributed notes on the species, which he said had 
come from Mombasa, East Africa, and about the position of which 
there was the widest divergence of opinion ; some authorities placed 
it in the Ehopalocera, some in the Geometers, and some among the 
Bombyces. Mr. Turner, on behalf of Mr. Clarke, of Readiug, speci- 
mens of Tcjihrosia crcpusculana taken in the wood which Mrs. Bazett 
had said did not produce the species. Mr. Tutt read a paper, sent by 
Prof. Grote, M.A., entitled "Autumnal Notes from the Butterfly 
Camp by the Shores of Lake Erie." — Hy. J. Tuknek, Hon. Eeport Sec. 

Cambridge Entomological and Natural History Society. — April 
SOth, 1897. The President in the chair. Dr. Sharp called attention 
to a peculiar structure which he detected some years ago in CJirysiiidia 
madcujascarcmis better known as Vrania rhijilteus. On each side of the 
second abdominal segment there is an ear-like opening, usually much 
concealed by overlapping scales, giving entrance to a chamber which 



SOCIETIES. 170 

extends to the middle line and forwards towards the base of the 
abdomen, so that a considerable space in the anterior and upper part 
of the abdomen is occupied by the chamber. At the anterior external 
part of this depression or chamber there is a second vesicle-like 
chamber, formed by a delicate membrane. He considered this struc- 
ture to be some kind of sense organ, and thought it must be of great 
importance to the creature, as it occupies a large area of the abdominal 
region. It is independent of sex, and apparently occurs in all the 
members of the families Uraniida) and Epiplemidai.. M. Obertliiir had 
kindly supplied him liberally with dried specimens for the examina- 
tion of this organ, but fresh individuals, or some well preserved in 
spirit, are necessary before any of the finer details of the structure can 
be ascertained. — L. Doncasteb, Hon. Sec. 

The City of London Entomological and Natural History Society 
held a successful exhibition on April 27th, at the London Institution, 
Finsbury Circus. Besides the members of the Society, many leading 
entomologists kindly contributed exhibits. Mr. J. A. Clark sent full 
representation of all our known British butterflies, amongst which 
were a long series of male and female Chrysophanus dispar, hermapliro- 
dite specimens of Dnjas impkia, Plebeiiis ffijon, and PoJijommatns icarus, 
and black vars. of Limenitis sihijlla. Aberrations in Mr, C. Nicholson's 
Vanessids included Pymmeis atalanta with partial bleaching of red 
band on right wing, P. canlui with an additional white spot on fore 
wings, and Aglaia iirtic(B approaching var. ichnnsa. Mr. A. W. Dennis, 
a xanthic Epmephele ianira, Pararr/e a/eria female with male colora- 
tion, Pijrameis canlui much suffused with black, Ari/ynnis adippe with 
median black band on all wings, Cupido minima under sides with spots 
obsolete, SpHosoma lubncipeda with central fascia on all wings, H. mm- 
thastri with spots much enlarged. Mr. Bobt. Adkin, well-known 
British species of "Clear-wings," series of Endromis versicolor, iMsio- 
campa quercifuUa and L. ilicifolia, ttc. ; Campkxjramma hilincata, black 
forms from Kerry, banded from Shetland ; banded Thera jnniperata 
from Orkney ; black Amplddasijs hctidaria from Yorkshire ; vars. of 
lioarmia repandata and Abraxas cjrossulariata. Mr. J. W. Tutt's 
Zygffinids included Zyr/a:na hippocrejndis , a species usually confounded 
with Z.filipenduliB. Amongst his Geometers were a series of aberra- 
tions of Cidaria immanata from Lochgoilhead, and a hybrid between 
Amphidasys strataria and A. beiidaria. Mr. V/. M. Christy, Zyycena 
Jilipenduhr, and Z. tri/olii, with vars. ; Macroylossa boinbylij'ormis with 
scales all over the wings, only found prior to flight of imago ; and 
Nyssia lapjwnaria with N. zonaria and continental relatives for com- 
parison. Mr. C. G. Barrett, British and European Psychids, with 
their curious larva-cases ; long and variable series of Ayrotis cursoria 
and A. tritiri ; Leucaniidae, with Leucania favicolor, n. sp., lately 
described by himself, and vars. of female spotted, the latter belonging 
to Mr. G. F. Mathew ; and a moth from Unst, Shetland, agreeing 
with Hadena maillardi (St. Cat.), placed on the table as a form of 
Crymodes exidis, but if of specific rank would be an addition to the 
British list. Typical C. e.ndis and one intermediate form belonging to 
Mr. Percy M. 13right were also exhibited. Mr. F. J. Hanbury, 
Noctuas, Noctiia /estiva var. conflua being largely represented, and the 



180 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

XanthifB and Catocalag were much admired. Mr. L. B. Front, bred 
series of Coremia fernigata and G. miidentaria , to illustrate the in- 
fluence of heredity. Mr. G. Elisha, twenty drawers of Micro- 
Lepidoptera, of the greatest beauty as to freshness of moths and 
regularity of setting. Mr. D. C. Bate, larva) of Onnjia rionosl'Kima. 
Mr. J. iiiches, larva) of Apctmea opltiofiramma on their food-plant, 
variegated ribbon-grass. Mr. C. Nicholson, preserved larva of Ltisio- 
campa qucrcifoUa, showing the " lappets." Mr. 8. Edwards, a valuable 
and immense collection of Papilioninn) from all regions. Exotic 
Lepidoptera were exhibited by Messrs. J. A. Clark (MorphiniB, xitlcift, 
Cecropia, Thi/saiiia (i;/rippina, &c.), A. Bacot (South African), E. M. 
Dudd (American), and Dr. J. S. Sequeira (Indian). The subject of 
"mimicry," or the assumption by persecuted species of similar or 
nearly similar coloration to that of species protected by scents, 
colours, or presumed nauseousness of flavour, from birds and animals, 
was well illustrated by Messrs. Watkins and Doncaster and 0. E. 
Janson and Son. Mr. H. Heasler, Coleoptera, being the material for 
his "London List," which includes Molorchm minor, Oodes helopioides, 
Aphodiiis lividus, lUnnonchus hnichoides. Messrs. 0. E. Janson and 
Son, case of PhasmidfB or stick-insects, twig-like when quiescent, a 
further development of the "protective mimicry" principle. Mr. 
W. J. Ashdown, Odonata, showing that Anax imperatur and LibeUula 
giiadrimaculata var. prfennbila can bo captured in Surrey. Mr. J. A. 
Clark, nests of Vespa hritannica from Forres, on fir, beech, and 
heather, and from New Forest on ivy and yew. Dr. J. S. Sequeira, 
insect products, such as silk, wax, honey, cochineal, shellac, Sec. Mr. 
R. M. Wattson's "Life in a Pond " exhibited dragonfly nymphs, water- 
beetles, water-scorpions, and other inhabitants of our ponds and pools. 
Mr. D. C. Bate, a " cat's-eye " electric lamp for sugaring. There 
were also many exhibits in other branches of natural history. Mr. 
Fred. Enock, in his happiest style, gave a lecture on " The British 
Trap door Spider." Lord Walsingham, an honorary member of the 
Society, visited the soiree early, and addressed the members on the 
value and pleasure of a study of nature. A programme of music was 
delightfully rendered in the course of the evening, and light refresh- 
ments were served to all visitors. — H. W. Waugh. 

Nonpareil Entomological and Natural History Society. — May 
(Sth, 1897. — Mr. Gurney exhibited a dwarf specimen of Asphalia ridens, 
which, besides being peculiarly marked, had been in the pupa since 
1895 and just emerged. Mr. Norman, a box of finely preserved larvae 
of Satuntia earpini, Sphinx li(jnslri, Charocawpa porcellas, Dasijchira 
fasceJina, I 'dloeamjui vetusta, Zeuzera ccscidi, &c. ; he also showed four 
bred specimens of Deilephila euphorbia. Mr. Lusby, fine full-grown 
larvae of Arrtia viUiea, from Willesden, and Mr. Harper, larva) of An-tia 
caia. Four male and two female specimens of Lycana an/iohis, from 
Wood Street (taken May 2nd), were also shown by Mr. Lusby. 
Mr. Samson exhibited Plmia orichalcea from St. Margaret's Bay, P. 
chrysitis and P. pxdchrina from Winchester, male Lophoptcnjx cariiuditct 
from West Wickham, and other insects. Messrs. Pickett and West 
also exhibited various species of Lepidoptera. — • F. . A. Newbery, 
Iteportinr) Secrctanj. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX.] JULY, 189 7. [No. 410. 



ZYG^NA FILIPENDULM var. HIPPOCREPIDIS. 




When I visited a certain meadow on the Hertfordshire bor- 
der of Middlesex on June 12th last, Ino statices was worn 
and seemed to be almost over for the season. Zi/gcena trifolii, 
however, was still about and in fine condition, but much less 
common than when I had the pleasure of seeing it in that 
particular field on a previous occasion. There were no Z. fili- 
penduUe with it this year, and there were no varieties worth 
mentioning. About a quarter of a mile distant from the Z. trifolii 
field Z . filipemlLiUe was flying in numbers, and there were also a 
great many cocoons and a few larvae of the species about, the 
latter preparing to enter the pupal stage of their existence. It 
was curious to note that the cocoons were not only attached to 
the stems of grass and other plants, but also to posts, and even 
iron hurdles, which under the brilliant sunshine were really hot. 

The question having been raised as to whether or not these 
June Zygaenas of the six spot persuasion are specifically distinct 
from Z. jilipendalie which appears in July and August on chalk 
downs, &c., I took the opportunity of collecting a goodly sample 
of the imagines then on the wing, as well as a liberal supply of 
the cocoons. These latter, I may remark, were not always 
afSxed to the higher parts of the stem, but were found in all 
kinds of positions from quite near the ground, and well concealed 

ENTOM. — JULY, 1897. Q 



182 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

among herbage, to close up to the summit of the stalk or stem, 
where they were of course fully exposed. As a matter of fact, 
some of the latter were evidently indiscreetly placed, as they 
offered a tempting morsel to epicures in that particular line 
of dainty fare, and tbe contents of the cocoons had been 
duly annexed. The cocoons placed nearer the ground, or at 
least among the herbage, were, so far as I could ascertain, left 
intact. 

It is of course well known that the specimens of Z. Jili- 
penduhe occurring in June have been referred to liippocrejndis by 
Stephens, and there is no reason why the form that Stephens 
described under that name should not retain the distinctive 
cognomen, as it is not likely to be confused with Z. Idppocrcpidis, 
Hiibn. Stephens's name cannot, however, apply to the June 
flight of the insect as a whole, because all the individuals are 
not of the form which he described as hippocrepidis ; many of 
them on the contrary are unmistakable typical filipcnduhe. 
Again, but this does not present any objection to using the name, 
var. Idppocrcpidis occurs among the individuals of filipendidie 
emerging in July and August, and I have examples taken or 
bred in those months both at Yentnor and Folkestone. 

As already mentioned, I obtained larvae with the pupse and 
imagines. I think there is no question about what species the 
larvffi belong to, — yellow, with two interrupted black dorsal 
stripes and a narrower and more interrupted black stripe on 
each side above the spiracles. Perhaps it would be more correct 
to describe the black markings as longitudinal series of spots. 

The imagines are emerging from pupae at the rate of from 
four to twelve per day, and in some of the cocoons the larvaB have 
not yet pupated, so that it is quite likely that July will be well 
in before the last of the moths appears. Turning to my notes, 
I find that in 1887 I brought some larvae from Ventnor on 
June 21st, and the imagines, including var. Jdppocrepidis, emerged 
in July. In 1885, at Folkestone, I found Z . fiUpcndidcB exceed- 
ingly abundant in the last week of August, and on that occasion 
I secured one of the most variable series I have been able to 
obtain so far, and among the specimens there were examples of 
hippocrepidis. So in the matter of dates we have June, July, 
and August for the variety in question, and we see that typical 
Z . filipendid(B is on the wing during the same months. 

With regard to the relationship of Z. fiUpendidcE and Z. tri- 
folii, I am of opinion that it is an exceedingly close one. In fact, 
I am inclined to suppose that the former may be a development 
of the latter. In other years I have seen the two species flying 
together, but I have never seen fdipenduUe paired with trifolii. 
I am quite open to admit that such pairings do take place, 
although I am hardl}- disposed to accept var. hippocrepidis as 
the result. 



ZYGiENA FILIPENDUL^ VAR. HIPPOCEEPIDIS. 183 

When the whole of the imagines have emerged from the 
pupfe I collected and are available for study, I may have some 
further remarks to make. In the meantime I would call atten- 
tion to the figure of var. liippocrepidis given above, and suggest 
that attention should be turned to Z. Jilipendul(B during the 
season, and this form noted wherever detected. 

Richard South. 
100, Eitberdon Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 
June 21st. 



The following description of ZyrjcEiia (Anthroccra) hipjwcre- 
2)idis, Steph., and remarks thereon are extracted from Stephens's 
111. Brit. Entom. Haust. i. p. 109 (1828) :— 

" Alis anticis nigro-cyaneis, maculis sex rubris, subtus omnino 
confluentibus, posticis rubris margine sinuato viridi-cyaneo, 
abdomine immaculato (Exp. alar. 1 unc. 1-7 lin.). 

" This varies in size like A. filvpendidce, which it greatly 
resembles ; but the border of the posterior wings is considerably 
more distinct than in that insect, and undulated internally : the 
sixth spot on the anterior wings (the one towards the anal angle) 
is generally small, with a coloured nervure passing through it ; 
the under surface of the anterior wings with the disc entirely red, 
and the maculations not defined. Above, the anterior wings are 
blue-black, with six red spots, disposed as in A.fi.UpenduUe, and 
the posterior wings red, with an undulated greenish-blue margin ; 
the abdomen immaculate. 

*' Var. ft. The anterior wings above of a pale yellowish-green, 
with six pale lemon-yellow spots ; the posterior wings of the 
latter colour, with a bluish-green border. Like A. Jilqjendidce 
this varies considerably from the spots being more or less 
confluent, or obliterated. 

" Caterpillar greenish, with a broad yellowish stripe on each 
side, and a row of black spots ; the head black varied with 
white : the anterior legs brown, the following yellow, the rest 
black: it feeds on the wild liquorice {Astragalus glycijplnjllus). 
The chrysalis is dusky-brown, with the abdomen greenish 
spotted with black.* 

" I have captured this insect in the vicinity of London ; first 
in a field near Coombe-wood on the 20th of June, 1810, and 
subsequently near Darenth-wood : of var. /3, I have seen three 
specimens only, which were reared from larvae taken in the latter 
habitat, where the wild liquorice abounds." 

■'■ These descriptions apply to the larva and pnpse of liippocreindis, 
Hiibn., not to the prei^aratory stages of liipiwcreiyidis , Steph. 



q2 



184 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SOME THOUGHTS SUGGESTED BY MR. HA.RCOURT- 
BATH'S PAPER. {Ante, pp. 157-161). 

By J. W. TuTT, F.E.S. 

I HAVE tried to understand the various papers by Mr. Har- 
court-Bath that have been published in the ' Entomologist ' 
during the past twelve months, and have signally failed. I do 
not wish to suggest this is Mr. Bath's fault, and I am inclined 
to think it is rather my misfortune than my fault. There must 
be, however, many entomologists in the same unfortunate posi- 
tion as myself, and if this communication only serves to draw 
from Mr. Bath an explanation more suitable to our meaner 
intellects it will have fulfilled its purpose. 

Mr. Bath (ante, p. 158) makes the statement that " the 
geographical and vertical distribution of the Rhopalocera, in a 
very great degree, is so intimately connected with the distri- 
bution of their pabula that it is reasonable to suppose they have 
closely followed the various migrations of the flora upon which 
they are so dependent both antecedent to and after the termina- 
tion of the glacial period." To illustrate this he goes on : — " As 
the genus Krchia is the most extensive and typical group among 
the alpine butterflies, it will serve to illustrate with a certain 
degree of accuracy the facts relating to the whole." Now the 
pabula of the larvse of this genus is grass, and the species of 
Erehia are not very particular as to the species of grass. Grass, 
in great variety, extends from pole to pole. It is necessary 
therefore, so far as I understand Mr. Batb, to get a knowledge 
of the distribution of grass to obtain a knowledge of the dis- 
tribution of the genus Erehia. Grass is found almost every- 
where ; the species of Erehia are often extremely localised. 
Their distribution is, of all genera, entirely independent of 
the general distribution of their food-plant, and most of the 
various species are often conflned to a certain small portion of 
a valley in which tlie flora is practically identical over thousands 
of acres. 

Having surveyed in the most cursory manner the distribution 
of the genus in Europe, Asia, and North America, he concludes 
that the species are segregated mainly in the Pyrenees, Alps of 
Europe, Caucasus, Thiau Shan, Altai, and Amur. This is, of 
course, such a well-known fact that it appeared to be hardly 
worth mentioning. He also states that the species are very 
scarce south of the mountain chains, and that this furnishes us 
with an approximate estimate of the extreme distance south to 
which the alpine fauna was driven during the climax of the 
glacial period in the Palsearctic Region. 

Mr. Bath {ante, p. 159) sa3'8 that, " In preglacial times these 



SOME THOUGHTS SUGGESTED BY MR. BATH's PAPER. 185 

butterflies were probably found in company with their pabula 
throughout the whole of the northern portions of the Europasian 
area, their range extending to well within the Arctic Circle. 
Upon the advance of the ice-cap they retreated south until they 
reached the six great chains of mountains which I have already 
described. Many of the species were probably unable to sur- 
mount the barriers which they furnished, and consequently 
perished, whilst the majority perhaps forced their way through 
them by means of transverse passes and valleys, and survived in 
the sheltered and more hospitable areas which they would pro- 
vide immediately to the south." Now this is a very pretty 
theory, but what about the geological and other facts assumed? 

It occurs to me to ask Mr. Bath whether he thinks that any 
scientific entomologist believes that the genus Erebia, as such, 
existed in preglacial times '? As I understand Mr. Bath's 
references, it would appear that his references to preglacial 
times are especially directed to those observations which geolo- 
gists have published relating to the subtropical fauna and flora 
which are Isnown to have existed in the extreme north in the 
Miocene period, and he assumes, so far as I understand his 
writing, that Erebia and the Erebia species lived in the North 
Polar Region at that time. If so, I would suggest that Erebia 
would be, under these conditions, a subtropical genus, and, being 
" driven southwards by the ice-cap," would, if it found subtropical 
quarters south of the six great mountain chains, by the species 
" finding their way through passes," to suit it, prefer remaining 
in such quarters to attempting a return which led it out of sub- 
tropical quarters, in order, apparently, to see how far it could get 
up mountains, or how far it could get back to polar conditions 
from, the '* remainder of Europe south of the mountain chains,"- 
which during the glacial period were " capable of affording a safe 
refuge to the alpine butterflies" during the dreadful time Mr. Bath 
says they experienced at the time of the glacial epoch. 

One is constrained to ask, too, whether it would not have 
been more to the point if Mr. Bath had given us, on the authority 
of some capable geologist, the condition of the great mountain 
chains that extend from the Pyrenees to Kamtschatka during the 
periods comprised in, and that directly antecedent to, the glacial 
epoch ; so that we might obtain some idea of the condition of 
the mountains the butterflies are said to have crossed ? Sir 
John Lubbock tells us that in the European part of the range as 
much solid matter has been removed by denudation as now 
remains. Geikie tells us that at the time of the glacial epoch 
the whole of North Germany and the part of Europe in that 
latitude was covered with glacial loess. It is well known that 
the ice-flow from the Northern Alps set along Central Europe to 
the east, and one would like to know where those places were to 
be found "which we might fairly assume with a certain degree 



186 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



of safety might be found to the north of the Alps, the Pyrenees, 
and the Carpathians," and " where a few species even survived." 

Let us summarize the well-known facts : — (1) ice to the north 
of Germany ; (2) mountains existing where the Alps are now ; 
(3) glaciers flowing north into France, Germany, &c. And then 
we are asked to assume certain spots between the Alps and Baltic 
Sea where butterflies might survive, whilst those that did not 
survive pushed through transverse passes across the Alps — and 
such Alps and such passes ! Then, as I understand it, there was 
a journey back after it was all over. This is picturesque, but— 
is it possible ? For some years I have been almost as much 
interested in geology as entomology, but Mr. Bath's geology is 
beyond me. 

Mr. Bath does not think "that the climatal conditions were 
so severe as supposed by Hoffmann." This is a matter for the 
geologists, and if they say it was — well, to say the least — as 
specialists, I should take their opinion before that of Mr. Bath. 
On the premises pointed out, Mr. Bath concludes that " the 
great majority of the alpine forms of butterflies found a sanctuary 
during the climax of the glacial period to the immediate south of 
the three great chains of mountains on either continent." 

There is another phrase which I cannot understand. Mr. 
Bath says he thinks Hoffmann " is incorrect in imagining that 
the post-glacial alpine forms were not directly derived from the 
south." Now Mr. Bath has been at great pains to show in his 
paper that Hoffmann is wrong in supposing that the insects 
during the glacial epoch did not go into the warmer parts of 
Africa and Asia. This remark therefore means that Mr. Bath 
believes tbat this fauna was directly derived from the south, and 
"the south" as understood by Mr. Bath can only mean the 
country between the Pyrenees, Alps, &c., and the Mediterranean, 
so far as Europe is concerned, for he rules Africa out, not 
believing that even " a few went into Africa" and returned when 
the climate became warmer. 

If our authorities on the geological conditions of Europe 
during the glacial epoch are correct, we have to deal with the 
following facts : — (1) Ice as far south as the Baltic Sea, giving off 
streams that flowed eastwards through Central Europe, and 
deposited the famous loess deposits of Germany. (2) Glaciers 
on the north face of the Alps, discharging also into the plains of 
Central Europe, the water-flow being east. As the whole of this 
central area was flooded during the Miocene period, one finds 
some difficulty in believing that any Lepidoptera existed north 
of the Alps, and hence it follows that Hoffmann's suggestion is 
probably the correct one. The distribution of the Lepidoptera 
previous to the glacial epoch is the merest guesswork. 

That any of our present species of butterflies existed before 
the glacial epoch is very problematical — that the genus Erebia 



NOTE ON SOME ORTIIOPTERA FROM THE PERSIAN GULF. 187 

existed as such, I think no one who is both an entomologist and 
geologist would admit. It is probable that there was at the 
period of the land-connection between North Europe, Asia, and 
America some ancestral and widely distributed form which was 
subjected to vicissitudes of environment through the vast periods 
of time represented by the glacial epoch, and which, being of a 
plastic form, split up under the stress of environmental conditions 
into what we know as the various species of Erchia. And if we 
turn to facts as apart from mere speculation, i.e. to the facts 
offered by the study of the animals themselves, one is driven 
irresistibly to the conclusion that the genus Erehia as it at 
present exists is one of the most modern of all those inhabiting 
the PaL^arctic and Nearctic Areas. Its species even now are not 
at all clearly defined. They are even now in some instances 
evidently in a state of evolution. Our best students of the 
butterflies of these regions own the fact, and my own studies oi 
the alpine fauna are leading me irresistibly to the conclusion that 
a very large percentage of the alpine species by no means exhibit 
archaic types, but, on the other hand, exhibit the most recently 
modified of the species belonging to persistent genera which are 
spread over a vast area of land as measured by latitude and 
longitude, and whose larva3 feed on plants of very general dis- 
tribution, not only as to latitude and longitude, but also as 
to altitude. 

I am quite aware that destructive criticism is easy, and that 
it is more difficult to propound a satisfactory explanation. These 
critical notes have already run to considerable length, but I am 
quite open on the geological evidence to show that previous to 
the glacial epoch the distribution of plants (and therefore probably 
of insects) was a much simpler matter than at present. The 
climatic conditions, as shown by the Cretaceous and later forests, 
were comparatively uniform over the earth's surface, the plants 
inhabiting them were similar, the species (both of plants and 
insects) were few ; that these archaic forms were the ancestors 
of our present fauna is very certain, but that they had de- 
veloped any of the existing forms at any time preceding the 
glacial epoch is very improbable. Perhaps, if it appears neces- 
sary, our Editor will allow me to recur to the matter later. 



NOTE ON SOME ORTHOPTERA from the PERSIAN GULF. 

By Malcolm Bukr, F.E.S. 

Mr. Pi. W. Lloyd has very kindly placed at my disposal a few 
Orthoptera, collected by Mr. J. H. Hiles at Bussorah. On the 
whole the species are what one would expect to find in that part 
of the world, though very little collecting, if any, has been done 



188 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

there. They are chiefly European species, hut there is one cock- 
roach that was previously known from Bombay ; but with many 
cockroaches and some earwigs locahty is of no account, for they 
spread with trade all over the world to such an extent that it is 
sometimes doubtful whence they originally came. It is in- 
teresting to find the Egyptian Tryxalis j^haraonis, Khig, in the 
Persian Gulf; it is not found in Europe. 

The collection includes seventeen specimens and ten species, 
of which there are two Blattodea, two Mantodea, four Acridiodea, 
one of the Locustodea, and one of the Gryllodea. There were 
also a few aquatic Ehynchota, which Mr. G. W. Kirkaldy tells me 
are lianatra vicina, Sign., and Bciosto>na niloticuiii, Stal, which 
are species which one would expect from the neighbourhood. The 
following is an account of the Orthoptera : — 

lletcioijmnia (Ft/i/ptutca, Linn. One male. Occurs also in Southern 
Europe from Spain to Greece, in the north of Africa, Asia Minor, 
Syria, Rhodes, and the Amoor district (Biunner). 

Feriplancta monocliroma, Walk. One male. Apparently allied to 
/*. pallipalpis, Serv. Also from Bombay (Brit. Mus. Coll.). 

Mantis ri'U<jios((, Linn. One mutilated female. Occurs also in 
Southern and Central Europe, in Asia from Hindustan to Java, and 
in Africa to Zanzibar (Bruuner); also in the Canary Islands, China, 
Cyprus, Corea, Afghanistan, Silhet, Behar, and the East Indies (Brit. 
Mus. Coll.). 

Kmpusa pennicoiiiis, Pall. One specimen. Also from South 
Russia (Burm. Kittary), Sarepta on the Volga (Eversm.), and Turkey 
(Burm.). 

Tiyxalis iihaiau)iis, Klug. One female. Also from Egypt (Klug). 

Kpaciornia tiuindus {?), Fabr. = tricolor i pes, Burm. One female. 
Widely distributed over Eastern Asia and Australia. It is with a 
little hesitation tbat I refer it to tliis species, but the specimen seems 
to be hardly difi'erent from individuals from Mindoro in my collection. 

Opoiiiala (i/lindriai, Marschall. Two females. Also from Minorca 
(Bob), Sicily, Greece (Brunner), Beyrout (Coll. mea). 

Acriilium iP(iyptiuin, Linn. Two females, showing great difference 
in size. Length of body, 46 mm. and 66 mm. ; length of elytra, 
51 mm. and 67'5 mm. ; length of post-femora, 26 mm. and 33 mm. ; 
expanse of elytra, 110 mm. and 111 mm. This species is the largest 
of the European Acridiodea ; it is common in Southern Europe, but 
does not commit any serious damage in spite of its size. It occurs in 
the Kirghis steppes, but Bruuner remarks, " Further east into Asia it 
is as little known to me as it is in Central or South Africa." It is 
occasionally imported into this country in vegetables. 

J kxticHs (illiifruns, Fabr. Two females. This fine species is com- 
mon in tbe Mediterranean region and in Asia Minor. It extends as 
far as the Ural Mountains (Eversm.). It has once been taken in 
England, at Ramsgate, but probably escaped from a passing vessel. 

Grijllotalpa grtjllotolpa, Linn. One male and four females. Com- 
mon iu Europe, west of Asia and North Africa. The alhed G. uni- 
spinoiit, Sauss., is found in Turkestan, and G. africimi(,F.-B., is found 



AN ESSAY ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS. 189 

throughout Africa, except the north coast, Madagascar, Southern Asia, 
China, Java, Sumatra, and Borneo (Sauss.). I have ventured to 
restore Linna^us's specific name. If Latreille adopts the specific name 
for the generic, it is no reason tliat the law of priority should be in- 
fringed, and Linnteus's name must stand. It is unfortunate that the 
two names should thus be the same, but the only way in which it can 
be avoided is to change the generic name ; but it has been in such 
general use for so many years that the confusion that would follow 
would be worse than the evil of having the generic and specific name 
alike, which at least has the advantage of fixing the type of the genus. 

Bellagio, East Grinstead, May 26th, 1897. 



AN ESSAY ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS.* 

By John B. Smith, Sc.D. 

Of late years the phylogeny of insects has attracted con- 
siderable attention from students, and much light has been 
thrown upon the subject by the researches made. One of the 
most notable facts has been the breaking away from the old 
Linnean orders, and the substitution of a number of more com- 
pact assemblages for some of the almost indefinable aggrega- 
tions found in the old classification. New characters have been 
sought, not only in structures visible externally, but even in 
internal anatomical peculiarities. The subject is a very in- 
teresting one, which the teacher is of necessity compelled to 
study more or less, and which I was led to examine more par- 
ticularly when the question recently came up as to the adoption 
of some system in a general work on * Economic Entomology,' 
which has since been published. The conclusions reached by 
myself, while in general they agree with the latest published 
results, have been arrived at by a somewhat different method, 
and my ideas concerning the development of the orders are 
somewhat unlike those heretofore accepted. I have tried to 
adhere logically to a scheme of easy development, and have 
made uee of some characters not heretofore particularly noted. 
Leaving aside for the present all questions as to the origin of the 
class " Insecta," and as to its ancestors, I start from a developed 
hexapod — an archetypal Thysanuran with six, jointed legs ; 
without wings ; with or without abdominal appendages other 
than functional legs ; with no eyes or with ocelli only ; with a 
head not greatly differing in size or form from the body seg- 
ments ; with the thoracic segments equally developed and not 
greatly differing except in appendages from those of the abdo- 
men. This creature lived in moist places, perhaps partially in 

- ' Science,' n. s., vol. v. pp. 071-C77 (April SOtli, 1897). 



190 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

the water, and had the tracheal sj'stem feebly or not at all de- 
veloped ; absorbing oxygen chiefly through the skin and tending, 
perhaps, as much in the direction of an aquatic as a terrestrial 
life. It had no distinct metamorphosis, was oviparous, bisexed, 
changing little in appearance from the time it emerged from the 
egg until it was adult and capable of reproduction. The mouth 
structures were generalized, feebly developed ; but with at least 
three, and possibly four, pairs of composite structures corre- 
sponding to mandibles, maxillre and labium of our existing 
insects. The possible fourth pair may have been an endo-labium 
and, perhaps, the labrum with its attached epipharynx may have 
required a fifth pair of structures. Most essential of all was an 
inherent power of variation and adaptation, and probably, as 
with some of our present Thysanurans, reproduction was rapid 
and enormous numbers existed. The first important differentia- 
tion occurred in the mouth structure long before wings became 
developed, tending on the one hand to a perfection of all or most 
of the parts, or to a mandibulate type ; on the other to a loss of 
certain of the structures, accompanied by a different development 
of the others, forming a haustellate type. In this latter branch 
the mandibles were never developed, the maxillary structures 
became elongated, separated into their parallel parts, and the 
labium became obsolete as a functional organ. Just how many 
intervening orders existed between Thysanura emandibulata and 
the best development of the haustellate structures it is im- 
possible to say ; but the only one in existence at the present 
time is Thysanoptera, also called Physopoda, otherwise Thrips. 

This order I consider a distinct one on the same branch from 
which arose the Hemiptera, but forming merely a short spur 
and retaining characters which were soon lost in the main and 
more vigorous branch. It is a survival which has lost the power 
of further development, and can do no more than merely main- 
tain itself. The main branch formed the Plemiptera, or, as I 
prefer to call them, the Ehyngota of to-day ; the mandibulate 
parts being completely lost, the labium losing all external ap- 
pendages, and the maxillae forming the jointed beak with its 
enclosed lancets. 

The Thysanoptera and Ehyngota of all the existing orders 
are the only ones that do not have functional mandibles in some 
stage of their development. They are haustellate from their 
birth, and the character of the mouth parts never changes. In 
all the other orders, either larva; or adults, or both, are man- 
dibulate. I am aware that there are seeming exceptions in 
several orders, notably the Diptera ; but it will hardly be dis- 
puted that this order is of a mandibulate stock, and many larvae 
have the parts well developed. 

It results from the views just stated that the Thysanoptera 
and Ehyngota are a division equal in value to all the other, or 



AN ESSAY ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS. 191 

mandibulate, orders combined. They have their origin from the 
common stock, but were always haustellate or emandibulate in 
all stages, forming the first and lower of my main divisions. 
With the development of this branch, after its distinctive feature 
became established, I have nothing to do at present. It seemed 
adapted for variation in special lines only, and, as the method 
of feeding was practically fixed from the beginning, there is a 
remarkable similarity in mouth parts throughout. 

The maadibidata possessed much greater powers of variation, 
and a mouth structure in which all the parts were developed and 
capable of modification, containing possibilities of much greater 
range in obtaining food. They lived therefore under all sorts of 
conditions, in all sorts of media, and all kinds of modification 
were produced; some of them short-lived, adapted only to 
surroundings then existing; others with greater possibilities, 
that exist to the present time. 

The first mandibulate insect had the thoracic segments 
similarly developed, all of about the same size, and each of them 
free ; but the advent of wings gave opportunity for radical 
divisions. I have no desire to go into details here more than 
necessary to explain my views of classification, hence will not 
pretend to account for the origin or development of wings. They 
did appear, however, and independently at several different 
points. In all cases the wings were net-veined or neuropterous 
in type, a peculiarity which is explicable if the venation be con- 
sidered of a tracheal origin. With the appearance of wings 
many divergences in habit were made possible, and new types 
began to appear. Three main lines branched almost simul- 
taneously from the common stock, each of them fairly well 
marked from the beginning, retaining its peculiarities and even 
intensifying them in all future subdivisions to the present time. 
In the first of these the prothorax, bearing no wings, became 
separated from the other rings and movable, or in a sense domi- 
nant. In both the others it tended to a reduction in size or to 
become agglutinated with or united to the others. In a general 
way it may be said that the series in which the prothorax is free 
is lower in the scale of development, as retaining a more primi- 
tive type. The orders belonging to this subdivision or branch 
are the Dermoptera, Coleoptera, Plecoptera, Platyptera, and 
Orthoptera. 

[The orders placed in the first division are then discussed in 
detail, and remarks made on phylogeny.] 

The second branch from the Thysanuran stem started with 
all the thoracic segments nearly equally developed. While the 
prothorax was of good size and in the lowest forms quite free, 
yet the tendency was from the very start to unite it at its base to 
the other thoracic segments. In this series it is alwnys fairly 
weSI developed, sometimes even very long ; but it is always 



192 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

closely joined to the mesothorax at the base, and is not movable, 
while the tendency is for the head to become free from it, and at 
all events not to be inserted into the thoracic segment. While 
we do not have anywhere in this series a distinct neck, yet on 
the other hand there is nowhere a retraction of the head into 
the prothorax. In this series both pairs of wings are similarly 
developed, both as to size and as to general character, while the 
secondaries, though frequently covered by the primaries, are 
never folded beneath them in any way. The primaries are 
always functional. 

The lowest in this series, and almost the simplest in general 
structure, are the Isoptera, where all the thoracic segments are 
well developed, and the prothorax is scarcely dominant, though 
larger and almost free from the others. The wings are very 
much alike, the secondaries only a little larger than the pri- 
maries, and both are laid flat upon the abdomen. The mouth 
structures are almost identical with those of the earwigs and 
some of the Orthoptera. I believe the members of this order 
are amongst the most primitive of all the terrestrial winged 
insects now existing, and among the most ancient, though 
remarkably specialized in certain directions at the present time. 
Though at first glance it would seem as if these insects should 
belong to the series in which the prothorax is free, yet the 
character of the wing structure forbids this association, and 
makes the Isoptera a natural stem from which were derived the 
Mallophaga, Corrodentia, and Neuroptera. 

[The phylogeny of the orders included in the second division 
is then considered.! 

The third series, in which the prothorax becomes much 
reduced in size and firmly articulated to the mesothorax, has 
the body parts as a whole much more closely jointed and 
globular. The tendency is to bring the origin of the legs close 
together, and to the loss of the sternum as a distinct part or 
sclerite between the coxas. The mesothorax becomes dominant 
and best developed, bearing also the chief organs of flight. As 
a whole, subject to many exceptions, the tendency is to the 
development of the primaries, which are never reduced to mere 
wing-covers and never lose function. The tendency seems to be 
rather to a decrease in the size of the secondaries, as in Hymen- 
optera, and to their total loss, as in the Diptera. There is, 
however, a great deal of variation in this respect, and the most 
that can be justly said is that in this series the secondaries never 
become the only, or primary, organs of flight. Another point of 
very great importance is that here the head is nearly always 
more or less free or well separated, tending to the formation of a 
distinct neck ; while there is never any insertion of the head 
into the prothorax. This fact will become very striking when 
the orders that are placed here are compared with those in the 



NEW SPECIES OF SOUTH AMERICAN EUMOLPIDiE. 193 

other section, and this difference in the articuhition of the head 
has never been, in my opinion, sufficiently emphasized in our 
classification of the orders. It is closely correlated with the 
decrease, in size, of the prothorax. 

In mouth structure the tendency is all in the direction of 
galear development in the maxilla, while the lacinia becomes 
constantly less important. In the Diptera, in which this series 
finds its highest development, the galea predominate over all 
other mouth structures. In the Hymenoptera the galea is 
always most highly developed, and particularly so in the bees, 
the most completely differentiated of all in the order. In the 
Lepidoptera the galea alone is developed into a functional organ, 
and in those net-veined orders in which the mouth parts are not 
rudimentary merely the galea is at least as well developed as and 
never subordinated to the lacinia. The orders which I placed in 
this series are Odonata, Ephemerida, Trichoptera, Mecoptera, 
Hymenoptera, Siphonoptera, and Diptera. 

[Here follow remarks on the phylogeny of the orders in the 
third division.] 

I am quite aware that objections may be urged to this 
scheme, and that it is imperfect in some respects, but so also 
are all the others that have been proposed ; and I believe, as I 
look at the matter, that my plan answers more of the objections 
than any other that I have seen. Nothing known to me con- 
tradicts it more vitally than any other that has been proposed. 

I have accorded very little place to the character of the 
metamorphosis, because there is no hard and fast line between 
complete and incomplete ; but the closer comparative study of 
early stages will unquestionably help out our future classification. 
I have not made use of any one character as the basis of my 
scheme of division, because I do not think nature works in that 
way ; and, finally, I have used adult stages only, because I see 
in the adult ready to reproduce, the species. It is the culmina- 
tion of individual growth, and until it is ready to reproduce it is 
incomplete, subject to change, and not an expression of the point 
to which its development has attained. 



NEW SPECIES OF SOUTH AMEEICAN EUMOLPID^. 

By Martin Jacoby, F.E.S. 
(Continued from p. 170.) 

Chalcophana elongata, n. sp. 
Elongate, narrowed posteriorly, black, above fulvous with metallic 
green gloss ; head and thorax sparingly punctured, stained with fus- 
cous; elytra strongly and closely semi-regularly punctured, the sides very 
acutely bi-costate, apical angles concave-emarginate. Length 4 lines. 



194 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Head sparingly, irregularly, but distinctly punctured, fulvous, the 
vertex with a more or less distinct greenish black spot ; clypeus sub- 
quadrate, finely punctured ; antennae scarcely extending to the middle 
of the elytra, fuscous or black, the lower four joints fulvous, the 
third and the following four joints elongate, equal, the terminal ones 
shorter; thorax nearly twice as broad as long, the sides nearly straight, 
oblique, the angles tuberculiform, the disc with a more or less distinct 
lateral fovea, very sparingly and irregularly impressed with larger and 
smaller punctures, dark fulvous, the sides marked with piceous, ill- 
defined ; scutellum fulvous ; elytra reddish fulvous with metallic pale 
green gloss, very elongate, the apex of each concave-emarginate, the 
surface closely and very strongly punctured, the punctures near the 
suture more or less geminate and separated by raised longitudinal 
interspaces which assume the shape of strongly raised costfe at the 
sides, of which two below the shoulders are very highly raised and 
continued to the apex, the shoulders themselves are likewise strongly 
raised and prominent, and have another short costa below near the 
lateral margin ; breast and abdomen black ; legs fulvous ; prosternum 
very deeply bilobed. 

Hah. — Bolivia. 

This is one of the most distinct species of the genus, which 
may be best compared with C. quadricostata, Jac. (Biolog. Cent. 
Amer.), on account of the emarginate elytral apex ; the present 
insect is, however, very elongate, and has the entire under side 
black, while the legs and tarsi are fulvous. The two specimens 
contained in my collection are evidently females, and the other 
sex is probably devoid of the elytral costfe. 

Chalcophana vmiDi-BASALis, n. sp. 

Elongate, pale fulvous; the antennas, tibiae, and tarsi black; thorax 
sparingly punctured ; elytra strongly and closely punctate-striate, pale 
fulvous, gradually shading into metallic green at the base. Length 
3-4 lines. 

^ . Head rather strongly and closely punctured, dark fulvous ; 
clypeus similarly sculptured ; labrum flavous ; antennae extending 
beyond the middle of the elytra, black, robust, the third joint one half 
longer than the second one, but much shorter than the fourth joint; 
thorax twice as broad as long, the sides rounded, the angles tuberculate, 
the surface with larger and smaller punctures, sparingly and irregularly 
distributed ; elytra strongly punctured near the base, the punctures 
gradually diminishing in size and arranged in closely approached rows, 
the basal portion and the suture metallic green, the rest of the surface 
pale fulvous, both colours gradually blendmg before the middle; under 
side and the femora pale fulvous ; the tibia3 and tarsi nearly black. 

2 . Larger ; the elytra with two or three short costa3 at the sides 
below the shoulders. 

Ilah. — Bolivia. 

In this species, of which I possess six specimens, the metallic 
green colour of the elytra is confined to the base only, although 



NEW SPECIES OF SOUTH AMERICAN EUMOLPIDZE. 195 

not well separated from the pale fulvous portion. I am not 
acquainted with any similarly coloured Chalcopliana, which on 
that account and the dark antennae and tibise will not be difficult 
to distinguish. 

Chalcophana punctatissima, n. sp. 

Obscure fulvous with metallic gloss ; antennfe (the basal three 
joints excepted), the tibiaj, and tarsi black ; thorax very sparingly 
punctured ; elytra metallic green, extremely closely punctured, the 
lateral and apical margins narrowly fulvous. Length, 3^ lines. 

(^ . Head rather closely punctured, fulvous, with a purplish gloss, 
the middle with a short but deep groove, frontal tubercles strougly 
raised ; clypeus nearly impunctate ; antennae black, the lower three or 
four joints fulvous ; thorax scai'cely twice as broad as long, the sides 
rather strongly rounded, the angles tuberculiform, the surface finely 
and very sparingly punctured, dark rufous with a strong purplish or 
greenish gloss ; scutellum fulvous ; elytra metallic green with a very 
slight depression below the base, the apical angle of each produced 
into a small tooth, the surface closely and finely punctured, especially 
so near the apex, the punctures near the suture below the middle 
arranged in more or less distinct double rows which are interrupted 
by some smooth longitudinal spaces, the extreme lateral and apical 
margins as well as the suture posteriorly rufous ; under side and legs 
rufous ; the greater portion of the tibife and the tarsi bluish black. 

Hah. — Ecuador. 

The very close and fine elytral punctuation distinguishes 
this species. 

Chalcophana abdominalis, n. sp. 

(?. Fulvous; the antennas (the basal two joints excepted), the 
apex of the tibife, the tarsi, and the abdomen black ; thorax sparingly 
punctured ; elytra metallic green, finely punctured in single rows, the 
iDase with a depression. ? . Elytra olivaceous green, very finely 
punctured, the sides with two short costfe. Length 3i^-4 lines. 

Head with a few punctures and the usual central depression, 
fulvous, the apical joint of the palpi piceous ; antennae extending 
beyond the middle of the elytra, bluish black, the basal two joints and 
part of the third fulvous ; thorax scarcely twice as broad as long, the 
sides moderately rounded, the angles but slightly prominent, the 
surface with a few fine scattered punctures ; scutellum nearly black ; 
elytra metallic green, with a rather distinct lateral depression below 
the base, finely punctured in single rather closely approached rows, 
which, below the middle, are here and there arranged in pairs ; the 
breast and the femora fulvous ; the lower two-thirds of the tibite, the 
tarsi, and the abdomen black. 

Hah. — Bolivia. 

In the colour of the abdomen this species agrees with C. 
peruana, Har., and C. ixdumhina, Erichs. ; from the former it is 
distinguished by having only the basal two joints of the antennae 



19(3 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

fulvous and by the colour of the tibiae and the distinct elytral 
depression. Von Harold has apparently described the female 
only, and says nothing about the sexes in any of his descriptions, 
which is one of the most important points in this genus. The 
female of the present species is larger, but agrees in all essential 
points, except in the colour of the elytra, which are of a dull 
olivaceous tint (there is only one specimen of this sex before me, 
I am therefore unable to say whether this colour is constant), 
and are more finely punctured than in the male ; an indistinct 
costa runs from the shoulder to about the middle of each elytron, 
but another strongly raised costa is placed at the side below the 
shoulder and is again followed by another more indistinct one 
near the lateral margin. The apex of the elytra is not produced 
in either sex. 

{To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Temperature Experiments on Lepidoptera. — Among the speci- 
mens exhibited by Dr. Standfuss in the insect gallery at the Natural 
History Museum, South Kensington, are some remarkable aberrations 
of Vanessa pohjchloros, V. urtica;, V. cardui, V. atalanta, V. io, and 
V. antiopa. One especially beautiful example of V. antiopa has all 
the wings shot with blue ; another specimen of the same species has 
abnormally large blue spots; in others there is considerable darkening 
of the yellow borders, more particularly on the fore wings ; others 
again show modification in the width of border, in some this is ex- 
ceptionally wide, and more or less completely obscures the ordinary 
blue spots ; these last would appear to be referable to var. Jn/iiuea (a 
figure of a modification of this form will be found Entom. xxii. pi. viii. 
fig. 4). In the aberration of V. atnlanta, the chief features are absence 
of costal white spot and an increase in the size of two of the spots of 
outer marginal series above red band ; there is also modification in 
the width and shape of the red band." Of V. io there are, among other 
curious forms, some interesting examples of the " blind-eyed" aberra- 
tion ihjophtlialmica. In addition to the many highly instructive results 
of the artificial temperature treatment exhibited by Dr. Standfuss, 
there is a selection of results obtained by Mr. Morrifield, who, as is 
well known, has devoted much time to this line of scientific investiga- 
tion. If anyone is still sceptical as |J0 the effect of temperature in the 
coloration of Lepidoptera he should make a point of studying the 
series of I', iirtiac and V. levana. Of the first-named species there are 
six examples which emerged from pup.e that had been iced and cooled, 
and six from pupie that had been subjected to increased temperature. 
Five of the former show a general darkening of the black spots and a 
blackish suffusion of the secondaries, whilst the sixth has the ground 
colour deeper than usual and the yellow spots are absent. Of the six 
forced specimens, four have the three central black spots more or less 
effaced, and in the other two the outer margins are paler. Winter 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 197 

pupa? of F. levana subjected to the forcing process produced specimens 
like some of those resulting from summer pupre which had been first 
cooled and subsequently forced. On the other hand, iced and cooled 
summer pupfe yielded forms which although larger in size are almost 
identical in coloration with those emerging under normal conditions 
from winter pupre. We understand that this collection, which is still 
at the Museum, will only remain there for a short time longer. 

Melanism and Climatic Conditions. — Keferring to the paper on 
this subject by Mr. G. W. Smith [ante, p. 127), a contemporary thinks 
it is superficial and illogical, and adds: — "The author writes from 
the College, Winchester, and the paper might readily be supposed to 
emanate from a schoolboy who did not understand his subject. But 
why such a prominent place in * The Entomologist' ? " The author 
of the paper in question is not personally known to us, but if he be a 
schoolboy, as suggested by the captious critic from whose note we 
have quoted, his communication is at least free from disparaging 
remarks concerning those who hold views opposed to his own, and 
tbis is more than can always be said of the published writings of a 
schoolmaster. Further, we are of opinion that the paper is not 
illogical, and we have reason to believe that the author is fully 
acquainted with his subject. The " prominent place " query may be 
passed over as inconsequent. 

Hybrid and Mongrel Lepidoptera.— On a previous occasion I sug- 
gested that those who were skilled in rearing Lepidoptera from the egg 
should turn their attention to experiments in hybrid breeding, which, so 
far, has not been attempted in any large way. Some idea of the possible 
results in this direction is to be found in the specimens obtained by 
Dr. Standfuss exhibited at the Eoyal Society and at the Natural 
History Museum, South Kensington. Among these there were hybrids 
developed from three different species, i.e. Saturnia pavonia [carpini), 
S. pi/)i, and S. spini. The labels bearing information were not easy 
to read, owing to the fact that they were obscured by the frame of the 
table-case in which the species were placed, but from what I could 
make out it would seem that hybrid males from a crossing of S. pi/ri 
and S. pavonia paired with female «S'. sjnni, producing most interesting 
ofi'spring. In another series there were the mongrel progeny of 
crossings between (1) CalUmorpha dominula $■ and va^r. persona ? , 
(2) persona $ and dominula $ . For the information of those who 
may not be acquainted with the persona form of domimda, it may be 
well to state that it has much smaller spots on the fore wings, and the 
hind wings are black with an irregular yellow patch at the base and 
one or two small yellow spots beyond. In these mongrel specimens 
the characters of both parents were exhibited, but the tendency was 
stronger in the direction of dominula ; the hind wings in both series 
were of the typical colour, but a trifle paler in series 2. The results 
of pairings between Spilosoma mendica and its var. rustica were some- 
what similar to those obtained by Mr. Adkin a few years ago. — R. S. 

PlERIS BRASSIC.13 ATTRACTED BY ARTIFICIAL FlOWERS. Whilst Walking 

up Regent Street yesterday I noticed a P. brussiccs flying round and 

ENTOM. JULY, 1897. II 



198 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

round the head of a Lidy who was wearing a hat trimmed with a laige 
bunch of artificial hlies of the valley, it evidently mistaking them for 
the real flowers. It continued to follow her for some distance, and 
would undoubtedly have settled on the flowers had she not been 
walking at a quick rate, several times attempting to do so. It created 
a good deal of interest, several people stopping to notice it. — 0. E. 
Bedford; Acton, W., May 28th. 

DiLOBA C.ERULEOCEPHALA FeEDING ON PrUNUS LAtfROCERASUS. This 

moth, which is generally common in the neighbourhood of Haywards 
Heath, has this season done very little damage to the sloe where the 
cherry laurel grew. I have no noies of the larva of 7^. carnlcocephala 
eating this shrub before.— H. W. Bell-Marley ; June 17th, 1897. 

[There are several records of the larva of Dlloha ctBruleucephala 
having been found feeding on Primus lanro-ccrasus in tlie ' Ento- 
mologist ' for 1890.— Ed.] 

The Lepidoptera of Middlesex. — In the 'Entomologist', (xxviii. 
p. 304) is a short note of the additions made to the list of Middlesex. 
Lepidoptera in vol. i. of 'Harrow Butterflies and Moths,' published by 
the Harrow School Scientific Society. The second volume (1897) 
(J. L. Bonhote and N. C. Eothschild) completes the catalogue, and 
several species hitherto unrecorded, either by Mr. Cockerell (Entom. 
xxiv.-xxv.) or by me (Entom. xxvii.-xxviii.), are to be found in its 
pages. These are Eupisteria obliterata (1895), Numeria pulveraria 
(Bond), Abraxas sylvata, Emmelesia unifasciata, and Eupithecia Imarlata, 
E. succenturiata, E. dodoneata (Bond), E. pidchellata, Hypsipetes ruberata 
(Bond), H. trifasciata, Cidaria iinmanata, C. prunata, Aylossa cuprealis 
(Bond), Scoparia ccmbra, S. crataffella, Ebidea crocealis, Spilodes verti- 
calis, Aciptilia (jalactodactrjJa (Bond). The majority of these observa- 
tions, as will be seen, were made by the late Mr. Bond before Kingsbury 
became suburbanized. But the diligence of local collectors elsewhere 
has restored to the list many Heterocera which might have been 
expected to be extinct so far as county Middlesex is concerned, Mr. 
Rhoades- Smith being apparently extremely successful. From the 
supplement to vol. i. it also appears that Macroglossa boinbyliformis was 
taken by Mr. Bond at Kingsbury, while the record of Triyomphora 
flammea^ under my name in Mr. Cockerell's list is properly deleted, as 
it was included in the list sent by me to that gentleman in error 
(Entom. xxiv. 280). — H. Bowland-Brown ; Oxhey Grove, Harrow 
Weald, May 30th, 1897. 

Committee for Protection of Insects in Danger of Extermina- 
tion. — At a meeting of the Committee held on June 2nd, it was 
resolved that the following species of Lepidoptera, being local species 
in danger of extermination, be more particularly recommended for 
protection in accordance with the final paragraph of the Memorandum 
of Association : — 

Papilio machaon, L. Nola albulalis, Hiib. 

Lemophasia sinapis, L. Eidepia crihrum, L. 

Pieris cratayi, L. Porthesia chrysorrhaa, L. 

Melitcea athalia, Esp. Clisiocampa castrmsis, L. 

M. cinxia, L. • Drepaua sicida, Schiff. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 199 

Apatunt iris, L. Diphthera orion, Esp. 

Limenitis sibylla, L. Acosmetla caliyinosa, Hiib. 

Theda pnini, L. DiantJuccia irregularis, Hufii. 

Pohjoinmatus arion, L. Plusin orichalcea, Fab. 

Ci/clopides paniscus, Fab. Epione vespertaria, L. 

Hesperia actaon, Esp. Fidonia conspicnata, Scbiff. 

Trochilium scoliaformc, Hiib. Scoria dealbata, L. 

Zyr/ctna meliloti, Esp. Cidaria reticulata, Fab. 

zi'. exulaus, Hoch. Lithostege griseata, Schiff. 

Nola strigula, Schiff. Agrotera nemoralis, Scop. 

N. centonalis, Hiib. Pterophorus rhododactglus, Schiff. 

Further resolvetl, that a copy of this list be forwarded to every Society 
co-operating with this Committee, with an explanation (where necessary) 
that the Committee does not desire to hamper any local Society in any 
more stringent action proposed to be taken by them for the protection 
of local species. Also resolved, that each such Society be invited to 
delegate one of its members, who shall be received as a member of 
this Committee. — Chas. G. Barrett, Hon. Sec. ; 39, Linden Grove, 
Nuuhead, S.E. 

Correction. — Page 160, line 3, Jor north of Europe read north of 
Africa. 



CAPTUEES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Whit Monday at Oxshott. — The iirst objects to attract attention 
almost directly after leaving the station were the young pine trees. Almost 
every one of these showed signs of beiug attacked by Retlnia larvae. The 
leading shoots of a number were tenanted by jR. pinicolancc, arid the side 
shoots of many others were badly infested by R. huoliana; the former 
mostly in pupae, and the latter as larvae, but about to pupate. Further on, 
among the birches, Phlaiodes demarniana was obtained, altogether five 
specimens ; three of these were disturbed from the foliage ; one was found 
at rest on a birch-trunk, and another on a sprig of heath under a birch tree. 
Eupcccilia nana was common, but most of the specimens netted were worn. 
The only buckthorn bush I have observed in the locality was thickly 
populated by larvae of Gonopteryx rhamni in all sorts of sizes, from recently 
hatched up to half grown ; there were also a good many eggs on the under 
sides of some of the leaves. Mr. Forrester, who was with me, took some 
of the larvae, and thus gave those that were left a better chance of feeding 
up. If the whole number had been allowed to remain the smaller ones 
must have fared badly, as the bush was certainly not large enough to 
nourish to maturity all the larvae that we saw upon it. Soon after leaving 
the buckthorn I espied a specimen of Drepana lacertinaria at rest, and as 
this proved to be a female, I secured her in the hope that she might 
deposit some ova, but she failed to do so. The next insects to interest us 
were Aspilates strigillaria, which Mr. Forrester attended to, whilst I was 
engaged with Phoxopteryx uncana; the examples of the last-named species 
appear to me to be brighter than those I find in other localities. On the 
way to the larger pine trees a few larvae of Asphalia Jiavicornis and some 
commoner things were observed, and a pupa of Phycis betulce was taken. 



'-^00 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

The last-named species seems to be less common than it was some six or' 
seven years ago at Oxshott. Being well among the pines, Biipalus 
piniaria was seen in numbers, with an occasional Eupithecia indhjala. I 
made a long search for larvae or pupae of Tortrix piceana, but could not tind 
the species in any stage, though judging from the number of twigs that 
had been cut from the smaller trees it appeared that some one had had 
better luck than myself. The extermination of this species in the Oxshott 
district by the avaricious collector is hardly probable, otherwise I might 
regret that I did not keep to myself what I know of it in its earlier stages. 
Several other insects than those referred to were seen, but the only ones 
worth mentioning were a specimen of Bomhy.v rubi ; some Retinla jniil- 
vorana which were seen flying round the pines just before dusk; and three 
or four specimens of Endopisa nir^rlcana that were netted in one sweep of 
the net. This last capture was rather curious; I noticed a Tortrix fly to 
and settle on the end of a branch of birch ; the net was quickly after it, 
and when I came to examine what kind of bcastie I had captured, I found 
several moths trying to regain their liberty. Four of these were boxed, 
and they all turned out to be E. nhjrkana, three males and one female. No 
doubt those that escaped were males of the same species, and it is most 
probable that all were attracted by the female. — Hichakd South ; 
100, Ritherdon Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Sesia culiciformis in Cheshire. — On a visit of a few days last week 
to Delamere Forest, I had the pleasure of taking two fine specimens 
ot S. culiciformis, on birch-leaves, basking in the sunshine. As I under- 
stand this insect has not before been taken in the forest, nor indeed in the 
county of Chester. — Cmas. F. Thornewill. 

Amphidasts betularia var. doubledayaria in the London Dis- 
trict. — On May 23rd I picked up a specimen of A. betularia var. double- 
dayaria in this neighbourhood. It is the first I have ever met with in the 
London district, although I have bred the type in large numbers. — A. W. 
Mera; 79, Capel Road, Forest Gate, May 24th, 1897. 

Larvae of Bo:«byx neustria have been and are still quite abundant in 
this locality this season. On May 17th I noticed as many as nine separate 
colonies in a distance of forty yards on blackthorn bushes, and last week as 
many feeding on sallow and osier. In other places, where the broods have 
separated, larvae nearly full grown may often be seen. With regard to the 
present season, Lepidoptera here arc fully two weeks later in their emer- 
gence compared with last year. — T. B. Jefferys ; Laugharne, Carmarthen- 
shire, June 14th, 1897. 

Leucophasia siNAPis, L., IN Co. Waterford, &c. — I am happy to 
say that this generally local and scarce butterfly has occurred not uncom- 
monly at Curraghmore, near Portlaw, during the present season. I visited 
this locality on three occasions, and met with the butterfly on each; it was 
especially abundant on my last visit there, the 5lh inst., and I took over a 
dozen specimens in fine condition, principally in a bit of marshy ground 
bordered by trees. 1 also had the pleasure of taking a single specimen of 
the " wood white," in an open space in a fir-wood situated on the slope of a 
low hill facing a boggy tract of land near Mileport in the Co. Kilkenny. 
I believe the Co. Kilkenny has not hitherto been recorded as a habitat for 
this local butterfly. — L. H. Bonaparte-Wyse; Waterford, June 2l6t, 1897. 



201 



SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. — Jane 2?ir?.— Mr. R. Trimen, 
F.H.S., President, in the chair. The President referred to the great 
loss which the Society had sustained by the death of Dr. Eritz 
Midler, one of its honorary Fellows, and to his distinguished services 
in the cause of entomological science, and especially in forwarding the 
theory of the origin of species. Dr. Chapman exhibited the larva of 
Eriocephala aUioneUa. Mr. Jacoby exhibited a fine example of the 
large Hepialid, Leto venus, from Plettenberg Bay, South Africa. The 
President said that the insect afforded an interesting case of localised 
distribution, being confined to an area of about fifty by fourteen miles, 
whereas the larva fed in the wood of Vinjiiia capensis, a common and 
widely-distributed leguminous tree. The insect was very conspicuous, 
and could not have been overlooked in other localities. Mr. Burr 
showed a pair of gynandromorphous earwigs, Chdisoches viorio, Fabr., 
from Java, with ordinary males and females for comparison. In both 
specimens the right branch of the forceps was of the male, and the left 
branch of the female form. De Bormans had recorded a similar case 
in Lahidura pw/na.v, Kirb., from Burmah, in which also the right 
branch was male and the left female. In the National Collection 
there was a Chelisoches morio, in which the left branch was male and 
the right female. According to Brunner this phenomenon was not 
uncommon in the ForficularidfB, but Mr. Burr had heard of no other 
cases. The Hon. Walter Piothschild exhibited a series of specimens of 
Juidamonia brachyura, Drury, and E. anjiphontes, Kirby, to show 
the differences between these two West African Saturniid moths. 
The distinctness of the latter species had been doubted, as until 
recently it was only known by the unique examples in the 
Dublin Museum, and the three published figures of these were 
materially different from each other. A comparison of the series 
exhibited showed the two species to be abundantly distinct. Mr. 
Kirkaldy exhibited fifty specimens of Notonccia (jiamci, Linn., to 
show the extreme range in size and colour of this widely-distributed 
species, to which the Palaearctic N. hitea, Miill., was extremely 
closely allied, if not conspecific with it. The discussion on mimicry 
and homoeochromatism in butterflies was then resumed by Dr. Dixey, 
who replied to the comments of Prof. Poulton and Mr. Blandford on 
his paper. He did not regard the phenomenon of reciprocal con- 
vergence as necessarily a demonstrable feature in Miillerian mimicry ; 
it was merely potential. With respect to mimetic Pierid^e, he did not 
consider that they were invariably protected, but that, in certain 
cases, they were shown to be so by the indications of convergence 
exhibited by the models. Mr. Elwes thought, from his personal 
experience as a collector, that there was too much assumption about 
both the Batesian and Miillerian theories. In many supposed cases 
he doubted whether the so-called models were protected by taste or 
smell. He had previously referred to the extraordinary superficial 
resemblance between two Pieridffi found in the high Andes of Bolivia, 
and two others found at similar elevations in Ladak, and was inclined 



'202 THE ENTOBIOLOGIST. 

to think that similar conditions of enviromncnt produced similar 
effects. Mr. J. J. Walker, Sir George Hampson, and Col. Yerbury 
gave evidence, from personal experience in the Tropics, as to the 
extreme rarity of butterfly destruction by birds. The President 
admitted its rarity in Africa ; but stated that he had seen birds, 
especially the Drongo shrike, chasing butterflies. Mr. Blandford 
called attention to a recent paper by M. Piepers, who, as the result of 
twenty-eight years' observation in the Malay region, had seen four 
instances only of butterflies, two of which belonged to the "protected" 
genus Kiiplcea, being attacked by birds, and had been driven to the 
conclusion that the phenomena of mimicry had nothing to do with 
natural selection. Papers were communicated by the Piev. F. D. 
Morice on "New or little-known Sphegidfe from Egypt"; and by 
Prof. J. F. Grote on "Changes in the Structure of the Wing of 
Butterflies." A special meeting was then held, at which the proposed 
amendments and additions to the Society's bye-laws were adopted. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
May 21th, 1897.— Mr. K. Adkin, F.E.S., President, in the chair. 
Mr. Bainbridge Prest, M.A., of Sydenham, was elected a member. 
Mr. South exhibited a box of Tephrosias, which he had purposely 
mixed as regards dates and localities. He asked for information as 
to names, but no one essayed to pick out the two forms. Mr. Auld, 
larva3 of Boarmia rohoraria and Limenitls sibijlla from the New Forest, 
and also larvjTJ of the two Phorodesmas, P. hajularia and P. smaragdaria, 
and remarked on the close similarity of the former, in its covering of 
oak remnants, to the groups of brown scales enclosing the buds on the 
oak twigs. Mr. Moore, male and female specimens of the remarkable 
Mexican Pierid, Pyrisitia proterpia, a bright and rich orange coloured 
insect. Mr. Tutt, specimens of Ascalap/ius cucejam, a Neuropterous 
insect allied to the ant-lions, from Digne, with notes on its history, 
variation, and occurrence. An allied species, A. maccaronixis, was 
described by Scopoli as a butterfly. Mr. Edwards, a living mantis 
sent from Cannes by Dr. Chapman. He had had it some six weeks, 
and it fed readily upon small cockroaches and flies. He also showed 
young larva3 of Sattinda pavoina from ova laid by a female taken at 
Digne. Mr. Adkin, series of Cidaria sujfumata from various localities, 
including Forres, Dover, Box Hill, and Loch Laggan. Those from the 
latter locality were var. piccata. Mr. Tuualey, specimens of the 
resinous nodules of pine sent him from Scotland, from which he had 
bred Itetinia rcdnella. He also showed sections of the same, and made 
remarks upon the peculiarities of the cocoon and the method of emer- 
gence of the species. Dr. Chapman exhibited, among other insects, 
a living specimen of Chara.vcs jasius, which had just emerged from the 
pupa of a larva taken at Cannes. Mr. Tutt read a paper entitled 
" Spring Butterflies on the Riviera," and exliibited a large number of 
species in illustration. 

June 10th. — The President in the chair. Mr. Jas. N. Smith, 28, 
Eastdown Park, Lewisham, was elected a member. Mr. Mansbridge 
exhibited a larva of Tephroda crepuscularia beaten from yew, and a 
short series of imagines bred as a second brood from larvae taken at 



RECENT LITERATURE. 203 

the same place last yeir. He stated that the larvie of T. biundalaria 
from both Yorkshire and Epping were quite distinct from the larvfe of 
T. crepiiscularia in marking and coloration. Mr. Tutt remarked that 
the young larva) of both species were similar to the young larva) of the 
Ennomids in being black with more or less complete white rings, but 
said that such similarity did not necessarily show close relationship 
always. Mr. Malcolm Burr, a few insects from the island of Socotra, 
and said that at a casual glance the fauna seemed to represent a 
transition from the Pala3arctic to the Ethiopian region. Mr. Turner, 
flowers of the bogbean (Menijnnthidis palustris) and of the cinquefoil 
(PotciiUilla co)narwii) from the neighbourhood of Woolmer Forest. Mr. 
Lucas, ichneumons which had emerged this year from last year's 
cocoons of Ziji/ccna tri/ulii, and also an earwig [Chelisoehes morio) from 
Java, of which species two examples have recently been taken at Kew. 
In the discussion, several curious instances of parasitism were noted. 
Mr. Tutt mentioned a parasite on the larvi^ of Melitmi aurinia which 
had three separate emergences during the life of its host. Mr. Hall 
said that a particular ichneumon was entirely confined to the young 
stage of CucuUla verbascL Mr. Adkin, a series of both captured and 
bred specimens of Tfeniocampa gothica from Loch Laggan. The 
captured examples were largely gothicina forms, while the latter were 
very typical, although the ova were from females of the former 
variety. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Report. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Mittheilungm aus deni Eocmer-Musewn zu HUdesheim. Nr. 8. Februar, 
1897. Die Schmetterlingsfauna von Hildesheim. Von A. 
Radcliffe Grote, A.m. 

Some years ago Mr, A. R. Grote, after rendering great service to 
the study of North American Lepidoptera, removed to Germany, and 
settled at Hildesheim, where he has begun to publish a series of very 
useful works on the classification of Lepidoptera, chiefly as worked out 
by the neuration. The present work is only secondarily a local list of 
the not very rich local fauna of Hildesheim (about eighty species of 
Rhopalocera), but is chiefly devoted to an elaborate description of the 
neuration of the families and subfamilies of butterflies, illustrated by 
four excellent plates. Mr. Grote does not adopt the usual German 
system of counting the nervnres upwards, but counts them downward, 
like the American writers, calling the three principal nervures, radius, 
media, and cubitus, and numbering them iii., iv., and v. These corre- 
spond to those frequently called in England the subcostal, median, and 
submedian nervures respectively. Mr. Grote admits twelve families of 
butterflies, of which two are not represented in Europe ; but it strikes 
us as somewhat singular that while classing together the Parnassiid;i3 
and Papilionidfe as Parnassi-Papilionida3, he should group the re- 
maining ten families together as Pieri-Hesperiidje, thus uniting the 



204 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Hesperiidne and Megathymidre more closely with the bulk of the 
Rhopalocera than the two first families mentioned. Although this 
classification may be partially borne out by the neuration, we do 
not think it can be supported by other parts of the structure of the 
insect. 



The Yonnfi Beetle-Collector's Handbook. By Dr. E. Hofmann, Curator 
of the Royal Natural History Museum at Stuttgart. With an 
Introduction by W. Egmont Kirby, M.D., Joint Author of 
' Britisli and European Butterflies and Moths,' ' Beetles, Butter- 
flies, Moths, and other Insects,' &c. Illustrated by twenty 
coloured plates, comprising over 500 figures. (Swan Sonnen- 
schein & Co. 1897.) 

The Coleoptera, or beetles, form one of the largest orders of insects, 
and an introductory book with plenty of illustrations was greatly 
needed by beginners taking up the study. Nothing could be better as 
an introductory book than Rye's ' British Beetles,' but the number of 
species described and figured in that book is too small to carry the 
beginner very far; and of the larger and more complete works. Cox's 
gives only descriptions, while Fowler's is too large and expensive for 
many who might wish to possess it. Nor is it well for a beginner to 
commence with too large a book, which is liable to confuse and dis- 
courage him. It is much better to begin with a smaller one, and then 
to proceed to the more complete ones when he has already sufficiently 
mastered the subject to be able to understand and use them with more 
or less advantage. 

The little book before us will be very useful to schoolboys and 
residents in the country who are inclined either to begin to collect 
beetles, or who feel sufficient interest in those which they may happen 
to meet with to wish to know something about them. It was of course 
impossible to describe and figure (dl the 3000 British beetles in a 
small space, but a large number of representative species are figured 
and briefly described, with special reference, in many cases, to habits 
and transformations ; while the Introduction, contributed by Dr. W. 
Egmont Kirby, deals briefly with such subjects as the structure, deve- 
lopment, and habits of beetles, with instructions for collecting. 

As the book is evidently the adaptation of a German work, a few 
species are figured and described which are not included in the British 
lists, but these are distinguished by the want of an asterisk before 
their names, and their presence is no disadvantage, for it counteracts 
the now rapidly subsiding prejudice in favour of restricting our interest 
to British species ; while from another point of view it will be useful, 
because several of the species thus figured h:ivo either been reputed 
British, or are liable to be introduced into England from time to time 
with vegetables or timber. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX.] AUGUST, 1897. [No. 411. 



SPILOSOMA MENDICA AND ITS vae. RUSTIC A 

INTEEBRED. 

By Robt. Adkin, F.E.S. 

The concluding sentence of the note on " Hybrid and Mongrel 
Lepidoptera " (ante, 197) renders desirable the publication of 
details of the pairing of the English and Irish forms of Spilosoma 
mendica which I obtained some time since, but which have not 
previously been placed on record. 

The stock from which the Irish form (var. rustica) was reared 
I received as ova in May, 1886, it having then been once inbred 
(Proc. South Lond. Soc. 1887, p. 90), the parent moth having 
been taken in Co. Cork. The English stock (typical mendica) 
came to me some three weeks later, also in the form of ova, and 
once inbred from a moth taken in the north of London. In 
each case fine broods were reared in 1887, the largest Irish 
males measuring 40 mm. in expanse, thus comparing favourably 
with the only two captured Irish examples I possess, which both 
expand 36 mm., and the largest females of the brood measure 
46 mm. The English males reared in 1887 expanded 36 mm., 
and the females 42 mm. Ova were obtained from both broods, 
but the larvae resulting began to show signs of degeneracy, the 
percentage of deaths being larger than in the previous genera- 
tion, especially among those of the Irish brood ; and the imagines 
emerging in 1888 were slightly smaller, the largest Irish male 
being 88 mm. and females 42 mm. in expanse. Thus far the 
English moths had all emerged before the Irish began to appear 
(possibly the removal northward may have accounted for the 
lateness of the latter), thus preventing the possibility of the 
cross-pairing I so much wished to obtain. Continuing the 
broods, further signs of degeneracy manifested themselves ; 
many ova did not hatch, the larvae were sickly, and a large per- 

ENTOM. AUGUST, 1897- S 



206 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

centage died, and the few moths that came forth in 1889 were 
miserable little creatures ; however, as a diminutive Irish male 
(32 mm.), one of the whitest that I had seen, and a small 
English female (36 mm.), happened to emerge on the same day, 
they were put together ; on the following morning they were 
paired, and ova were deposited same evening. The majority of 
these ova showed by ultimately turning colour that the larvae in 
them svere alive, but only four came forth, three fed up well and 
pupated, the other lingered on for an unduly long time and died ; 
but the only imagines that resulted were two full-sized males, 
measuring respectively 38 mm, and 37 mm. in expanse. 
Throughout the series of broods, due care was taken to keep the 
larvffi supplied with a sufficiency of fresh food and to prevent 
overcrowding. 

The colour of the English males was uniformly the typical 
sooty brown ; that of the Irish males varied from creamy white 
to pale ochreous brown, the females of both forms being alike, 
i. e., the typical smoky white. The crossbred examples most 
nearly resembled the darkest of the Irish form, being of the 
same pale ochreous brown colour but with a smoky tone and the 
fringes faintly paler. 

JiUy, 1897. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND VERTI- 
CAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE RHOPALOCERA IN THE 
HAUTES-PYRENEES. 

By W. Harcourt-Bath. 

The following paper is the result of a preliminary visit which 
I paid to the Central Pyrenees, situated in the French Depart- 
ment of the Hautes-Pyrenees, during the latter half of July 
and the beginning of August last year. I have already given 
an account of the vertical zones, together with a brief sketch 
of the vegetation, in a previous article in the 'Entomologist' 
(November, 1896). 

Although the scenery in the region under consideration is 
generally far grander than in that portion of the chain included 
in the Department of the Pyrenees-Orieutales, the PJiopalocera 
fauna of the former is not so rich. Unfortunately I was not 
favoured with very good weather ; half the time I was there it 
was either wet or dull, while during the same period the whole 
of Europe to the north was enjoying a drought of almost unpre- 
cedented severity ; but it is generally the case that when anti- 
c3^clonic conditions prevail in Central Europe, the weather 
further south is as a consequence bad. It was in fact one of 
most rainy seasons that they have had in the Pyrenees for a 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE EHOPALOCERA. 207 

long time, so that grave fears were entertained lest the grape 
crop should prove a failure on account of the insufficiency of the 
necessary amount of sunshine. Butterflies were as a con- 
sequence, with a few exceptions, neither in the best of condition 
nor very plentiful, at least as regards the number of indi- 
viduals was concerned, but I managed to meet with a fair 
number of species considering ; thus the total that I saw was 
seventy-seven, while the sum-total actually captured amounted 
to seventy-four, without counting varieties and aberrations. 

The two headquarters of the alpine Khopalocera fauna, as 
well as that of the alpine flora, is at Gavarnie and Heas, namely, 
in the Cirque de Gavarnie and the Cirque de Troumouse re- 
spectively, both of which localities I visited. The scenery, 
especially at that of the former place, is superb in the superla- 
tive degree. Every evening during my stay at Gavarnie — after 
a hard day's work among rocks and bushes on the rugged moun- 
tain slopes in search of butterflies — I went off to witness the 
magnificent spectacle of the sunset on the snow-clad summits 
surrounding the Cirque, or to obtain a near view of the wonder- 
ful "Cascade," the second highest waterfall in Europe, 1266 ft. 
in altitude, to which I felt attracted almost as if by a magnet. 
The best view of the celebrated Cirque is to be had about two 
miles along on the Bucharo Pass or Port de Gavarnie, from the 
summit of which, about 7500 ft. in elevation, a good view can 
also be obtained over the Spanish side of the chain. 

The Cirque de Troumouse is also a most romantic spot, 
surrounded by gigantic snow-clad peaks, from the glaciers of 
which descend numerous waterfalls and torrents in all directions. 
In this lonely and wild locality the peculiar bleat of the chamois 
can constantly be heard from among the rocks which it so much 
resembles in colour, while high overhead vultures and eagles 
occasionally will be seen on outstretched wings soaring round 
some lofty crag, or wheeling in circles at immense altitudes 
in the air, and gliding along in the most graceful manner 
imaginable. 

Upon several occasions I climbed above the clouds, and to 
my great delight found, as it were, a new world awaiting me, 
with butterflies flying about in the bright sunshine, while down 
below, many hundreds of feet, they were all wrapped in sleep 
beneath the nubiferous pall-like canopy. Only those who have 
experienced it can possess any conception of the excessive 
pleasure it is to be butterfly-hunting among these snow-clad 
mountains when there is an azure-blue sky overhead, and the 
snow-fields and glaciers glitter and shine like diamonds all 
around. 

The scenery at the lower elevations is also very magnificent. 
All along by the side of the road usually runs a roaring torrent, 
locally known as a "gave," which rushes and foams among 

s2 



203 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

moss-covered rocks and boulders with a deafening noise ; fre- 
quently it is seen at the bottom of a steep ravine three or four 
hundred feet in depth, while the mountains rise immediately 
above the path in a precipitous manner, forming romantic 
gorges and defiles, such as the Gorge de Pierrefitte and the 
Gorge de St. Sauveur, box and arborescent heath, besides a 
multitude of other shrubs, trees, and plants, growing out of the 
crevices of the rocks in all conceivable ways and means. Land- 
slips and other convulsions of nature have produced some won- 
derful wildernesses and scenes of desolation in certain places, 
such, for instance, at the Chaos of Heas and the Chaos of 
Gedre, where rocks and boulders of all shapes and sizes are 
strewn about in endless confusion for several miles in extent. 
On a moonlight night especially the appearance they present is 
weird in the extreme. Here and there they produce a most 
remarkable life-like appearance, many of the rocks being vested 
with almost a human aspect as they rise above the sky-line in 
all sorts of angles and attitudes. 

The scenery of the Pyrenees is on the whole wilder than that 
occurring in the Alps, at least according to what has been my 
experience as the result of three visits to the latter range ; but 
it is certainly not so grand, althongh here and there it is almost 
equally magnificent. Accommodation is not so good as in the 
Alps, there being no hotels or mountain chalets at high altitudes, 
so that much more exertion is necessary in order to reach 
elevated situations. Instead of roads one has frequently to 
traverse a narrow track or mule-path in order to visit some 
out-of-the-way village, such as Heas, where the fastidious may 
not find the food always to their satisfaction, although I am 
prepared to rough it wherever I go. 

The following is a list of the Pihopalocera which I met with 
in the Hautes-Pyrenees ; no mention is made therein of those 
which I obtained on the Spanish side of the chain, as they 
would be out of place in this paper. I have also given the 
localities, the approximate altitudes above the sea-level in 
parentheses, and added a few notes respecting morphology and 
relative frequency, &c. 

Papilionid/e (three species). 

Papilio machaon. Scarce ; Gorge de Pierrefitte, Port de Gavarnie 
(2000-5500 ft.). Ground colour rich yellow. 

Faniassius apoUo. Abundant everywhere, especially at the Gorge 
de Pierrefitte, Heas, Gavarnie, Chaos de Gedre, &c. (2500-G500 ft.). 
The sexual dimorphism is very pronounced, the males being respec- 
tively lighter and the females darker than is the case in the Alps. I 
obtained between fifty and sixty ova from one female, which I kept in 
a warm room upon my return home, and they all hatched out between 
the 2ud and the 4th of January this year. Not having any sedums to 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE RHOPALOCERA. 209 

feed them on, I supplied them with "London pride" and Arahis 
alpina, the nearest representatives of the saxifrages which the larvae 
are said to live upon, both plants being plentiful in the Pyrenees ; but 
they would not touch them, and in consequence all died. The ova are 
round, somewhat concave at the sides, possessing in this respect a 
superficial resemblance to a broad bean. They are of a slaty grey 
colour, and possess a very tough epidermis. The young larvie were 
very lively, and crawled about with a rapidity more like the caterpillars 
of certain Bombyces, to which also the ova possess a close resemblance. 
—P. mnemosijne. Cirque de Gavarnie and Cirque de Troumouse ; 
single specimens only (5000-5500 ft.). 

PiEBiDffi (nine species). 

Aporia cralmfji. Very abtindant everywhere, especially at Gavarnie, 
St. Sauveur, and Pierrefitte (1800-55UO ft.). Among the series 
obtained are some dwarf specimens, produced probably by semi- 
starvation. 

Pieris rapcE. Scarce, except at Pierrefitte, Gavarnie, and St. 
Sauveur (1800-5000 ft.). Variable in size. — P. napi. Scarce; Pierre- 
fitte, St. Sauveur (1800-8000 ft.). At both localities I obtained 
representatives of the first and second broods. Those of the latter 
are of the South European type, being very large and white with very 
pale yellow under sides, the veins being indistinct, in which latter 
particular similar specimens occur in the Midlands and South of 
England during very hot summers as occasional aberrations of the 
second generation. — P. daplidice. One specimen at Gavarnie (5500 ft.). 
It is intermediate between the type and the var. heliidke. — P. callidke. 
Port de Gavarnie (6500-7000 It.). Saw several specimens, but did 
not succeed in capturing any, as their flight is exceedingly swift, 
making it difiicult to chase them over rocky ground. 

Lcucophasia sinapis. Scarce ; Pierrefitte, St. Sauveur (1800- 
3000 ft.). — Var. diniensis. One specimen at Pierrefitte (1800 ft.). 

Colias edusa. Scarce ; Pierrefitte, Gavarnie (1800-5500 ft.). — 
C. phicomone. One specimen at Gavarnie (5500 ft.). (I did not see 
C. hyale at all in the Pyrenees, but observed many specimens of it 
when travelling through France by rail.) 

Pihodocera rliamni. Scarce ; Pierrefitte, St. Sauveur, Gavarnie 
(1800-5500 ft.). 

LYCiENiDffi (nineteen species). 

Theda ilicis. A few specimens, but worn, in the Gorge de Pierre- 
fitte (2500 ft.). (I saw specimens of another Theda near the Port 
Napoleon at St. Sauveur, flying about the tops of the trees in the 
ravine, but was unable to get near enough to identify same.) 

Chrysophamis vinjaurecB. Abundant and generally in good condition 
at Gavarnie and Heas (5000-6000 ft.). Many of the males possess a 
black discoidal spot on the anterior wings, but I did not meet with the 
var. ineigii. — C. hippothoe. Abundant and in tolerably fair condition 
at Heas and Gavarnie (5000-5500 ft.). The females are very variable 
as regards size, and they often possess a melanochroic tendency, but 
I saw nothing in either sex approaching the alpine var. eurybia. — 
C. dorilis. Common but worn at Gavarnie (5000-6000 ft.). — Var. 



210 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

siibolpiiut. Gavarnie ; more abundant than the type (5000-6000 ft.). 
— C. (jordius. Gavarnie, St. Sauveur, Pont cle Bcia (3000-5500 ft.). 
Exceedmgly fine specimens occur in the Pyrenees with a very vivid 
violet reflection, but I only took a small series. 

Lijacna mjon. St. Sauveur, Gedre, Heas, and Port de Gavarnie. 
Exceedingly abundant at the latter locality (3000-7000 ft.). Most of 
the male specimens possess wide black borders to all their wings, as in 
the Alps at the lower elevations, — L. anjus ?. Gavarnie (5500 ft.). — 
L. orbUulus. Gavarnie ; scarce (5000 ft.). — L. eros. One worn speci- 
men, Port de Gavarnie (6000 ft.). — L. icanis. Scarce at Pierrefitte 
and St. Sauveur (1800-3000 ft.). — L. eumedon. One specimen at St. 
Sauveur (3000 ft.). — L. escheri. A small series at St. Sauveur, Heas, 
and Gedre (3000-5500 ft.). Smaller in size than those found in the 
Alps. — L. astrarche. Scarce at Pierrefitte, Gedre, Gavarnie, and Heas 
(1800-5500 ft.).— L. hellarfjus. One specimen at St. Sauveur (3000 ft.). 
— L. cori/don. Abundant ; Port de Gavarnie, Heas, Gedre, Pont de 
Scia (3000-5500 ft,). Eather small, but richly coloured specimens, — 
L. Ill/las. Abundant ; St. Sauveur, Port de Gavarnie, Heas, Gedre, 
Pont de Scia (3000-5500 ft,). — L. minma. Scarce ; Heas, St. 
Sauveur, Port de Gavarnie (3000-5500 ft.). — L. semiairius. Scarce ; 
Port de Gavarnie, Heas (5000-5500 ft,). — L. arion. Not common; 
Pierrefitte, Heas, Gavarnie (1800-5500 ft,). The specimens resemble 
those found in the Alps, which are not so blue as those occurring in 
the plains. — Var. ohscura. Gavarnie and Heas (5000-5500 ft.). 

Apaturid.e (two species). 

Apatura ilia var. chjtie. One worn specimen at St. Sauveur 
(8000 ft,), — A. iris. I believe I saw a specimen of this insect at 
Pierrefitte (1800 ft.), but as it is very scarce and local in the Pyrenees, 
I will not be sure. 

Nymphalid.e (nineteen species). 

Linwnitis caiiiiUa. Scarce at St. Sauveur and Gorge de Pierrefitte 
(2500-3000 ft.). 

Vanessa c -album. Not uncommon at Gedre and St. Sauveur 
(8000-3500 ft.). The light form only, — T'. urticce. A few specimens 
at Gavarnie and Heas (5000-6000 ft.). Larvje abundant at the 
former locality on nettles. — V. antiopa. One very worn hybernated 
specimen at Gedre (3500 ft,). — Y. atalanta. Not uncommon at Pierre- 
fitte, St. Sauveur, Gedre, Port de Gavarnie (3000-7500 ft,). On the 
last-named pass I saw a specimen at the summit which possessed a 
predilection for settling upon the stone which marks the boundary 
between France and Spain. — V. cardui. Scarce; Port de Gavarnie 
(5500 ft.). Saw a few larvfe at Heas feeding on thistles. 

McliUca phccbe. One specimen at Gedre (8500 ft.). — M. didyma. 
Not common ; Port de Gavarnie, Gedre, Gorge de Pierrefitte (2000- 
5500 ft.). — Var. alpina. Occasionally with the type. — M. athalia. 
Heas, St. Sauveur, Pierrefitte (1800-5500 ft,). Variable, but not 
abundant, except at Pierrefitte, where, however, it was rather worn. — 
M. parthenie. Eather scarce ; Port de Gavarnie, Heas (5000-6500 ft.). 
Somewhat intermediate between the type and the alpine var. varia.— 



DISTRIBUTION OF THE RHOPALOCERA. 211 

^f. tUctynna. Not uncommon at Pierrefitte, Cirque de Gavarnie, and 
Cirque de Troumouse (1800-5500 ft.). 

Aviiiinnis euphrosyne. One worn specimen at Gavarnie (5500 ft.). 
— A. pales. Not uncommon at Gavarnie and Heas (5000-6000 ft.). — • 
Var. isis. Heas (5500-6500 ft.). — A. dia. Scarce at Pierretitte 
(1800 ft.). — A. latonia. One specimen at Heas (5000 ft.). — A. aglaia. 
Abundant and in good condition ; Gorge de Pierrefitte, Gedre, Ga- 
varnie, Heas (2000-5500 ft.). — A. niohe var. eris. Abundant at 
Gavarnie, at the base of the Pic de Pimene (5000-5500 ft.). Under 
side much lighter than in the Alps, and markings more obscure. The 
type does not occur at all. — A. adippe. Not common; Pierrefitte, 
St. Sauveur (1800-3000 ft.).— Var. clcodoxa. Gedre (3500 ft.), where 
it replaces the type. — A. paphia. St. Sauveur (3000 ft.). 

SATYKiDffi (sixteen species). 

Melanaryia (jaJatea. Very abundant and in good condition, except 
at the lower altitudes ; Valley de Lanedan, Pierrefitte, St. Sauveur, 
Gedre, Pont de Scia, Port de Gavarnie (1500-5500 ft.). 

Erebia epiphron var. cnssiope. Port de Gavarnie, Heas (5500- 
6000 ft.).— Var. pyrmaka. Port de Gavarnie, Heas (5500-6000 ft.). 
Abundant, but local. Intermediate forms between the two varieties 
are of frequent occurrence, so that it is often a difficult matter to 
separate them. — E. manto var. cacilia. A small series at Heas, in 
good condition and apparently only just emerging (5000-5500 ft.). — ■ 
E. stygne. Exceedingly abundant at Port de Gavarnie, Heas, Chaos 
de Godre (4500-7500 ft.). This is by far the most common species of 
Erebia in the Pyrenees, but does not exhibit a great amount of varia- 
tion, except as regards the ocellation. It is a positive nuisance in 
some places. — E. melas var. lefebvrei. Common on the summit of the 
Port de Gavarnie, but very worn (7000-8000 ft.). I think this species 
is here intermediate between the variety named and the type. — E. 
tyndanis var. dromus. Very abundant ; Port de Gavarnie, Cirque de 
Troumouse, Heas (5500-8000 ft.). This insect is a beautiful object 
when flying, the wings flashing with an iridescence in the bright 
sunshine like flakes of silver. — E. gorge. One specimen at Heas 
(6000 ft.). — Var. gorgone. Port de Gavarnie (6000-7500 ft.). A 
small series, but in good condition. — E. euryale. Heas ; very abun- 
dant (5500-6500 ft.). — Var. euryaloides. Three specimens of this 
interesting variety at Heas (5500-6500 ft.). They are quite black and 
unspotted, and I think they must be identical with the form found in 
Lapland. I am not aware that it has been recorded from the Pyrenees 
before. The species varies considerably here in the degree of ocella- 
tion, the variety named being the extreme form in this respect. 

Satynis alcyone. St. Sauveur, Gedre, Pont de Scia (3000-3500 ft.). 
A small series, but in good condition. This insect loves to settle upon 
rocks by the roadside, like most of the other members of the genus. 

Pararge mmra var. adrasta. Exceedingly abundant at Pierrefitte, 
Gedre, Gavarnie, and Heas (1800-6000 ft.). All the specimens which 
I took can, I think, be referred to this South European form ; the 
females most certainly can be. I did not meet with any specimens 
even at the highest elevations so dark as is the type in the Alps. — P. 



212 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

mcgtera. One specimen at Gavarnie (5500 ft.). — P. egeria. Pierre- 
titte, Gedre (1800-3500 ft.). A small series only. I do not think the 
var. etjcrides occurs here at all. 

Epinephele ianira. Abundant everywhere, especially at Gedre, 
Pierrefitte, St, Sauveur, Gavarnie, and Heas (1800-5500 ft.). The 
Austral var. hispulla occurs with the type at all altitudes as an aberra- 
tion.—/?. tWiunus. A few specimens at Pierrefitte and St. Sauveur 
(1800-3000 ft.). The borders of the wings are very dark. 

Cccnonympha arcania. Very plentiful, especially at St. Sauveur 
and Port de Gavarnie (3000-5500 ft.). — L'.pauiphihis. Not uncommon 
at Port de Gavarnie and Heas (5000-6500 ft.). As in the Alps, the 
markings upon the under side of the posterior wings are very obscure, 
and the ocellation almost entirely absent. Altitude does not appear 
to have anything to do with it. One male specimen possesses a 
melanic tendency, being thickly clothed with black scales on the upper 
side, while a female I took is very large and of a rich orange colour, 
much more intense than the type. 

Hespekid^ (nine species). 

Spilothyrus althca;. Not uncommon at St. Sauveur, Gedre, and 
Pont de Scia (3000-3500 ft.), settling upon the middle of the road, and 
possessing a special predilection for horse-manure. — S. lacatercE.^ Two 
rather small specimens at Gavarnie (5000-5500 ft.). 

Si/richthus carthanii. Plentiful at St. Sauveur, Port de Gavarnie, 
Heas, and Gedre (3000-5500 ft.). Fond of settling upon the road. — 
5', alvens. Plentiful at Heas (50U0-G000 ft.). — S. sao. Single speci- 
mens at St. Sauveur at Gavarnie (3000-5000 ft.). 

Hesj)eria thawnas. Scarce ; Gavarnie, Gedre (3500-5500 ft.). — 
//. lineola. Scarce ; St. Sauveur, Heas (3000-5500 ft.). — H. actaon. 
Scarce ; St. Sauveur, Gedre (3000-3500 ft.). — H. sylvanus. A few 
specimens at Pierrefitte, St. Sauveur, and Gavarnie (1800-5500 ft.). 

Birmingham, January 25tli, 1897. 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTEEA OF IRELAND. 
By W. F. de Vismes Kane, M.A., M.R.I.A., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 131.) 

AciD.'\LiA REMUTARiA, III). — Tliis insGct seems somewhat re- 
stricted in distribution to the south and west, where in some 
localities it is very abundant. On the east coast Professor Hart 
reports it from Castle Bellingham, Co. Louth, and Birchall gives 
"Wicklow. About Killarney and Kenmare it is very common; on 
the shores of L. Derg and Lower Shannon ; Clonbrock, Castle 
Taylor, and Merlin Park, Co. Galway; Knocknarea (li.), and 
abundant at Rockwood, Sligo. The var. lactata, Haw., occurs 
at Killarney with the type. 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF IRELAND. 213 

AciDALiA FUMATA, St. — Said by Birchall to be widely distri- 
buted. I have rarely taken it, but may have overlooked it. 
Killarney and Caragh L. Kerry ; Framore, Co. Waterford ; and 
Clonbrock, Co. Galway. 

AciDALiA iMiTARiA, Hb. — Cork and Kerry (B.) ; Tinahely, Co. 
Wicklow, not rare [Bw.) ; Portmarnock, Co. Dublin (Loiv). 

AciDALiA AVERSATA, Tib. — Botli the pale and ochreous forms 
are widely distributed and abundant. The var. spoliata seems 
rare. 

AciDALiA iNORNATA, IIciw. — Karo. Kingstown {B.) ; Derry 
(C); and Birchall and myself both have captured it at Killarney. 

TiMANDRA AMATARiA, L. — Galway {B.), Clonbrock, a few 
{R. E. D.) ; Kerry {B.). 

Cabera pusaria, L. — Extremely common. 

Cabera rotundaria. Haw. — Whether this is a true species or 
not has been questioned. The late Stephen Pi. Fetherston-H. 
bred two very striking examples from larvae taken by him at 
Glenmore, Crossmolina, Co. Mayo. They are now in the 
Museum of Science and Art, Dublin. 

Cabera exanthemata, Scop. — Very abundant everywhere. I 
have a curious form from Co. Tyrone in which the first and 
second line approximate just below the costa on both fore and 
hind wings, with a shaded patch at the junction. 

Bapta temerata, Hb. — A local insect, though its food-plant 
is widely spread through Ireland. Abundant in many parts of 
Galway, such as Clonbrock and Merlin Park ; also at Ardrahan. 
At Mucross, Killarney ; Powerscourt, Wicklow, a few. 

Bapta bimaculata, Fb. — Several stated to have been taken at 
Clonbrock by the Hon. R. E. Dillon. It was recorded in error, 
I believe, by Birchall from Killarney, as also Macaria notata, 
of whose occurrence I have been able to get no Irish records 
whatever. 

Macaria liturata, Clerck. — Widely distributed. Near Dublin ; 
Bray, Powerscourt, and Greystones, Co. Wicklow ; near Milepost, 
Kilkenny (Wyse); Cappagh, Co. Waterford ; Ballyvourney, and 
Macroom, Co. Cork; Kenmare and Killarney abundant, Kerry; 
Mote Park, Roscommon ; Clonbrock, Dalyston {B. E. D.}, and 
elsewhere in Co. Galway; Rathowen (Ciirzon), and Killynon, 
Co. Westmeath ; Agher, Co. Meath {Miss B.) ; Newcastle, Co. 
Down (Bw.). 

Halia vauaria, L. — Curiously enough, though existing in 
Ireland, it is extremely scarce. Single specimens for the most 
part have been taken at Powerscourt, Co. Wicklow; Howth, a 



214 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

few (iV. F.) ; Castle Bellingham {Thornliill) ; Favour Eoyal, 
Tyrone; Derry, a few (C); Cromlyn {Mrs. B.), Westmeath ; 
Rockwood, Sligo; Clonbrock, three {R. E. D.), Co. Galway ; 
and Killarney. 

Halia bkunneata, Thnh. — No Irish capture recorded except 
one specimen at Clonbrock {R. E. D.). 

Strenia clathrata, L. — Occurs throughout Ireland here and 
there in meadows. Is very variable in the breadth of the black 
markings, of which the transverse streaks offer every possible 
variety of mutation. In a series of specimens, each streak in 
turn may be found to be broad, attenuated, or almost obsolete, 
the rest being normal ; so that a long list of aberrations could 
easily be compiled if it served any scientific purpose. The 
ground colour is sometimes yellowish, but usually nearly white, 
but examples occur in which it is dusted with dark specks. 

Panagra petraria, Hb. — Local, but abundant where found. 
Wicklow (Bw.) ; Curraghmore, abundant {Wyse), and Cappagh 
{Miss v.), Co. Waterford ; Killarney, near Tore Waterfall, and 
in a glen near Sneem, Co. Kerry ; Doneraile, Co. Cork [Stawcll) ; 
Clonbrock, and Merlin Park, Galway ; Mote Park, Eoscommon ; 
Toberdaly, King's Co. 

Numeria pulveraria, L. — Very generally distributed in Irish 
woodlands ; sometimes attaining an expanse of nearly one and 
a half inches. Varies in colour from a warm sepia tint to a 
bright ferruginous brown. An aberration from Clonbrock has 
the central band of the fore wing obsolete, excepting two dark 
strife representing its outer and inner edges. This is a tendency 
shown by many geometers which normally have a central trans- 
verse band. Localities : — Clonbrock, Merlin Park, MoycuUen 
{Miss R.), Kylemore {Hon. E. Lawless), and Ardrahan {Miss N.), 
Co. Galway ; Rockwood, near Sligo, abundant, and Markree ; 
Farnham, Cavan ; Altadiawan, and Favour Royal, Co. Tyrone ; 
Drumreaske, Co. Monaghan ; Ballycastle, Co. Antrim, and on 
the shores of L. Foyle; Powerscourt, Co. Wicklow; Ardtully 
{Miss v.), and Killarney, &c. 

ScoDioNA BELGiARiA, lib. — Frequently met with on bogs 
through Ireland, but I have never found it in numbers. Near 
Cromlyn, and Killynon, &c., in Westmeath; Mohill, Co. Leitrim ; 
about BaUinasloe, not rare, Clonbrock {R.E.D.), and Kilcornan, 
Co. Galway ; Markree, and hills above Rockwood, Sligo ; Alta- 
diawan, Tyrone ; Mourne Mts. {W.); Churchill, Co. Armagh {J.) ; 
near Clondalkin, Co. Dublin {Grierson) ; Glandore, and Castle- 
townsend, Co. Cork (D.); Castletown, Berehaven {Carpenter), and 
Killarney, Kerry ; Giant's Causeway {Bw.) ; and a few near 
Derry {€.). 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF IRELAND. 215 

Selidosema ericetaria, Vill. — Strangely enough, this moth, 
SO local m England, is widely distributed through the central, 
southern, and western heathy tracts of Ireland, occasionally in 
some numbers. In France it is very local, and never very 
abundant, on warm hillsides (Berce). It is shy, and a fast flier 
on hot days, but towards dusk is more easily netted. Common 
at Killarney (B.), and in a field near the Sneem oyster-beds, Co. 
Kerry (Ji.) ; Kinsale, abundant, Co. Cork {S ) ; near Fannin Lock, 
on the Ballinasloe Canal, not rare; Clonbrock, one {R. E. D.), 
and Eecess (Wolfe), Co. Galway ; Mote Park, Eoscommon ; 
Killynon (Miss B.), and Cromlyn (Mrs. B.), Co. Westmeath ; 
Churchill, Co. Armagh, in numbers (J".). 

Ematurga atomarl\, L. — Everywhere abundant on heaths. 
Variations are numerous in both sexes, but I have never met 
with a form in Ireland which seems local at Folkestone, and 
occurs of large size in Switzerland, the males reaching almost 
one and a half inches in expanse. It is characterised by the 
deep and regular serration of the outer edge of the elbowed line, 
and the ground colour clearer and less dusted with black in both 
sexes. The males are especially bright, the pale band beyond 
the elbowed line being bright ochreous, almost unspeckled. 
Considering how handsome a form the continental specimens 
assume, it would seem worthy of enquiry whether it occurs 
elsewhere in England, perhaps in chalk districts ; and if local, 
it deserves a varietal name. The females are less remarkable, 
the serrations being principally shown on the band of the hind 
wings. 

BuPALTis PiNiARiA, L. — Very local in Ireland, but there abun- 
dant. Donard demesne, near Newcastle, Co. Down {Bio.) ; Co. 
Wicklow {G. Foster), where Professor Hart has met with it since 
abundantly over a considerable area about Glendalough ; Done- 
raile, Co. Cork, three (Stawell) ; near Milepost, Co. Kilkenny 
{Wyse) ; vav.Jiavesceus, Agher, Co. Meath {Miss B.). 

[Scoria dealbata, L. — Recorded by Birchall from. Killarney, 
but he also stated {in lift.) that the locality of occurrence was 
near Dublin. An error has apparently crept in, and the record 
must be deleted.] 

Sterrha sacraria, L. — One specimen at Killarney in 1864 {B.). 

Aspilates strigillaria, Hb. — This is abundant where found, 
but I consider it is rather local, though it occurs in most 
counties which possess bogs. I have met with it in Sligo, 
Galway, Mayo, Kerry, and Westmeath. 

[Aspilates ochrearia, Rossi. — Birchall's locality of Powers- 
court, Co. Wicklow, wants confirmation.] 

Aspilates gilvaria, Fb.—Yei'j local and scarce. Powerscourt 



216 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

(B.), and Howth, one or two specimens (G.V.IL); Kilcornan 
(B.), Ardrahan _(M?"ss iV.), and Clonbrock, three {R.E.D.), Co. 
Galway; Magilligan, Co. Derry {Curzon). 

Abraxas grossulariata, L. — Very common. 

Abraxas sylvata, Scop. — Very local and not usually numerous. 
Mr. Bristow took one at Coolkenna, Co. Carlow (not Wicklow, as 
stated in Birchall's * Catalogue '). At Killarney fairly abundant 
on Tore, and Mr. Watts took one at Tower Lodge. Two at 
Clonbrock {B.E.D.), one of them having the ground colour 
clouded with grey on the outer half of all the wings. 

LiGDiA adustata, ScMff. — Not often met with in the east or 
north. Occurs not infrequently in many southern counties, but 
appears generally pretty common west of the Shannon. Howth, 
scarce ; Co. Wicklow {B.) ; Clonbullogue (C. S.), and Banagher, 
King's Co. ; Mucross, and the Cloonee Lakes, Kerry ; Clonbrock, 
very numerous {R. E. D.), Ardrahan, Moycullen {MissB.), Merlin 
Park, &c., Co. Galway ; on the shores of L. Derg, Tipperary, &c. 

LoMASPiLis MARGiNATA, L. — Apparently common everywhere, 
and very variable, some showing the central series of spots con- 
fluent, and forming a continuous band, while in others they are 
obsolete. Var. pollutaria, Markree, Sligo ; Killynon, Westmeath ; 
Cratloe, near Limerick, Ardtully, Co. Kerry. 

(To be continued.) 



NEW SPECIES OF SOUTH AMEKICAN EUMOLPIDiE. 

By Martin Jacoby, F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 196.) 

Chalcophana fulvocincta, n. sp. 

Fulvous ; the terminal joints of the antennae, the abdomen, and 
the tarsi black ; thorax sparingly punctured ; elytra bright metallic 
green, the epipleur^e narrowly fulvous, the punctuation strong and 
regular in single rows. Length 2i^-3 lines. 

Head finely but rather closely punctured, fulvous ; antennae long, 
extending below the middle of the elytra, black, the lower five or six 
joints fulvous ; thorax twice as broad as long, the sides nearly straight, 
narrowed in front, the anterior angles slightly produced, the surface 
irregularly but ratber distinctly punctured, fulvous; scutellmn fulvous; 
elytra strongly convex, with a slight depression below the base, strongly 
punctured in closely approached and regular rows, bright metallic 
green, the epipleurje fulvous ; the breast and the legs fulvous ; the 
abdomen and the tarsi black. 

Hah. — Bolivia. 



NEW SPECIES OF SOUTH AMERICAN EUMOLPID^. 217 

I only know the male of this species, several specimens of 
which are contained in my collection. It is the only one known 
to me in which the elytral epipleurae alone are fulvous and the 
abdomen black, and will therefore not be difficult to distinguish. 
Another again closely allied species from the same locality is 
the following. 

Chalcophana Oberthuri, n. sp. 

? . Rufous ; the abdomen and the penultimate tarsal joint black ; 
thorax finely and sparingly punctured ; elytra gi-eeuish-teneus, closely 
punctate in single rows, the sides with three cosiec of variable length, 
the lateral margin fulvous, apex dentate. Length 4 lines. 

Head rather closely punctured at the vertex only, rufous ; antennae 
entirely fulvous, the lower six joints shining, the rest opaque ; thorax 
twice as broad as long, the sides slightly rounded at the middle, the 
anterior angles produced, the disc rather closely, distinctly but irregu- 
larly punctured ; scutellum rufous ; elytra with a shallow depression 
below the base, the apex of each produced into a short tooth, the 
surface moderately strongly, closely, and regularly punctured in single 
rows, the sides with three cost^, the inner one commencing at the 
shoulder and extending obliquely downwards to the middle, the second 
much shorter and ending in a line with the preceding one, the third 
near the lateral margin and continued more or less distinctly towards 
the apex, the latter portion again strongly raised, the surface of a 
greeuish-asneus colour, the extreme lateral margin and the epipleurfe 
rufous ; abdomen bluish black ; the rest of the under side and the legs 
rufous ; the third joint of the tarsi and the claws blackish. 

Hab. — Bolivia. 

Of this species there are two females before me ; in one the 
antennae are partly wanting, and I cannot say therefore if their 
entirely fulvous colour is constant ; this is, however, the case in 
regard to the colour of the tarsi in both specimens and that of 
the abdomen. C. peruana, Har., is certainly very closely allied ; 
but in my specimen of that species (which was obtained by the 
same collector and at the same locality as the type) the elytra 
are greenish blue, the antennse are black with the exception of 
the lower three joints, and the entire tarsi are of the latter 
colour, while the elytra are more finely punctured and without 
the rufous margins or apical teeth. 

Chalcophana longicornis, n. sp. 

Rufous ; the antennae (the basal three and the apical two joints 
excepted), the tibire, tarsi, and the abdomen black ; elytra dark 
blue, geminate punctate-striate with slightly convex interstices, their 
epipleurffi rufous. Length 3 lines. 

? . Head finely and closely punctured, with a short central groove ; 
antennae as long as the body, black, the basal three and the apical two 
joints fulvous ; thorax about one-half broader than long, the sides 
strongly rounded, the anterior angles acutely produced in shape of a 



218 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

tooth, the surface very finely and rather closely punctured ; scutellum 
dark fulvous ; elytra dark blue, not visibly depressed below the base, 
strongly punctured in double rows, the interstices in shape of slightly 
raised longitudinal narrow spaces, the epipleurse and the extreme 
lateral margin at the basal and apical portion fulvous ; the breast and 
the femora of the latter colour, the posterior femora with a piceous 
spot at the posterior portion ; the greater part of the tibiae, the tarsi, 
and the abdomen black. 

Ilah. — Amazons. 

This is another species having the abdomen black, but differs 
in the long antennse and their fulvous apical joints, and in the 
colour and strong punctuation, arranged in pairs, of the elytra. 
I possess a single male specimen. 

ChALCOPHANA (?) DUODECIMPUNCTATA, n. Sp. 

Fulvous ; the intermediate joints of the autennte black ; thorax 
very finely punctured ; elytra similarly punctate, each with six black 
spots (2. 2. 2.). S . The intermediate tibi® deeply emarginate at 
the apex, the latter with a spine. Length 3 lines. 

Head, with the exception of a few fine punctures between the eyes, 
entirely impunctate, the middle with a fovea ; antennte slender, ex- 
tending to the middle of the elytra, fulvous, the sixth, seventh, and 
eighth joints black, the fourth joint slightly shorter than either the 
preceding or following one ; thorax rather more than twice as broad 
as long, the sides augulate at the middle, very narrowly margined, all 
the angles produced into a tooth, the surface very finely and rather 
closely punctured, the posterior margin slightly produced and rounded 
at the middle ; scutellum smooth, fulvous ; elytra convex, without 
basal depression, finely punctured in closely approached rather regular 
rows, each with six round black spots, placed transversely, of which 
two are placed at the base, two before, and two immediately below the 
middle ; under side and legs paler than the upper surface ; the inter- 
mediate tibifB with a deep emargination at the apex, the latter provided 
with a spine-like process ; the first joint of the posterior tarsi nearly 
as long as the following joints together ; claws appeudiculate ; pro- 
sternum deeply bilobed at the base ; the first joint of the anterior 
tarsi very broad. 

Hah. — Peru. 

The single male specimen contained in my collection scarcely 
fits into any of the genera placed amongst the Chalcophame, but 
agrees best with Chalcoj^liana in general shape, that of the thorax 
and the prosternum, and as the curious tibial structure may only 
be present in the male, I have thought it best not to erect a new 
genus on this character alone. Lanqn'opJices has also a slight 
emargination of the intermediate tibite, but differs quite in the 
shape of the thorax, and the mentioned emargination is nothing 
like so marked as in the present insect, which would have to 
be placed in a special genus should other similarly structured 
species occur. 



219 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

The Sphingid.e of Birmingham and District. — The following is a 
list of the SphingidfB which either do occur or have occurred within a 
radius of twelve miles of the city of Birmingham. It will be noticed 
that it includes every British species, with the exception of S. pinastri 
and D. euphorhm, a distinction which few local faunas can boast of. 
The species marked with an asterisk have been duly recorded in the 
literature of the time, chiefly the ' Entomologist.' 

Adieronlia atropos : very intermittent in its appearance ; was fairly 
abundant in the larval stage last year in many localities ; otherwise it 
is only a casual visitor. 

^'Sphinx convolvuli: sometimes not uucommon ; a larva was once 
found in a suburb of Birmingham ; the imago has been taken at 
Solihull, Harborne, Kingswood, and elsewhere. S. Ugiistn : plenti- 
fully and generally distributed. 

Chcerocampa porcellus : rare and local; the only locality that I am 
aware of is Sutton Park (N. Warwickshire). C. elpenor: Marsham 
Green and Northfield, rare ; larva has been found feeding on the bed- 
straw on the canal side near Hockley Heath. ■•■C. celerio : an example 
was taken in the centre of Birmingham in October, 1868 ; in 1880 
another occurred about two miles distant. '■•'C. nerii: this grand 
insect, the rarest of our Sphinges, was taken in a garden in 1869, not 
two miles distant from the city. It went into the collection of Mr. 
Fred. Enock. 

*Deilephila yalii : two examples have occurred; one in the centre 
of Birmingham, and another hovering over honeysuckle at Halesowen, 
some seven miles distant ; both in 1870. '•'D. livornica [Lineata) : one 
near Birmingham and another in a garden at Bromsgrove in 1870. 

Smerinthus ocellatus : common. S. popuU : common. S. tilim : 
rather scarce, chiefly as larvre. 

Macroijlossa stellatarum : common, but local ; occurs every year 
around Knowle. M. bomb ilifor mis : very local ; occurs sparingly 
between Knowle and Hockley Heath, together with M. fuci/onms. 
— Augustus D. Imms ; "Linlhurst," Oxford Eoad, Moseley, Worcester- 
shire, July 6th, 1897. 

Melanism and Climatic Conditions. — Since my criticism on Mr. 
Harcourt-Bath's paper {cmte, p. 97) has been thought inadequate, I 
consider it only fair to that gentleman to enter into a fuller explana- 
tion of my meaning. To economise space I will merely recapitulate 
the chief points of the subject. Mr. Bath argues that melanism was 
originally adaptive, that is, that dark coloration was beneficial to 
Lepidoptera procryptically. Melanic varieties, according to his view, 
originated at low levels for this reason. Objections. — (1) There is no 
reason to suppose that dark coloration, as a general principle, means 
nonconspicuous coloration in all low-lying country ; procryptic colora- 
tion, as far as we know, is more special. (2) Our indigenous Lepi- 
doptera tend to darker coloration than continental specimens (see 
Mr. Weir's remarks, quoted in my first paper) ; if melanism is 
procryptically adaptive, continental species would be afi"ected to the 
same degree as British, &c. (3) Certain insects, inhabiting environs 



220 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

of manufacturing towns, exhibit melanic variations, which become 
perceptibly commoner with the increase of manufacturing industries. 
How do we account for this ? Lord Walsingham's theory is physically 
sound and theoretically adequate ; and I claim this to be the explana- 
tion of that particular phenomenon. How does this affect Mr. Bath's 
theory? Objections (1) and (2) point to the uncertainty of melanism 
being procryptically adaptive, but here we have a process going on 
under our eyes. Therefore I do not think it illogical to presume that 
the cause which originated melanism is the same as the cause of its 
rapid increase, when that cause is proportionately augmented. — 
G. W. Smith; College, Winchester. 

Lycjena arion in GiiOUCESTERsmRE. — Eeaders of the ' Entomo- 
logist ' will doubtless be pleased to learn that although the area 
formerly occupied by the " large blue " is sadly diminished, it yet 
holds its own in one or two localities. My colleague, Mr. J. Mountney, 
visited the Cotswolds on the 7th and 14th of June, and found it 
sparingly distributed on the spot discovered by my son three or four 
years ago. On the earlier date it was just appearing ; on the later one, 
doubtless owing to some rough weather in the interval, was getting 
rather worn. A most careful search by him on both dates, and by 
myself on the later one, led us to believe that it is quite extinct in the 
old "Painswick" district. On my visit there last year none were 
found, although three were seen in the wood openings between there 
and Birdlip. None were noticed by us in the last-named locality this 
season, but we did not work it fairly. — H. W. Marsden ; 40, Triangle W., 
Clifton. 

Peronea permutana in Sussex. — I find that I have not hitherto 
recorded the fact that I bred two specimens of this species from larvfB 
found on llosa spinosissima near Beachy Head in August, 1888. The 
specimens are both males, and rather smaller than Wallasey females 
of the species in my collection ; the hind wings are darker. — Kichard 
South ; 100, Ritherdon Eoad, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

DiANTiicECiA ? LUTEAGo var. BARRETTi IN CORNWALL. — At the meeting 
of the South London Entomological and Natural History Society, held 
on July 8th last, Major Ficklin exhibited three specimens of 1>. lutecH/o 
var. harretti which he had recently taken on the Cornish coast. These 
examples differed from the Irish specimens in having the ground colour 
grey instead of brownish. As there appears to be some doubt as to the 
identity of the two previous records, these are probably the first authentic 
English examples of the species. 

WicKEN Fen. — We are very pleased to learn that a considerable 
portion of this notable locality, which for some time had been in the 
market, has been purchased by gentlemen who are entomologists. 
This promises well for at least one species of Lepidoptera enumerated 
in the list of those that should be protected from the danger of exter- 
mination. 

Uniformity in Setting Lepidoptera. — I can only endorse the 
Editor's opinion on the above subject [ante, p. 175), and Mr. Dannatt 
will see that I have made the same remarks in regard to anybody's 
private opinion or taste in setting Lepidoptera. That nothing is more 



CAPTUBES AND FIELD REPORTS. 221 

difficult than to introduce reforms or alter preconceived notions, no 
matter how erroneous, one is more convinced of every day. In any 
case, the majority of the world's entomologists are of my opinion, and 
English colleagues will undoubtedly follow their example sooner or 
later. — M. Jacoby. 

The Lkpidopteka of Portland. — We have not seen the work, but 
we understand that a list of Portland Lepidoptera, by Mr. N. M. 
Richardson, has been recently published. 

Eggs of British Lepidoptera for Figuring. — Mr. E. Wheeler, 
The Triangle, Clifton, is figuring eggs of British Lepidoptera, and has 
at the present time drawn the ova of some seventy species. Further 
progress of the work is rather impeded by lack of material, and he 
would be glad to receive an egg or two of any species he is in want of. 

Application for British Platypezid^e. — I have been studying and 
describing British Syrphidre, Pipunculid?e, and Platypezids, for the 
last few years ; and while I think I have seen and described nearly all 
the Syrphidfe and Pipunculidas, I have lamentably failed in the genus 
Platypeza, and I may even admit that after more than thirty years' 
collecting I have not seen a good pair of even one species of that 
genus, though about a dozen species occur in Britain. I possess 
various good specimens of Ccdlimyia; but of Platypeza, though I have 
twenty or thirty F. modesta, for instance, I have not seen a single male 
fit for description. If anybody can send me good specimens of Platy- 
pezidfe I shall be glad to see them, and will undertake to quickly 
return them ; and I may say that I would very willingly name any 
Pipunculidte, or difficult species of Syrphidae belonging to such genera 
as Chrysofjaster or Pipiza. — G. H. Verrall ; Sussex Lodge, Newmarket. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Plcsia moneta in Surrey. — Last year I recorded the occurrence of 
P. moneta at Weybridge. This year no fewer than fourteen larvae or cocoons 
have been found by myself and friends in the same garden in which they 
were discovered last year, on the leaves of Delphinium. It seems as though 
P. moneta had definitively established itself here. — (Rev.) J. E. Tarbat. 

Plusia moneta in Sussex. — On June 30th I took two Plusia moneta 
flying over valerian in a garden near Balcombe, Sussex. They were 
exceedingly fine specimens both in respect of size and condition, and I took 
them within five minutes of one another about 9.30 p.m. Through the 
remainder of that evening, and through the two evenings following, I 
sought diligently, but no more fell to my lot. — Selwyn Image ; 0, South- 
ampton Street, Bloomsbury, W.C., July 14ih, 1897. 

Plusia moneta in Kent. — My son caught, last night, in my garden 
here, Plusia moneta. — This makes the eighth I have taken in this locality 
since 1890. — R. A. Dallas Beeching ; 24, St. James Road, Tunbridge 
Wells, July 21st, 1897. 

ENTOM. — AUGUST, 1897. T 



222 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



Epichnopteryx eeticella.— Oa May 3rd Mr. F. G. Whittle obtained 
larvge of this species not uncommonly at Canvey, and Mr. J. J. Walker 
took one imago at Queenborough on June 6th. 

Sphinx pinastri. — Early in June I was much surprised by the emerg- 
ence, in one of my breeding-cages, of a specimen of Sphinx pinastri, and 
unfortunately I have no precise data as to its origin. As, however, 1 have 
no foreign pupae in my possession, I can only conclude I must have received 
it from some one here, as I frequently receive larvae and pupae found in the 
neighbourhood. This is a pine country, but I have never heard of Sphinx 
pinastri occurring here. — (Rev.) J. E. Tarbat ; Holmlea, Wey bridge, 
July 14th, 1897. 

SkSIA MUSCIFORMIS (PHILANTHIFORMIS) AND DeaNTHCECIA LUTEAGO IN 

Caknarvonsuire. — When there last year 1 thought S. inusciformis must 
occur, but could not turn it up, as the weather was bad, and I had not 
found out the favourite kind of thrift ; so that I discovered no traces. This 
year (June 7th) I found pupae numerous in dead or nearly dead plants on 
rocks at the very edge of the cliff, and also a good number of imagines. I 
also took a single specimen of D. lutearjo, var. harretti. I sent it to Mr. 
Barrett to see, thinking he might like to figure it. He pronounces it in- 
dubitable, but it was just too late for figuring. I netted it at dusk, June 7ih. 
— F. C. Woodforde ; Market Drayton, July 12th, 1897. 

Amphidasys betularia var. doubledayaria in the London Dis- 
trict. —Twenty years ago I took a specimen of the black form of A. betu- 
laria near Coombe Wood.— W. M. Christy ; Watergate, Emsworth, Hants. 

Phorodesma pustulata in Middlesex. — I took a nice specimen of 
Phorodesma pustulata {=: hajularia) here on June 29th. Does this insect 
often occur in Middlesex ?—E. H. Wilde; Clay Hill House, Enfield, 
June 30th, 1897. [Probably not uncommon in Middlesex. The species 
used to be fairly plentiful in the Hampstead district, and has been recorded 
from Mill Hill and Harrow Weald. — Ed.] 

Hydrilla palustris, &c., at Wicken. — During Whitsun week at 
Wickeu, whilst working with Morley Houghton, son of the late A. Houghton, 
we took two specimens of the above, one on June 5th, the other on the 7th. 
M. flammea and A. albovenosa were in tine condition, but other insects were 
not so abundant as usual owing to the lateness of the season. — E. B. 
Nevinson ; 3, Tedworth Square, Chelsea, S.W. 

Collecting at Sidmouth, South Devon.— Wliile staying at Sidmouth 
for a fortnight in June, I was fortunate to come across a colony of Leiico- 
phasia sinajns on the cliffs. They were very easy to catch, as their flight 
was very slow, and some kept settling on the flowers. The following 
butterflies were also abundant: — Theda riihi, Lijcana hellarrjus, Syrichthus 
alveolus, Hesperia tajes, H. sylvatius, Enchlo'e cardamines ; while Argynnis 
seleno and A. euphrosyne swarmed in Harpford Woods. Sugaring was a 
failure; only Agrotis exdamationis and Xylophasia vionoylypha came in 
quantity to the bait. On the moors Bombyx rubi was very abundant, and 
1 managed to net ten one day. I also took the following :—Arctia vilUca 
(three), Emmelesia ajfinitata (in splendid condition), Spilosoma mendica, 
Boarmia repandata, Grammesia trilinca (one variety), Fidonia atoniaria, 
Corycia teinerata, Orgyia pudibunda, Eudidia mi, Lithosia aureola, Venilia 
maculata, Mclanthia ocellata, Melanippe montanata, Eubolia palumbaria. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 223 

and Sineriiithus popull. Larvae of Bomhxjx neustria were abundant on 
brambles ; also single larvae of B. querciis and Odonestis Rotatoria. — H. 0. 
Wells; Hurstfield, The Avenue, Gipsy Hill, London, S.E., Julv 0th. 

Entomology in Alderney. — I have recently returned from a three 
months' sojourn in Alderney (April-June). The weather was windy and 
very rainy part of the time. Season not an early one this year. I should 
probably have been more successful had 1 been able to remain a little later 
on in the island, especially as regards Sphingidse [convolvuU, porcellus, 
atropos, which are all, I am given to understand, common there). ]\[elitcea 
cinxia proved ray best catch among the butterflies. I discovered its 
habitat in tolerable abundance, but it is very local. In Hymenoptera and 
Diptera I was fairly successful ; Neuroptera extremely scarce. I obtained 
one Phryganea and one Chrysopa, and saw one dragonfly only during the 
whole of the time. It flew by me over the downs and down a valley in the 
south-west of the island. I am almost sure it was L. quadrimaculata. I 
append a list of the Alderney insects that I know of for certain. Other 
kinds of the Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera are yet to be named at 
the British Museum. Anyone wanting Alderney insects, for the sake of 
the locality, is welcome to my duplicates in return for naming said species, 
with the view of getting as complete a list of the island fauna as possible. 
The same remark applies to the Orkney insects that I obtained last year. 
I got one hymenopterous insect new to my collection, and only saw that 
one specimen, and never met with it elsewhere ; it was resting on the 
angelica on a hill-side in Alderney. Body particularly long and slender ; 
black, with many yellow stripes. 

Rhopalocera. — P. brassiccB (fairly common), P. rapcB (fairly common), 
Polijommatiis alexis (very common), Satyrus ianira (very abundant), S. 
megmra (not plentiful), Vanessa cardul [oue noticed), V. atalanta (five or six 
seen), V. urticcB (two seen). The three last-named species are common in 
the island, I believe, and more were seen by others. M. cinxia (common 
in places, but very local and its range restricted), C. edusa, 0. phlccas (both 
seen in case of stuffed birds belonging to a resident, and both common 
in island). 

Heterocera. — Sphinx convolvuU, D. porcellus, A, atropos, M. stella- 
tarum, Z.filipendulcB, E.jacobcea, Arctia caia, A. menthastrl, A.lubrici- 
peda, Pteroplwrus pentadactylus, Campto gramma bilineata, Mamestra bras- 
siccB, Plusia gamma. 

Hymenoptera. — Bombus terrestris (common), B. lapidarius (common), 
Chrysis ignita (two caught, two or three more seen), Odynerus quadratus 
(one specimen), Andrena nigro<Enea ? , A. cineraria, Osmia rtifa ? (common 
on old walls), Allantus arcuatus (a few seen). The cylinders of the leaf- 
cutting bee, known as the " barrel bee " in Alderney, and believed to belong 
to the Andrenidae, are common in the island a little later in the season, but 
not so abundant as formerly there before the fortifications of Mount Albert 
were erected on what is known as the Mount. 

Coleoptera. — Calathus melanocephalus, Melo'e, Melolontha vulgaris, 
Timarcha coriaria. 

Neuroptera, — Phryganea (one), Chrysopa (one). 

Diptera. — Chlorosiaformosa, Scatophaga stercoraria, Sarcophaga hcemor- 
rhoidalis, Tipula gigantea, Bibio marci, Eristalis arbustorum, SccBca py- 
rastri, Calliphora vomitoria. — (Rev.) F. A. Walker; Cricklewood, N.VV., 
July 20th, 1897. 



224 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SOCIETIES. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
June Mth, 1897.— Mr. E. Adkin, F.E.S., President, in the chair. 
Mr. W. H. Drury, F.R.H.S., Kingston-on-Thames, and Mr. J. Sandi- 
son, Wimbledon, were elected members. Mr. South exhibited the 
series of Zij(j(ciia Jilipendulm taken in Middlesex, and referred to at 
length in Entom. for July. He was unable to draw any fine distinction 
between var. hippocrcpidis and the type, and remarked that it was 
necessary that considerable attention should be paid to the Zygfenas 
before any certainty could be expressed as to the specific value of the 
various forms. Mr. Adkin, series of Cijnniris [Lycana) argiolus bred 
from ova and larvae taken last autumn at Eastbourne (Proc. S. Lond. 
Ent. Soc. 1896, p. 110), and contributed notes. 

July 8th. — Mr. R. Adkin, The President in the chair. Mr. A. 
Perry, Anerley, was elected a member. Mr. Lucas exhibited nymph 
cases of Ana.v fornwsiis taken by himself and Mr. W. Prest at the 
Black Pond, Esher, in Jvme. Mr. Auld, a fine bred series of Phoro- 
desma hajularia from the New Forest. Mr. Malcolm Burr, a small 
collection of Orthoptera from the Persian Gulf, collected by Mr. J. H. 
Hiles ; they were chiefly European species (see Entom. July). Mr. 
Ficklin, three specimens of Diantlicecia luteago var. harretti from 
Cornwall this year. They were very different from the Irish form, 
being grey in colour. This was interesting as being the first well- 
authenticated occurrence of the species in England. Mr. Mera, a bred 
series of Hadena dissimilis (suasa) from Essex, including a specimen 
having all the markings converted into longitudinal streaks. Mr. 
Turner, a bred series of Cleora lichenaiia from Ashdown Forest, and 
series of several species of Coleoptera, including Stranyalia melanura 
from Ranmore Common, L'ionns scrophalaricc from Chalfont Eoad, and 
Leptura livida from Canvey Island. Mr. Robt. Adkin, series of FAipi- 
thecia satyrata var. curznni bred from Shetland larva3, and contributed 
notes. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. lleport. >Sec. 

North London Natural History Society. — On Friday, June 4th, 
1897, members of this Society started for their annual Whitsuntide 
excursion to the New Forest. The majority of the party left Waterloo 
by the 6 p.m. train, and reached Lyndhurst about ten, the journey 
being an unusually long one. Mr. C. B. Smith, who was in command 
of the excursion, was unable to get down till the following day. 

Saturday broke dull, with signs of rain, but, with their usual 
heedlessness of weather, several of the North Londoners were early 
astir, and larva-beating in Beechen Lane was tried with, alas ! even 
less success than usual. Scarcely anything worth taking in this line 
seemed to be about, though the commoner sorts were plentiful enough. 
For once in a way, Hyhernia dpfoliaria was not the commonest larva, 
that honour being about evenly divided between //. marginaria and 
//. aurantiaria. H. defoliaria had probably mostly gone down. Of 
imagines, there were found a few Pechypogon barbalis, lodis lactearia, 
Acidalia remiitana, and one A. straminata . The fences only yielded a 
fine specimen of Hadena genistce to Mr. Woodward. Being unsuccessful 
with larvae, the party returned to quarters for breakfast. 



SOCIETIES. 225 

About ten o'clock the weather turned out fine, and eventually 
became broiling hot. Though Mr. C. B. Smith was unable to be 
present in person, he had lelt an excellent programme of arrange- 
ments, the first part of which consisted of a visit to the Knightwood 
Oak. Accordingly, soon after breakfast, with the exception of Messrs. 
Harvey and Woodward, who preferred to go to Ehinefield, and the 
two Messrs. Smith, who had not yet arrived, the party started for the 
celebrated giant, though, as will be seen later on, nearly all failed to 
get there. Mr. L. J. Tremayne opened his entomological account 
with a superb little specimen of AcidaUa trvjeminata, and Mr. C 
Nicholson found a field where Euchlo'e cardamines was on the wing. 
Proceeding, it became evident that Fararge egeria, in all conditions, 
was also flying, (jronepteryx rhamni was depositing, and in some cases 
courting. Argynnis eupkrosyne, apparently not fully out, was seldom to 
be seen more than one at a time, and several of the commoner 
Geometry were to be had by beating. An insect which appeared to 
be in greater abundance than usual was Formica rnfa. I'he route 
taken being via Bank, the party soon entered Gritnam Wood, where 
larva-beating was once more tried. Presently Tmiiocampa miniosa and 
full-fed Theda quercus, together with a few I^siiura monacha, began to 
come down. Mr. Jennings also met with some success in the JDiptera, 
Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera. Before reaching the Lymington nver, 
a halt was called, as it was found impossible for the ladies to continue 
in the heat of the sun, whereupon they, with Mr. Nicholson, senior, 
decided to abandon the walk. Messrs. Bacot, Bishop, and Jennings, 
finding collecting improving, decided to remain more or less where 
they were, and Messrs. C. Nicholson and L. J. Tremayne were lelt to 
push on to the Knightwood Oak alone. They first turned into 
Khinefield, where the President took a fine specimen of Macrufjlossa 
bovibyiifunnis, but no more were seen ; another collector on the 
ground stated that he had been there the whole morning, and only 
taken three, of which one was worn. The President ana Secretary 
subsequently, with some difficulty, succeeded in making the Knight- 
wood Oak, the girth of which was measured and found to be 6 yards 
2 feet 3 inches. But the tree is tall in proportion to its thickness, 
and has rather a slender appearance than otlierwise from a distance. 
The wanderers subsequently proceeded through Mark Ash and Boldre- 
wood, and home by the Emgwood Boad via Emery Down. Messrs. 
Bacot and Bishop had obtained larvte of Asjflialia ridens and Nynsia 
hispidaria. Messrs. Harvey and Woodward, who had been at Khme- 
field, had succeeded in capturing both the " bee hawks," and had 
turned up Tanagra atrata and larvae of Bombyx quercus. Messrs. 
Jennings, Bacot, and Bishop had been attacked on the Christchurch 
Boad by a species of Tabanus, which resembled autumnalis, but which 
Mr. Jennings thought must be a different species, as the specimens 
were worn. After tea some of the members started for evening work. 
To begin with, Mr. C. Nicholson knocked down a flying specimen of 
Asemum striatum in the garden, and this was one of the very best 
captures made during the visit. Up to the year 1893 this species had 
never been found in the south of England, being essentially a northern 
species, though occurring in a certain locality in Cumberland. At 
Whitsuntide, 1893, a single specimen was taken in the New Forest by 



226 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Mr. Bertram Rye, who again met with it in 1895, when he captured 
two specimens at Bookham, Sm-rey. It is, like all the Longicorns, a 
wood borer, and is attached to pine and fir. How it had been intro- 
duced from Scotland to the south of England, Mr. Jennings could not 
imagine. After this interesting capture, Messrs. C. Nicholson, L. J. 
Tremayne, Bacot, Bishop, W. H. Smith, with Miss Nicholson and 
Miss Bacot, made for Hurst Wood. Scarcely anything flew at dusk, 
a few Mdanippe montanata being about the only captures, though New 
Park was tried as being better ground. Sugar also was an utter 
failure, not attracting a single lepidopteron. Larva-beating produced 
a few Asphalia ridens, Thccla quercus, and Psilura monacha. Messrs. 
Harvey and Woodward, however, were successful in taking Scodlona 
behjiiiria on Whitemoor. Mr. C. B. Smith arrived at supper time. 

A trip to Beaulieu had been arranged for Sunday, but as the day 
was again intensely hot, the members decided not to go so far ; but a 
collecting party consisting of Messrs. C. B. Smith, Harvey, Bacot, 
Woodward, and Bishop left Lynwood after breakfast for Beechen Lane. 
Mr. Bishop brought out a specimen of Epione advenaria, and Mr. 
Bacot one of Gnophria ruhricollls. Bombijx rubi was found commonly 
on the heath near Denny Bog, as well as a few Satumia carpini. Mr. 
Woodward also took Litkosia mesomella and Gnophria rubricollis. The 
larva} beaten were Tmniocampa miniosa, Asphalia ridens (a few), Thecla 
qnercits, Amphidasi/s strataria, and Psilura monacha. The party re- 
mained out the best part of the day, and returned by the Beaulieu 
Road, picking up some more Scodiona heUjiaria on Whitemoor. Mr. 
C. B. Smith had previously returned to dinner, and in the afternoon 
he and Mr. L. J. Tremayne sauntered down to the " Bombyx " heath 
and took several B. rabi, and coming back the Vice-President took a 
fine specimen of Eupithecia togata from a fence. Meanwhile Messrs. 
Jennings and W. H. Smith had spent the day at Rhinefield, and 
taken six specimens of Macnujlossa hombijliforinis. They also found 
several species of large Syrphidae in numbers at the rhododendron 
blossoms. Amongst them were Sericomi/ia bnrealis, Criorrhina oxija- 
canthcc, Volucella bowbylons var. j7??(/»rtf^/, and Myiatropa fiorea. S. 
borealis much resembles a wasp both in its markings and in its manner 
of flight, and when caught produces a loud humming noise by the 
vibration of the halteres, and which resembles in miniature the crying 
of a child. A single specimen of Conops vescularis was seen, but 
unfortunately escaped. On the way home Mr. W. H. Smith took one 
Metrocampa margaritaria, one Geometra vernaria, and one larva of 
Catocala sponsa beaten from an oak close to Clay Hill. The larvae of 
Diloba cccruleocephala and Xola cucuUatclla were abundant on the banks 
of the Lymington river, and in Hurst Wood Mr. Jennings saw a 
female of Dioctria ailandica, one of the predatory Diptera, with its 
prey in its jaws. Beechen Lane and Whitemoor were the scenes of 
the evening work. Sugar was as useless as the previous night, and 
dusking only slightly improved. 

On Monday, Mr. 0. B. Smith, Mr. Nicholson, senior, and all the 
ladies except Miss Saunders, elected to drive to Rufus Stone. Miss 
Saunders spent the day collecting ferns in Pond Head and Jones's 
Enclosures and Beechen Lane. The rest of the party started for 
Matley Bog via Whitemoor. For Lepidoptera this was the best day 



SOCIETIES. 227 

of the trip. The alder swamps in Matley Bog yielded Hydrelia uncula, 
Eupisteria heparata, Hypsipetes impluviata, and one Erastria fasciana ; 
while Aspilates strirjillaria occurred not uncommonly on the heaths, 
and Drepana falcataria was found among the birch. Mr. Jennings 
met with the only good weevil taken during the trip, a specimen of 
Erirrhinus bimacidatus, and also the best species of Diptera taken, viz. 
a male of Spilomyia speciosia, boxed from the side of the brook running 
through Matley Bog. This gentleman also obtained a female of 
Merodon equestris (Syrphidse), which Mr. Nicholson had taken at 
flowers in the Lynwood garden. This is an introduced species, having 
been brought to England in bulbs, in which the larvae feed. It is 
now well established in this country. The party returned home early, 
and after tea returned by the 7 o'clock train to town. Mr. Jennings 
reports the following species, other than Lepidoptera, taken during the 
trip in addition to those already mentioned — -Geodephaga (ground 
beetles), Calosouia inquisitor (two beaten from oaks, and one each from 
hazel, beech, and hawthorn), Ahax striola (one under log on a heath), 
Harpcdus rubripes (one, ditto), Dromius 4.-macuiatus (one), and one 
species each of Pterostichus, Notiophilus, Harpalus, Calathus, not yet 
named ; Brachelytra (rove beetles), Creophiius via.villosus (one under a 
dead rabbit on Whitemoor) ; Necrophaga (burying beetles), Silplia 
4i-pimctata (beaten commonly from oaks), S. ruyosa (one), S. sinuata 
(several obtained from the before -mentioned dead rabbit), Sapriims 
(two unnamed species from the same source) ; Lamellicornia, Geotrupes 
vernalis (one on Whitemoor), Trox sabulosus (one under an old rag at a 
spot where there had evidently been a gipsy encampment), Meiolontha 
valyaris (several beaten from oaks), Phyllopertha horticola (four in 
various situations), Leucanus cervus (several) ; Elateridae (click beetles), 
Campylus linearis (one out of hawthorn), Colymbetes holosericeus (com- 
mon on oaks) ; Malacodermata, Dolichosoma nobile (one from aspen) ; 
Longicornia, Anoplodera sex-guttata (one on a wall), Rhar/ium bifasciatitia 
(three), R. inquisitor (one at sugar in Jones's Enclosure), Clytus arietis 
(two on dead wood), Toxotus meridianus (one netted flying near the 
Lymington river at Rhinefield), Strangalia nigra (three from Matley 
Bog) ; Phytophaga, Ciythra quadripunctata (one taken by Mr. Bacot at 
Denny), Cryptocephalus Uneola (one from heather on Whitemoor), 
Adimonia caprecB (several), Phytodecta viniinalis (severaX) ; Heteromera, 
Lagria hirta (one out of an oak in Hurst Wood) ; Ehyncophora 
(weevils), Attelabus curculionoides (two out of oaks), lihynchites pubescens 
(several out of oaks), Otiorrhynchus jncipes (several from hawthorn), 
Stropliosomus coryli (common on anything but hazel), Hylobius abietis 
(three), Erirrhinus tortrix (two from aspen), E.macidatus (several from 
aspen), Balaninus glandium (one beaten from oak) ; Diptera, Bombylius 
major (one in a most dilapidated condition, having half of the wings 
gone, and very ragged pubescence) ; Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Acantho- 
sotna (three specimens of a species beaten from hawthorn) ; a yellow 
species was common on oaks, and a fine green Capsid was beaten from 
hawthorn at Ehinefield ; Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Tenthredo 
maculata (one specimen taken by Mr. Harvey near Brockenhurst). — 
Lawrence J. Tkemayne, Hun. Sec. 



228 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



BECENT LITEKATUEE. 

A Study in Insect Parasitism : a Consideration of the Parasites of the 
White-marked Tussock Moth, with an Account of their Habits and 
Interrelations, and ivith Descriptions of New Species. By L. 0. 
Howard. 58 pp., illustrated. Washington. 1897. 

The host referred to in this interesting pamphlet is Orgyia leuco- 
stvjma, a very close ally of 0. antiqua, which in the United States is 
destructive to shade trees in cities. The author points out that, after 
the introduction of the English sparrow into the States, the Orrpjia 
became more numerous, whilst " cankerworms," which had previously 
been the chief destroyers of the foliage of shade trees, were practically 
exterminated. In 1895 the Orgyia increased to an alarming extent in 
the city of Washington, and the author was afforded an opportunity 
of investigating its life-history, more especially with regard to the 
" prominent part which parasites take in the reduction of an insect 
which under favourable conditions has exceeded its normal bounds in 
respect to numbers." That the parasites, chiefly Pimpla inquisitor and 
Chalcis ovata, were doing good service is shown from the fact that at 
the end of August and early part of September in the year mentioned, 
when the Orgyia larvns wei*e most abundant, "it was an exception 
to find a healthy caterpillar which one of the parasites was not engaged 
in stinging. The rearings which were undertaken at this time show 
parasitism of perhaps 90 per cent, of the caterpillars." In June, 1896, 
*' it was a very difficult matter to find enough living individuals to 
carry on rearing-cage experiments at the very points where they had 
been present the previous year by thousands and thousands," and the 
parasitism had reached to something above 98 per cent. 

There are twenty-four original illustrations in the text. 



Harrow Butterflies and Moths. Vol. II. By J. L. Bontrote, M.B.O.U., 
and Hon. M. C. RoTHscmLD, F.E.S., F.Z.S. Pp. i-x, 1-112. 
Harrow : J. C. Wilbee. 1897. 

Continues the list of Lepidoptera occurring in the Harrow district 
from Uropterygidae to Alucitidte. In the present volume there are 
introductory notes to some of the families and genera. There is also 
a supplement to Vol. I., containing additions and corrections ; alto- 
gether 469 species are noticed as occurring, or having occurred, in the 
area dealt with. 



Obituary. — We learn with regret that Mr. John Finlay, of Morpeth, 
died on July 4th last, at the age of sixty-one years. His interest in 
entomology was chiefly confined to Lepidoptera, of which ordier he had 
formed a fine collection. For upwards of thirty years he had occupied 
the post of head gardener at Meldou Park. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX.] SEPTEMBER, 1897. [No. 412. 



THE PROTECTION OF LEPIDOPTERA. 

The Entomological Society of London has entered on its 
work of attempting to control the too assiduous collector with 
commendable thoroughness ; but the Protection Committee is 
hardly likely to propose such extreme measures as those 
suggested by Mr. Harold Hodge in an article on this subject in 
the ' Saturday Review' (July 17th). " I am not disloyal," writes 
Mr. Hodge, " to the entomological brotherhood ; I am, and I 
wish to be considered, one of them ; but I admit I prefer the 
butterflies to the entomologists." The writer then proceeds to 
unfold his plans for checkmating the "omnivorous collector." 
He says : — 

"Entomologists are organised; the Entomological Society of 
London, as the natural head of all such societies, can declare a 
close season, and announce the species to which the close season 
is to apply. They can condemn the purchase of British insects 
in any stage of life from dealers. They can suspend collecting 
in particular localities for a specified period of time. They could, 
for instance, declare that there should be no collecting of the 
butterfly Papilio macliaon in the egg, larva, pupa, or imago in, 
say, Wicken Fen for three years. It is for species whose habit 
is to cling to the same spot from year to year without spreading 
that protection is especially needed ; such species, while scarce 
in the country generally, are plentiful where they do occur. 
They are thus easily grabbed by the collector, while they excite 
his cupidity from being, in insect-hunting parlance, * good.' 
There would be no difficulty in making known the Society's 
edicts to the entomological world. Most collectors take in some 
entomological journal, or belong to some society. ' Yes ; but, 
your rules made, promulgated, and understood, how are you to 
enforce them ? Where is your sanction ? What is the use of 

ENTOM. SEPT. 1897. u 



230 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

making rules when you can neither compel obedience nor 
punish disobedience ? ' This difficulty would perhaps be fatal if 
the whole body of collectors were utterly reprobate. Happily 
they are not ; and I believe that a large number would be strictly 
loyal, and the majority more or less loyal, to the decisions of the 
Entomological Society. This in itself would be a gain, and would 
rapidly create a strong public opinion. And for the recalcitrants, 
the reprobates, it would be the business of the loyal entomologist 
resolutely to take them in hand. The head Society would keep 
and publish a black list of offenders ; it would be the plainest 
duty of every respectable collector to give the Society information 
of any offence against the code. Proved offenders would be ex- 
pelled from all societies ; they would be debarred from ' exchange ' ; 
they would be excluded from the pages of all entomological 
journals. To an entomologist this would be no light sentence. 
Dealers could easily be tackled. They are not, in my view, 
nearly so much to blame as amateur collectors, but their depre- 
dations are too serious to be passed over. Any professional 
* naturalist ' that sold British butterflies and moths in any 
stage, alive or dead, during the close season, would be placed 
under the ban of the Entomological Society ; and collectors 
would be instructed not to deal with him for any purposes. 
(This would not, I hope, bring the officers of the Society within 
the law against boycotting, or make them guilty conspirators.)" 

The following extract is from a paper entitled " Preservation 
of Rare British Animals," by Mr. John T. Carrington (' Science 
Gossip ' for August) : — 

" In every division of nature and in every region of the earth 
there appear to be waves in the abundance and scarcity of certain 
species of the feral inhabitants. Eeturning to those of Britain, 
we may consider one of the most studied and best understood of 
the great orders — that of the Lepidoptera, or butterflies and i 
moths. In my own time of active observation, extending to 
nearly forty years, we have known some species in many parts 
of the country which were generally common, or at least by no 
means rare, to have practically disappeared. As an example I may 
mention the 'brown-tail moth' (Porthesia {Lijyaris) chrysorrha'a), 
which twenty years since was a comparatively common species 
throughout the South of England, but is now rarely or hardly 
ever found. The same applies to that handsome butterfly the 
' black- veined white' {Aporia cratagi), which was abundant half 
a century ago throughout southern England and South Wales. 
Without mentioning others, these two instances are sufficient to 
prove that some other agency than that of the collector must 
have caused their disappearance ; because, in the first place, 
there have never been in this country a sufficient number of 
persons who required specimens of these once common sj^ecies 
to have exterminated them. Neither have some of the localities 



THE PROTECTION OF LEPIDOPTERA. 231 

"where they both abounded ever been visited by entomologist or 
collector. I have every sympathy with those who have founded 
societies for the protection of our wild birds, and brought about 
Acts of Parliament for their preservation. As I have said earlier 
in these lines, I look with abhorrence on the useless, senseless, 
and vulgar destruction of any kind of wild life. I admire equally 
the efforts which certain collectors of butterflies and moths have 
been making for the formation of an association to protect dis- 
appearing species in our fauna. Doubtless their efforts may 
prolong for a few years the stay of these species with us ; but if 
their diminution is due to the forces of nature or to their 
inadaptability to accommodate themselves to human civilisation, 
no amount of dilettante preservation will stop their ultimate 
extinction. While forming these societies and advocating the 
abstention from collecting, humanitarians must be careful not 
to allow sentimental feelings to interfere with the proper 
acquisition of representatives of our fauna for scientific purposes. 
I venture, however, to hold the opinion that at no time has 
scientific collection caused the extinction of any species." 

Everyone will agree with Mr. Carrington that the naturalist 
must not be denied a free hand in acquiring specimens for 
study ; but there does not seem to be any reason to apprehend 
that anyone desires to interfere with him, or yet with the 
collector of moths and butterflies who merely wishes to complete 
his series of these insects. It has been considered desirable, 
however, that some local species of Lepidoptera should not be 
"worked" so closely and persistently as they have been, as the 
continuance of such a course may tend, it is thought, to hasten 
their extinction in this country, an event, by the way, which in 
some instances appears likely enough to occur from causes 
(possibly natural) about which we at present know very little 
indeed. Those entomologists, therefore, who have local species 
within their areas of observation, are asked to do all they can to 
foster such species, and we do not for one moment doubt that 
they will do so. 

It will never be necessary to put in operation the pains 
and penalties which Mr. Hodge would mete out to the con- 
tumacious, because entomologists are quite able to effectually 
deal with a refractory member of the community without 
resorting to exceptional measures. They have been successful 
in the past in defeating the cunningly-devised plans of the 
vendor or exchanger of spurious British insects and manufactured 
varieties ; and now that moderation in collecting local species is 
recognised as a prudent course, they will find means to enforce 
its adoption whenever or wherever the occasion arises. 



u2 



232 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

THE PROTECTION OF INSECTS IN DANGER OF 
EXTERMINATION. 

By Robert Adkin, F.E.S. 

The task undertaken by the " Committee for the protection 
of insects in danger of extermination " is of so delicate a nature 
that one is somewhat diffident in making any comment upon 
any part of its proceedings, and it must not be thought from 
what I am about to say that I am not entirely in sympathy with 
the broad principles of the good work that it has in hand. For 
my own part, however, I would much rather that the list of 
species supposed to need special protection had not been pub- 
lished, as I cannot help thinking that the power of the Com- 
mittee would be much more felt by collectors if its views were 
pressed home to them in a general way, and the question of the 
particular species needing such protection left to the good sense 
and experience of the individual. If, however, such a list was 
deemed to be a necessity, would it not have been well to have 
confined it to the narrowest possible limits, and not to have 
included in it the names of any species whose sporadic appear- 
ance tends to show the possibility of their decreased numbers or 
actual disappearance to be the result of natural causes rather 
than the act of man ? I take it that the scope of the Committee's 
work would not extend beyond the latter proposition. 

Without wishing to enter into any general criticism of the 
list already published {ante, p. 198), many of the species included 
in which would, I doubt not, appeal for protection from extermi- 
nation to any thoughtful collector, whether specially indicated or 
not, I would mention, by way of illustrating my point, two 
species, my experience of which leads me to believe that their 
extermination by " over collecting" would be a simple impossi- 
bility. In July, 1875, I was at Deal, and shall never forget the 
abundance of pupae of Porthesia chrysorrhoea that I then met 
with ; the hawthorn hedges in the country lanes, the brambles 
by the wayside, even the sea-buckthorns on the sand-hills, were 
full of them ; they might be pulled out of the hedges in bunch cs 
of half a dozen at a time, and it was no uncommon thing to find 
three or four spun up in a single bramble-leaf. Had I been so 
minded, I could literally have collected the proverbial waggon 
load. Some six years later I again visited the same locality at 
the same time of year, and should have been glad to have 
renewed my acquaintance with the species, and in fact made a 
special journey to the hedges where I had previously found it so 
abundant, but failed to find it ; nor did the sea-buckthorns on 
the sand-hills prove any more productive, although I was fre- 
quently among them for fully a fortnight. About the same time 
that the species was so abundant at Deal, it was also common in 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF IRELAND. 233 

the Higham district, and apparently disappeared at about the 
same time as in the former district, although its congener, 
Porthesia siiniUs {aurijiua) still continued to occur much in the 
same numbers as formerly. Clisiocampa castrensis is another 
species which, although having a much more restricted range, 
probably on account of the peculiar situations which it affects 
and the distribution of its usual food-plant, is also liable to 
seasons of extreme abundance and scarcity.* In the marshes on 
the north bank of the Thames I have seen the larvae of this 
species in all stages in the utmost profusion ; yet a few years 
later a diligent search would not be rewarded by a single 
example, and such a phenomenon has occurred more than once 
within my own recollection. It is unnecessary here to discuss 
the probable causes of the apparently sudden abundance and 
equally rapid scarcity or disappearance, as that does not come 
within the present question ; but it appears to me that such 
changes could not possibly have been brought about by any 
amount of collecting, or indeed by any contingency within man's 
control. Questions such as these species have raised in my own 
mind will doubtless occur to the minds of entomologists with 
regard to some other of the species mentioned in the list, and I 
fear will not tend to strengthen the hands of the Committee in 
the task that is before them ; but although any attempts to 
enforce hard and fast rules may lead to unlooked-for difficulties, 
a vast amount of good may, I doubt not, be done in the desired 
direction by moral persuasion. 

Lewisham, Augiist, 1897. 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF IRELAND. 

By W. F. de Vismes Kane, M.A., M.R.I.A., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 216.) 

Hybernia rupicapraria, Hb. — Common in most districts. Of 
its distribution, however, I have but scanty positive evidence, as 
its season of flight is so early that it escapes notice in a country 
which has but few entomological observers. The few localities 
I give, however, indicate the probability of its being widely 
spread. Killynon, Westmeath {Miss R.) ; in the North at Belfast 
(IF.); abundant near Derry (C) ; common at Drumreaske and 
elsewhere in the Co. Monaghan ; on the east coast at Castle 
Bellingham {Thornhill), and near Dublin; and it abounds at 
Clonbrock, Co. Galway {R.E.D.). 

[Hybernia LEucoPH.a:ARiA, /Sc/ii^'. — This insect is recorded in 
Birchairs list as common, but I have seen no Irish specimen, 



234 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



though it has been stated to occur at Waterford ; of which con- 
firmation is desirable.] 

Hybernia aurantiaria, Esp. — Apparently rare. Drumreaske, 
Monaghan ; Favour Royal, Tyrone ; Clonbrock, Co. Galway 
{R.E.D.). 

Hybernia marginaria, Bork. — Widely distributed and common 
in most localities. It varies much in markings. A brown 
aberration, not so dark as vav.fascata, occurs at Mount Bellew, 
Co. Galway. A very dark bordered form is frequent near Ennis- 
killen and Drumreaske. Clonbrock, common ; Leenane, over 
1300 ft. above sea-level, Co. Galway ; Killynon, Westmeath ; 
Favour Royal, Tyrone, very abundant ; Armagh (J.) ; Castle 
Bellingham {Thornkill) ; Enniskillen ; Markree Castle, Sligo, &c. 

Hybernia defoliaria, Clerck. — Apparently widely spread, but 
I know little of its distribution in the South of Ireland. Abun- 
dant at Killarney, and at Mallow, Co. Cork {Stajrell) ; Clonbrock, 
strongly marked forms {R.E. D.), and near Galway (.4.) ; Pon- 
toon and Enniscoe, on the shores of Lough Conn, Mayo, abun- 
dant ; also at Mote Park, Roscommon ; Derry, fairly common 
(C.) ; Glenarm (Brunton, Ent. vii. 43), and Ballycastle, where 
handsome banded forms occur, Co. Antrim ; at Rockabill Light- 
house, three miles off shore, it came to the light ; and at Howth 
suffused ruddy brown specimens occur, and others with strongly 
marked bands and spotted outer margins ; Wooden Bridge, 
Wicklow {M.E.); Enniskillen {A.). 

Anisopteryx .ESCULARIA, Scliiff. — Everywhere spread, and 
often numerous. 

Cheimatobia brumata, L. — Abundant universally. 

Cheimatobia boreata, Hh. — Clonbrock, numerous {R. E. D.) ; 
Drumreaske, one pupa taken by I\fr. Thornhill. 

Oporabia dilutata, Bork. — Very numerous everywhere. 
Handsome banded forms occur at Killarney and elsewhere ; also 
the var. ohscurata, Stand. 

Oporabia filigrammaria, H. S. — Limerick (S.); Clonbrock 
(R. E. D.), one, Leenane and Aasleagh abundant [Chapman, 
E. M. M. XXV. 213), Co. Galway ; Magilligan {R. C), and at Kil- 
derry (C), Co. Derry; Belfast hills {W. ; see following species). 

Oporabia autumnaria, Gn. — Mr. Watts sent a series of 
Oporabias from the hills near Belfast to Mr, Barrett for identifi- 
cation, who selected certain small narrow-wdnged specimens as 
being similar to the Lancashire and Yorkshire 0. filigrammaria. 
Others from wooded slopes at a lower elevation he was of opinion 
were probably Guenee's 0. autumnaria. 



A CATALOGUE OP THE LEPIDOPTERA OF IRELAND. 235 

Larentia didymata, L. — Very common and variable. Males 

from the black basaltic cliffs of Antrim near Ballycastle I have 

noticed to be extremely dark, though the females are of the 
normal pale form. 

Larentia multistrigaria, Haiv. — Very generally distributed 
throughout Ireland wherever Galium sa.vatile is plentiful. At 
Howth (where I have taken this species in numbers in the first 
half of February), and at Clonbrock, &c., the males often show 
basal and central bands across the fore wing like the female. 
Co. Dublin and Wicklow ; Westmeath, at Cromlyn (Mrs. B.), 
Killynon {Miss R.), &c. ; Altadiawan, Co. Tyrone; Co. Derry 
(C); Ballycastle, and the Belfast hills (IF.). Plentiful in the 
South of Ireland generally. 

Larentia c^siata, Lang. — Exists throughout the mountain 
tracts of Ireland, varying much. I have, however, nowhere met 
with such melanic forms as those from Yorkshire, the grey in- 
conspicuous type chiefly predominating. Like L. dicltjmata, I 
have noticed that in rocky localities the species conforms some- 
what to the tone of the rock formation. In the S.E. of Kerry a 
very unicolorous grey form is found on the slate formation, but 
on the limestone cliffs of Clare a very pale one. 

Larentia salicata, Hh. — Local, but existing in all four 
provinces. In some places, as at Powerscourt, Wicklow, plenti- 
ful in the May emergence. I have (perhaps accidentally) only 
met with occasional specimens in the late summer. Besides the 
pale form with well-defined pattern, sometimes showing a well- 
defined central band, dark at the borders, but pale round the 
discoidal spot, there is a dark suffused form (var, unicolorata, 
Gregson). The former is frequent at Altadiawan, Co. Tyrone, 
and on the Belfast hills, where the latter also occurs (IF.), and 
at Clonbrock. Galway {JVallace), Merlin Park, Clonbrock, Kil- 
cornan (B.), Ardrahan (Miss N.), &c. ; near Crossmolina, Mayo, 
very common {S. R. F.) ; Markree, Sligo ; near Donegal ; Magil- 
ligan, Co. Derry, suffused with yellow {Salvage) ; Ballycastle, 
Larne, &c., Co. Antrim (IF.) ; Churchill and Armagh {J.) ; Castle 
Bellingham, Co. Louth {Thornhill) ; Co. Tyrone ; Greystones, 
Arklow, and on the mountain above Powerscourt, Co. Wicklow ; 
Kinsale, Co. Cork. 

Larentia olivata, Bork. — Apparently very local. Glengarriff', 
Co. Antrim, numerous (IF.) ; Buncrana, Co. Donegal, a few (C) ; 
Eockwood, Sligo {R.) ; Clonbrock, Co. Galway, one {R. E. D.) ; 
Knock Ion, Westmeath, abundant {Miss R.) ; Powerscourt, Co. 
Wicklow (0. G. B.) ; Bandon, Co. Cork (L.). 

Larentia viridaria, Fb. — Generally distributed and plentiful. 

Emmelesia affinitata, St. — Local and not numerous. I have 



236 THPJ ENTOMOLOGIST. 

an aberration from Altadiawan, Co. Tyrone, in which the whitish 
sinuate band of the fore wings is of a ferruginous tint near the 
costa, but becomes obsolete toward the inner margin. A smoky 
form with obsolete band (ab. unicolorata, Gregson) occurs at 
Magilligan, Co. Derry {B.C.). Farnham, Co. Cavan ; Favour 
Royal, Co. Tyrone ; Cookesborough, Co. Westmeath ; Hollybrook, 
near Boyle {Miss ^f.) ; Inishowen {W. E. H.) and Drumawen 
{G. V. H.), Co. Donegal ; Sligo {R.) ; Dalyston and Clonbrock, 
Co. Galway. 

Emmelesia alchemillata, L. — Local like the preceding, but 
sometimes abundant. Killynon, Westmeath {Miss R.) ; Favour 
Eoyal, Co. Tyrone ; Tempo Manor near Enniskillen, abundant 
(Langham) ; Athlone (Wilcoa-), Clonbrock, Dalyston, and Eecess, 
Co. Galway ; Ballycastle, Co. Antrim ; Derry, abundant (C.) 
Ardara (J.), and Inishowen, Co. Donegal ; Sligo {R.), abundant 
Bryansford, Mourne Mountains (IF.) ; Clogher Head, Co. Louth 
Killarney. 

Emmelesia albulata, Schif. — Abundant throughout Ireland 
wherever the food-plant flourishes ; varying from an almost 
unicolorous greyish white form (var. griseata) to strongly banded 
ones with varied tones of grey ground. This is one of the 
Geometers which come to sugar. 

Emmelesia decoloeata, Hh. — Very local. I have never taken 
any Irish examples. Near Belvoir Park, Belfast {Bw.) ; Magil- 
ligan, Co. Derry, a very rich form {R. C.) ; Tore, Killarney. 

Emmelesia t^niata, St. — This interesting local species has, I 
believe, a much more wide distribution than is indicated by our 
present information. It is likely to turn up in most districts in 
which relics of old forest survive. Numerous in a few places like 
Killarney, but notoriously difficult to procure in fair condition. 
It varies much in size, suggesting difficulty in procuring a regular 
food supply, or contingent on larval hybernation. It frequents 
hedges or foliage on the sunny side of w^oods or open glades, 
whence it can be beaten on hot days. The median band of the 
fore wing varies in breadth, sometimes being narrow and very 
dark, with the elbowed line only slightly angulated near the 
costa. A curious specimen was taken by Mr. Watts in Donard 
demesne, Mourne Mountains, Co. Down. Of large size, with 
uniform buff ground colour, like that of Anticlca hadiata, all over 
the fore wing, traversed by a narrow dark central band, the 
edges of which were not defined with the usual pale strigse. 
Beside the above localities, it occurs not infrequently at Favour 
Royal and Altadiawan, Co. Tyrone ; Rockwood, Sligo ; and 
Belvoir Park, Belfast (Biv.). 

Emmelesia unifasciata, Hmv. — Kingstown {Greene), and 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF IRELAND. 237 

Howth {G.V.H.), Co. Dublin; Castle Bellingham, Co. Louth, 
occasional (Thornhill) ; Derry (C). 

Emmelesl\ minorata, Tr. — Mourne Mountains, very local 
{B.) ; Clonbrock, Co. Galway, four specimens {R. E.D.). 

"Emmelesl^ adjequata, Bork. — Widely spread throughout 
Kerry and Galway. Glengariff, Kenmare, Cloonee L., and Kil- 
Jarney, Kerry; Kilcornan [B.), Ballinabinch, Kylemore, Aasleagh, 
Ardrahan, and Eoundstone {Lt. Walker), Co. Galway. 

Eupithecia venosata, Fh. — Generally distributed ; very com- 
mon at Howth, where a very light form prevails. At Clonbrock, 
Mr. Dillon has met with a darkish form. At Glandore, Co. Cork, 
Mr. C. Donovan took numerous specimens of the smoky form 
similar to those from the Orkneys and Shetland, but devoid of 
whitish lines ; and from a larva taken near Ardrahan, Co. Galway, 
I bred a blackish brown unicolorous specimen without any reticu- 
lated pattern, except on the costa. These melanic variations of 
E. venosata therefore do not appear to be connected with insular 
segregation, but to be local varieties. 

[Eupithecia linariata, Fh. — Birchall reported a specimen 
from Howth, but as the food-plant is not indigenous there, though 
common in districts in the South of Ireland, it may perhaps 
have been a small specimen of E. pulchellata.] 

Eupithecia pulchellata, St. — In many parts of Ireland, and 
sometimes emerges in autumn, but is disappointing to breed 
owing to the large proportion of larvae stung by ichneumons. 
Kingstown {Greene), Howth? {B.), Co. Dublin; Castletownsend, 
and Cork (S.) ; near Ardtully and Killarney Upper Lake, Co. 
Kerry ; Clonbrock, Co. Galway {R. E. D.) ; Knocknarea, Sligo 
{Riiss) ; Cloghan near Stranolar, Co. Donegal, abundant ; near 
Derry (C.) ; Altadiawan, Co. Tyrone ; Errigal, Co. Monaghan ; 
Tempo Manor, Enniskillen (Langham). 

Eupithecia oblongata, Thnh. — Widely spread and common. 
The ground colour of some specimens is slightly yellowish. 

Eupithecia succentaureata, L. — Decidedly local, and re- 
stricted to narrow bounds, and somewhat scarce where found. 
Howth {B.), near the coastguard station on Lambay Island I 
have found it in some numbers, Co. Dublin ; Castle Bellingham, 
Co. Louth {Thornhill), scarce; Armagh {J.). 

Eupithecia subfulvata. Haw. — Mr. Birchall seems to have 
met with it in many localities. I know it only from the east 
coast, at Arklow, Co. Wicklow ; near Dublin and Balbriggan ; 
Clogher Head and Castle Bellingham, Co. Louth. 

Eupithecia scabiosata, Bork. — Apparently a local insect, 
sometimes pretty numerous. Widely spread throughout the 



238 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

county of Galway, and probably in similar districts of Clare. 
All the sjjecimens I have seen from Galway are of the pale type, 
with washed-out pattern. " Taken near Galway in June in 
some numbers in corners of rough pasture fields in mixed her- 
bage" {BirchaU, Entom. iii. 192) ; also by Mr. Allen. Kilcornan, 
common {B.), Ardrahan, common, Kylemore {Hon. Emily Law- 
less), Co. Galway; the Kev. Joseph Greene found the pupae at 
Eathfarnham, Co. Dublin ; Killynon, Co. Westmeath ; Ennis- 
killen {Partridge); Knocknarea, Sligo {Russ). 

ErpiTHECiA PLUMBEOLATA, 7f«7t'. — Local. Killamey, common 
{B.), near Kenmare ; Pontoon, near Foxford, Co. Mayo; not 
common. 

EupiTHEciA isoGRAMMATA, H.-S. — Moycullcn, Co. Galway; 
Knocknarea, Sligo {Bass) ; Favour Eoyal, Tyrone {M.F.) ; Castle 
Bellingham ( Thornhill). 

EupiTHEciA PYGM.EATA, HI. — Eare and local. "Co. Wick- 
low; Portmarnock, Co. Dublin; and Kilcornan, Co. Galway" 
{B.). I took a very fresh specimen, showing a purplish sheen 
on the wings, beside the river at Castle Bellingham, in company 
with Mr. Thornhill. 

EupiTHEciA HELVETiCARiA var. ARCEUTHATA, Frr, — In Entom. 
iii. 192, BirchaU mentions having captured at Killarney a single 
example, which was referred to this species by Harpur Crewe. 
It would be very desirable to learn in what cabinet this speci- 
men is preserved. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES ON THE GENUS SIGARA, Fabe. (RHYNCHOTA). 
By G. W. Kirkaldy. 

1. SiGARA ovivora (Westw.). 

Corixa ovivora, Westw., Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1871, p. iv. 

Through the kindness of Prof. Poulton, I have been able to 
examine the two types (male and female) of this species. Un- 
fortunately both are (after the custom of a quarter of a century 
ago, and, it is to be regretted, sometimes at the present day) 
glued down on one entire surface on to the card (male venter 
downwards, female venter upwards) ; and, having regard to their 
poor condition, I have deemed it too risky to attempt a very 
complete examination. The following notes will, however, be 
perhaps some increase to our knowledge of the species and 
genus. 

It is not a Corixa, but a Sigara, and allied to S. minutissima 
(Linn.) ; the width of the head at the base is greater than that 



NOTES ON THE GENUS SlOARA. 239 

of either of the eyes (as seen from above), and is about equal to 
the width of the vertex,* the interior lateral ocular margins 
being curved outwards from their base, and inwards again 
towards their apparent apical margin (as viewed from above). 
Looking at the face {i. e. the reflexed part of the head anterior to 
the "vertex," and posterior to the clypeus), the eyes appear 
subtriangular, the interior margins being subparallel to one 
another, the bases continuous with that part of the head, the 
exterior margins diverging curvedly from the capital lateral 
margins, and forming third sides subequal to the interior ocular 
margins ; apex rounded. The length of the eyes (still viewing 
the face only) is about equal to the length of the head from the 
apices of the eyes to the apical margin of the clypeus. The base 
of the head is somewhat as in S. minutissima (Linn.) ; from the 
centre of the base the two halves curve downwards at an obtuse 
angle to one another. Head sordid testaceous ; eyes dark 
purple-brown ; pronotum light olive-brown (lateral and posterior 
margins rather broadly sordid luteous), transverse, about twice 
as wide as long, produced laterally beyond the ocular lateral 
margins; basal and apical margins very convex, the latter 
laterally sinuate ; lateral margins very short, slightly diverging 
posteriorly, about one- seventh (roughly) of the middle breadth 
of the pronotum. The scutellum is olive-brown, and appears to 
be divided by a suture into two portions ; I am not, however, 
acquainted with this structure in any other Sigara, and it may 
be due to bad preservation and shrinkage ; across the centre of 
the posterior half of the scutellum is a short transverse dark 
stripe ; also " metasterno profunde bisinuato, angulis posticis 
lateralibus elongatis " (Westw.)- Pedes testaceous [I regret I 
can give no account of the palse] ; intermediate femora about 
equal to tibife and tarsi together ; unguiculi rather longer than 
tibiae, tarsi rather longer than unguiculi, and nearly twice as 
long as tibiae. Hemielytra light olive-brown, obscurely spotted 
with brown [there appear to be three longitudinal stripes], super- 
ficially punctured, and sparsely furnished with short yellow 
hairs. Dorsum of abdomen olive-brown, paler at the margins ; 
connexivum sordid testaceous. Entire ventral surface tes- 
taceous. 

I have not been able to detect a strigil in this species, but the 
insect is so minute that the structure of this would be scarcely 
visible with a j-in. objective, and the broken and irregular male 
abdominal segments render the examination of an old and dry 

=■= As explained in Ann, Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), xx. p. 60 (1897), I use 
"vertex" for the a2:)i}arent apical margin of the head (as seen from above, 
when the insect is lying flat, venter downwards) ; this margin is therefore 
really more or less imaginary. Nevertheless it is extremely useful as a 
diagnostic character in the Notonectidse and Corixidae, to which families its 
use will be almost entirely restricted — in the sense indicated above. 



240 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

specimen a grave risk for its safety. L. 2"8 mm. ; lat. hum. 
circ. 1"6 mm. 

Canara K. (India). Types, male and female, Hope Mus. 
Oxon. ; another specimen in the same museum from Ceylon 
(Thwaites, 1872), I refer to this species. 

2. SiGARA SIVA, nom. nov., for 

Sigara striata, Fieb., Abh. k. bohm. Ges. Wiss. (v.), 3, p. 
292, Taf. 1, f. 22-4, 1844. 
Preoccupied by Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iv. p. 60, 1794 [which 
equals Corixa geofroyi, Leach — typum vidi] . 

3. SiGAEA M-NOTATA, llOm. nOV., foT 

Sigara lineata, Fieb. I.e., 293, Taf. 1, ff. 20 and 25, preocc. 
Fab., I.e., p. 59. 

4. The description of Corixa albifrons, Motsch., Bull. Moscou 
xxxvi. pt. 2, p. 94 (1863), is clearly that of a Sigara, but the too 
few structural characters given do not agree with any species 
known to me. In the absence of the type, or of specimens 
entirely agreeing with the description, the species must, for the 
present at least, remain doubtful. 

Six Sigara have been now described from the Oriental region, 
viz. albifrons (Motsch.), grisca, Fieb., m-notata {=.lineata, Fieb.), 
ovivora (Westw.), punctata, Fieb., and siva {= striata, Fieb.). 
These doubtless require revision. On the other hand, we cannot 
doubt but that an increase of interest in these small bugs will 
result in very many more being made known ; and I take this 
opportunity of asking for material (Oriental or otherwise) in two 
of the aquatic families of Rhynchota — Corixidas and Notonectidse. 

Sanuiiary. 

1. Corixa ovivora, Westw., is a Sigara. 

2. Sigara siva, nom. nov. for striata, Fieb. (nee. Fab.). 

3. S. m-notata, nom. nov. for lineata, Fieb. (nee. Fab.). 

4. Corixa albifrons, Motsch., is a Sigara '? sp. 



BUTTERFLY HUNTING IN THE HIMALAYAS. 
By W. Haecourt-Bath. 

To one only accustomed to collecting in Europe, the Hima- 
layas constitute a wonderfully exciting field for research and 
exploration, especially to the student of entomology. The region 
in which I am travelling at the present time, namely, the eastern 
portion of this vast chain, is without doubt the richest of any for 



BUTTERFLY HUNTING IN THE HIMALAYAS. 241 

its extent in the Eastern Hemisphere. Within a radius of about 
fifty miles of my headquarters there are found as many as six 
hundred different species of butterflies, in addition to a large 
number of seasonal, climatal, and geographical varieties ; while 
moths and beetles and other insects may be encountered in 
thousands. This is not only the case as regards the number of 
species, but individuals of many of them occur in the greatest 
profusion. The abundance of large and handsome butterflies in 
the tropical valleys is a sight not to be forgotten. 

Up to an altitude of about 5000 ft. we get species characteristic 
of the Malay region, which is noted for its excessive richness in 
other branches of natural history, besides in entomology. It is 
here that one see the great Papilios in all their glory, as well as 
many large species of Danaidae, &c. What a grand sight it is to 
view the gigantic Ornithoptcra. jjompeus, or equally handsome 
0. rhadamantkus, sailing majestically through the forest glade, 
or the green and red- spotted Papilio paris and P. ganesa dashing 
about in the broiling sunshine, in company with many other 
beautiful species of the same genus ; while the various species of 
Euploea, with iridescent colours which change with every flap of 
their wings, occur in countless swarms within the shade of the 
luxuriant arborescent vegetation. Pre-eminently plentiful among 
these are E. rogenhoferi, E. rhadamantluis, and E. core. Several 
species of Nejjtis, noted for their graceful sailing flight, are also 
exceedingly plentiful in this zone, as is likewise the case with 
many species of Pieridae, the commonest of all being Ixias birdi, 
a beautiful yellow orange-tipped form, which occurs in company 
with half a dozen pretty species of Delias. 

The temperate zone, which rises above the preceding to the 
height of 10,000 or 12,000 ft., has an entomological fauna allied 
to that which occurs in the Manchurian Subregion of the Palae- 
arctic Area of zoo-geographers, and is exceedingly like the 
European in its general facies, although a considerable propor- 
tion of subtropical forms are intermingled with it. At this 
altitude one encounters species closely allied to many which are 
among our most familiar butterflies in England, such as Pieris 
brassicce, P. rapce, P. napi, Lyccena argioliis, Vanessa atalanta, V. 
iirticce^Ac, which are here represented by geographical forms, 
considered sufficiently distinct to be treated as separate species ; 
while others are absolutely identical, such as Vanessa cardui and 
Argynnis latonia, which are both common insects at this eleva- 
tion in the Eastern Himalayas. 

At the altitude of 12,000 ft. and upwards the alpine and 
arctic entomological fauna of Thibet is met with, characterised 
by its several species of Paniassius, which produce such a typical 
feature in the scenery of the Alps. 

Quite in harmony with the condition of things here explained, 
the scenery is of the grandest description imaginable. Mountain 



242 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

after mountain up to an altitude of 10,000 or 12,000 ft. is clothed 
with a dense forest of luxuriant vegetation embracing all the 
phanerogamic zones upon the earth, while above the whole tower 
the great snow peaks 20,000 to 29,000 ft. in height. An array 
of these giants stretches away as far as the eye can reach in a 
line 150 miles in length, presenting without doubt the most 
magnificent, imposing, and awe-inspiring spectacle of the kind 
in the world. 

I must, however, hasten to close this brief epistle, for it is 
time to be up and doing once again. The sun is already shining 
on the topmost peaks of Everest, Kinchinjanga and Co., and the 
elegant Teinopalpus im.perialis will shortly be flitting around the 
bushes of Daphne nepalensis now bursting into bloom in the 
elevated forests of Ghoomphar, Eungaroon, and Sonada. The 
needful apparatus being ready, the order to start is given, and I 
am off once more to be among the handsome insects which con- 
stitute the primary object of the present expedition. 



BRITISH HYDROCAMPIN^ AND SCOPARIA.N^. 

In Part II. of the ' Transactions of the Entomological Society 
of London,' published in July last, there is a paper by Sir George 
F. Hampson " On the Classification of two Subfamilies of Moths 
of the Family Pyralidae : the Hydrocampinae and Scopariange." 

The British species referred to these two groups were placed 
by Meyrick in his Pyraustidse, and are as follows : — 

1. Eurrhypara urticalis, Linn., Meyrick. 

2. Botjjs hijaUnalis, Hiibn. {Psamotis hijalinalis, Meyrick). 

3. Psamotis yulveraUs, Hiibn., Meyrick. 

4. Perinephele lancealis, Schiff., Meyrick. 

5. Stenia punctalis, Schiff., Meyrick. 

6. Cataclysta lemnata, Linn., Meyrick. 

7. Paraponyx stratiotata, Linn. {Nymphida stratiotata, Mey- 
rick). 

8. Hydrocampa nymplueata, Linn., INIeyrick. 

9. Hydrocampa stagnata, Don. (Nymphida stagnata, Meyrick). 
10. Scop>aria (12 species). 

In the system under consideration Hydrocampa, Latr., and 
Paraponyx, Hiibn., are merged in Nymphida, Schrank, which is 
the fifth genus of the forty-nine genera referred to the Hydro- 
campinae, and has fifty-three species assigned to it. Of these, 
stagnata is No. 2 ; nymphceata No. 3, and type of the genus ; 
stratiotata No. 26. 

Cataclysta, Hiibn., is the seventh genus, with lemnata, its 



I 



BKITISH HYDROCAMPIN^ AND SCOPARIANiE. 243 

type, occupying fifth place among the forty-eight species com- 
prised in it. 

Stenia, Guen., with eleven species, ranks as the thirty-eighth 
genus ; punctalis, the type, is placed third in order of species. 

Psamotis, Hiibn., which includes Perinephele, has only three 
known species, i.e. lancealis, pulveraUs (type), and JujaliiiaUs. It 
is the forty-sixth genus, and is immediately followed by Eurrliy- 
para, Hiibn., of which urticalis is the only known representative. 

The Scoparianae are a compact little group of seven genera, 
but only the typical one — Scoparia — is European. This genus, 
which occupies sixth place in the arrangement, is divided into 
two sections ; the first comprising one hundred and thirty-two 
species, and the second only one ; S. cemhrcB is the type. 

In the subjoined list of species found in Britain the number 
in brackets indicates the position of the species in the genus. It 
will be seen that hasistngalis, atomalis, ulmella, and conspicualis 
are sunk in ambigualis ; scotica is removed from zelleri, which is 
not now considered to be a British species, and is placed with 
cemhrcB ; freqiientella, Staint., is employed for the species hitherto 
referred to as mercuriella, Linn., and portlandka is given as a 
synonym of it instead of phoeoleiica, ZelL, which is deposed, or 
rather relegated, together with vesuntialis, Gn., to a list of 
unplaced species ; gracilalis becomes a synonym of alpina. 
Ingratella, Zell., which is a South European species, possibly 
ought never to have been included in the British list. 

It will probably be admitted that this revision of British 
Scojxiria, which agrees with that of Mr. Meyrick except as 
regards the sequence of species, is in accordance with our present 
knowledge. There is, however, one species for which a claim to 
specific rank maybe urged, i.e. basistrigalis. Although I cannot 
myself see that it differs in any essential character from *S'. 
ambigualis, I am well aware that several able entomologists 
consider it to be quite distinct from that species. 

Pt. S. 

SYNONYMY OF THE BRITISH SPECIES OF SCOPARIA. 
(Abstracted from Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, pp. 234-236). 

Genus Scoparia, 133 species. Type S. cembra. 

(90). Scoparia ambigualis, Tr., Schmett. Eur. vii. p. 184. 
Eudorea mercureUa, Lab. Pyr. No. 76. 
E. conicella, Lah. Pyr. No. IQb. 
E. ancipitella, Lah. Pyr, No. 86. 
E. basistrigalis, Knaggs, E. M. M. iii. p. 1 (var.). 
E. octavianella, Mann. W. E. M. 1859, p. 164 (var.). 
Scoparia atomalis, Doubl. List (var.). 
Eudorea ulmella, Knaggs, E. M. M. iii. p. 217. 
E. conspicualis, Hodgk. E. M. M. xviii. p. 134. 



244 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Scoparia sir/nella, Teich. Arb. Ver. Riga vi. p. 72. 

S. taniatella, Teich. Arb. Ver. Eiga v. p. 73. 

8. incertalis, Dup. Lap. Fr. viii. p. 286, pi. 229, fig. 4. 
(91). ScoPAEiA DUBiTALis, Hiibu. Pyr. p. 49. 

Tinea pymlella, Hiibn. Tin. fig. 167. 
(94). Scoparia cEiiBRiE, Haw, Lep. Brit. p. 498. 

Eudorea cembreUa, Staph. 111. iv. p. 299. 

E. subfusca, Staph. I.e. 

E. asphodel iella, Lah. Pyr. No. 74. 

Scoparia erralis, Guen. Delt. and Pyr. p. 421. 

S. scotica, White. 
(95). Scoparia pallida, Staph. 111. iv. p. 300. 

Eudorea artzeniella, H. S. iv. p. 49, fig. 97. 
(100), Scoparia truncicolella, Stn. Man. ii. p. 161. 

Eudorea murcnreUa, Zell. L. E. i. p. 293. 
(101). Scoparia crat.egella, Hiibn. Tin. fig. 231. 
(102). Scoparia frequentella, Stn. Man. ii. p. 162. 

Eudorea po7-tlandica, Dale E. M. M. xxi. p. 275. 
(103). Scoparia murana, Curt. B. E. iv. p. 170. 

Scoparia tuoniana, Hofi'm. Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1893, p. 130. 
(106). Scoparia alpina, Stn. Man. ii. p. 163. 

Eudorea gracilalis, Dbl. Stn. Man. ii. p. 163. 
(108). Scoparia angustea, Staph. 111. iv. p. 302. 

Eudorea coarctata, Zell. L. E. i. p. 308. 

Scoparia amissella, Mill. Icon. i. p. 401, pi. L., fig. 1. 
(112). Scoparia lineola, Curt. B. E. iv. p. 170. 
(113). Scoparia resinea. Haw. Lep. Brit. p. 499. 

Eudorea iHmdalieUa , H. S. vi. p. 143, fig. 157. 

Scoparia resinea v. orientalis, Alph. Troudy. Ent. Ross. x. p. 26. 



THE ASIATIC DISTRIBUTION OP BRITISH GEOMETRID^. 

The following list is compiled from a comprehensive paper 
on " GeometridiB from China, Japan, and Corea," by Mr. J. H. 
Leech, recently published in vols. xix. and xx. of the ' Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History.' 

The number of species belonging to this family recorded 
from the region dealt with is nearly nine hundred. A great 
many of these are European species, nearly the whole of which 
are found in Britain. 

Mr. Leech's arrangement, which is based chiefly on the 
system of classification employed by Sir George Hampson in his 
' Moths of India,' has been followed as regards subfamilies and 
tlie sequence of genera ; but where the generic name adopted by 
Mr. Leech is different to that used in the Entom. Syn. List, the 



ASIATIC DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH GEOMETRIC^, 245 

former is placed in brackets. The position of the species in 
in Mr. Meyrick's " Eevision of the European Geometridse " (Trans. 
Ent. Soc. Lond. 1892) is also indicated. 

Urapteryx sambucaria, Linn. 

Occurs in Amurland, Japan, and Western China. 

Most Eastern Asian specimens are referable to var. persica, 
Men., which is whiter than the type; but the type also occurs at 
Omei-shan and Pu-tsu-fong, in Western China. 

Bapta bimaculata, Fb. = suhnotata, Warren. * 

Pseudopanthera himacidata, Meyr. 
Mr. Leech has specimens from Japan, Yesso, and Corea. 

Bapta punctata, Fb. = temerata, Hb. 
Asthena saiicta, Butl. 
Pseudopanthera punctata, Meyr. 
Occurs in Amurland, Japan, and Yesso. 
Some specimens from the mainland of Japan are typical ; 
others are suffused with greyish, and the markings are more or 
less obliterated. Mr. Leech states that he has examples from 
Germany which are somewhat similar to the suffused form. 

Angerona prunaria, L. 

EucJdana prunaria, Meyr. 

Occurs in Amurland, Corea, Japan, and Yesso. 

" Most of the European forms are represented in Japan, but 
there is a wider range in the size of the specimens, the smallest 
example being only 36 millim., whilst the largest measures 
74 millim." 

NuMERiA pulveraria, Liuu. = japonica, Butl. 

Metrocampa pidveraria, Meyr. 
Recorded from Amurland, Japan, Kiushiu, and Corea. 
Mr. Leech notes that "the specimens from Gensan and 
Kiushiu are very small." 

Sklenia tetralunaria, Yhxin.^dlustraria , Hb. 

The typical form was obtained at Hakodate, in Yesso, in the 
month of June, and the var. astiva in August. 

Appears not to have been observed in any other East Asian 
locality, 

Pericallia syringaria, Linn. 
Hygrochroa syringaria, Meyr. 

Mr. Leech is of opinion that P. (H.) distans, Warr., may 
possibly be an Asiatic form of this species, and he further con- 
siders that P. parva, Hedem., from Amurland, may be identical 
with P. distans. 

ENTOM. — SEPT. 1897. X 



246 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Epione (Cepphis) advenaria, Hb. 

Occurs in Amurland, Japan, Yesso, and Corea. The speci- 
mens are typical. 

HiMERA (COLOTOIS) PENNARIA, Dup. 

Specimens from Amurland and Japan are of the typical form. 
Ennomos autumnaria, Wernb. = abiiaria, Esp. 
Specimens from Amurland, Japan, and Yesso agree with 
those from Europe. 

EURYMENE DOLABRARIA, Linn. 

Metrocampa dolahraria, Meyr. 
Only record from Yesso. Typical. 

LOZOGRAMMA PETRARIA, Hb. 

Pseudopanthera petraria, Meyr. 
The specimens from Japan, Yesso, Central and Western 
China, are of the normal form. The species also occurs in 
Amurland. 

Magaria alternata, Hb. 

Opisthograptis alternaria, Meyr. 

Recorded from Amurland. Mr. Leech believes that M. sluing- 
haisaria, Walk., which is found in North China, Japan, and Yesso, 
as well as in Amurland, may be a local form of M, alternata. 

Strenia clathrata, Linn. 

Opisthograptis clathrata, Meyr. 

Specimens from Amurland, Japan, and Yesso do not differ 
from European. 

Halia (Tephrina) brunneata, Thnb. 

Diastictis brunneata, Meyr. 
Occurs of the typical form in Amurland and Japan. 
Cabera (Dilinia) exanthemata. Scop. 
Typical in Amurland and Yesso. 

A closely allied species, C. (D.) schceferi, Brem., occurs in 
Corea and Western China, as well as in Amurland. 

Hybernia leucoph^aria, Schiff. = dira, Butl. 

Some of the Japanese examples are of large size (dira, Butl.), 
but in other respects they do not differ from European specimens. 
One form, var. nigrilinearia. Leech, is of a pale ochreous grey 
colour, with the second transverse line " deeply indented below 
the naiddle, and the space between this line and the curved basal 
line is thickly sprinkled with blackish scales, forming a dark 
median fascia, in the central portion of which is placed a pale 
oval patch ; median nervure conspicuously black ; before the 
apex is a blackish, oblique, abbreviated fascia." 

This species is only recorded from Japan. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 247 

Phigalia pedaria, Fb. 

Apocheima pedaria, Meyr. 
This species is represented in Japan by P. svnuosaria, Leech, 
a species new to science. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Pairing op Spilosoma fuliginosa with Arctia caia. — The male 
was a dark specimen of S. fulUiinosa bred from some Scotch ova. I 
have kept both these moths in the same cage before without experi- 
encing so curious a result. Considering A. caia was a female propor- 
tionately large, and had only a few days previously deposited some 
ova, it strikes me this is worthy of publication, as at the time of 
assembling there were some five or six females, newly out, of A. fuligi- 
nosa. July 20th, I removed the pair to a jar, when a day later the 
female again laid over iifty more eggs, which I hope will prove fertile. 
— H. W. Bell-Marley ; Eavenscourt Park, W. 

Setina irrorella on the Cotswolds. — Mr. George Harding (Ent. 
Mo. Mag., August) records the occurrence of S. irrorella on tbe Cots- 
wold Hills in Gloucestersbire. He states that " for many years a 
specimen or two has occurred now and then at one or two localities at 
a high elevation" on these bills ; this year, however, he secured a fine 
series. Mr. Harding has been good enough to send me a pair of these 
Gloucestershire insects, which he believes to be a form intermediate 
between S. irrorella and S. aurita. Until the matter was thus intro- 
duced, I had not considered the question of tbe specific identity of 
these two insects, but after a careful examination of the series of each 
in Mr. Leech's collection, I do not dispute the possibility of aurita 
being an alpine form of irrorella ; but I can hardly endorse the 
opinion that these Gloucestershire examples are to be regarded as 
links connecting irrorella Avith aurita. Tbe male specimen sent me is 
deeper in colour than most of my Box Hill examples, but is identical 
in this respect with one from Folkestone ; the female is certainly of a 
richer coloration than any other example of this sex in my collection. 
— EicHARD South ; 100, Eitherdon Eoad, Upper Tooting, S.W. 



CAPTUEES AND FIELD EEPOETS. 

Chcerogampa elpenor in Suffolk. — During tbe last fortnight I have 
found twenty-four larvae of C. elpeyior ou the banks of the Stour. They 
were nearly all feeding on willow-herb. — (Miss) M. Wilson ; Cavendish 
Rectory, Suffolk, Aug. 22nd, 1897. 

AcHERONTiA ATROPOS IN SuFFOLK. — I havc a fine chrysalis of /I. atropos 
which was obtained here in the larva state about three weeks ago. Several 
other specimens were seen in a potato-field. — (Miss) M. Wilson; Cavendish 
Rectory, Suffolk, Aug. 22nd, 1897. 



248 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

CoLTAS EDUSA IN OXFORDSHIRE. — On Aug. 9th I cauglit, in a field 
near Charlbury, Oxfordshire, a fine female C. edusa. Is it not very unusual 
to find them so far inland? — Gwendaline Mathew ; Sandford Mount, 
Charlbury, Aug. 20th, 1897. 

[Although it is not altogether unusual for this species to be observed in 
our inland counties, especially in what are known as "edusa years " — that is, 
years when the species is plentiful — its occurrence in Oxfordshire this year 
is an interesting fact to record. — Ed.] 

Lycena argiolus in CfliswiCK. — I am glad to state that this handsome 
little butterfly has by no means been an uncommon visitor this season. It 
was Easter Day when first my attention was called to its appearance ; this 
was in Hammersmith. Only on the same morning, in Chiswick Lane, was 
I able to testify to the fact that they were distributed, flying, then settling 
on the ground. This was the first brood, according to Mr. W. F. Kirby. 
I saw no more until to-day (Aug. 1st), when in the same lane there were 
about five, settling as before on the ground ; one I caught as it was drinking 
from a puddle. — H. W. Bell-Marley ; Ravenscourt Park, W. 

CiciNDELA GERMAN iCA IN DoRSKT. — Mr. Pickard-Cambridge will 
doubtless be glad to know that this local beetle is still to be found in the 
locality recorded by him (between Bridport and Lyme Regis) in 1888 
(Entom. xxii. 214). On July 18th I took forty examples in the course of 
half an hour, and might easily have obtained twice the number. It 
appeared to be confined to one damp place, but was plentiful in that spot, 
some four or five specimens being often seen at the same moment running 
swiftly among the scanty herbage and over the loose earth. There is, 1 
think, small fear of its being exterminated for many years. — F. W. 
Lambert ; 70, St. Giles, Oxford. 

Callimorpha HERA. — On Aug. I8lh I took in my garden at Alphington, 
near Exeter, at 8.30 in the morning, a fine female specimen of C. hera ; 
hind wings orange, inclining to red. The moth was flying in the sunlight, 
and had settled on the head of an aster flower. — (Rev.) Albert Bonus. 

[The first capture of this species in South Devon was at Alphington 
about twenty-eight years ago. — Ed.] 

Entomology in Merionethshire. — During a stay at Barmouth from 
July 10th to 24th, I chiefly occupied myself in collecting and observing the 
insects of the surrounding country. The following is a complete list of the 
insects which came under notice ; when no locality is specially mentioned, 
Barmouth is intended : — 

Lepidoptera : Pieris brassiccB, rapcE, and napi. All common. — Epine- 
phele {Hipparchia) ianira. Very common; many of the females weie 
unusually large and bright, and the ocelli on the under side were especially 
finely developed. — E. {H.) tithonus. Not common. — E. {H.) hyperanthus. 
Varies considerably in the ground colour of the under side, and in the 
number and development of the ocelli ; not met with at Barmouth, but 
common at Tan-y-bwlch. — Sattjrus [H.) semele. In perfect condition at 
Barmouth ; much darker than those which 1 have taken on limestone in 
other parts of Wales. The rock here is a dark slate, so the intensity of 
colour is probably for protective purposes. — Ccenonympha pamphilus, 
Pararge (Lasiommata) ecferia. Scarce. — P. (L.) meycEra, Argynnis paphia. 
Woods about Barmouth, Tan-y-bwlch, and Dolgelly, but not plentiful, — 



CAPTUEES AND FIELD REPOKTS. 249 

A. aglaia and adippe. Both very common at Barmouth and Tan-y-bwlch, 
and in all the large woods and openings up the Vale of Festiuiog. — A. 
selene. Several much worn examples of the first brood met with (very late 
to linger on the wing) at Barmouth and Tan-y-bwlch. — Vanessa urticce, V. 

(Cynthia) atalanta, Thecla rubi. Just beginning to appear at Barmouth. 

Lycmia icarus, Chrysophanus plilceas, Hesperia syhaniis. Worn. — Macro- 
glossa stellatarum. At flower of valerian, which grows in profusion at 
Barmouth. — Zygoma filipendulcB. Very generally distributed ; larvae 
swarmed on almost every flower-head of ragwort. — Euchelia jacohace, Hepi- 
aim sylvanus, Bomhyx rubi, B. qiiercus, Saturnia carpini. Larvae of all 
three on the heather-covered mountains at Barmouth. — Thyatira derasa. 
At sugar on Barmouth sand-hills. — Bryophila perla. At sugar and valerian 
blossom. — Leucania conigera. Common at valerian ; varies considerably 
in depth of colour. — L. lithargyria. Both at sugar and valerian. — Xylo- 
phasia lithoxylea. Swarms at valerian. — X. polyodon. A pest, especially 
at sugar. — Mamestra hrassic(B, M. albicolon. At sugar on sand-hills and 
valerian. — Caradrina cubucidaris, Agrotis exclamalionis, A. corticea, A. 
cursoria, A. tritici, and A. ravida. All at flowers of valerian. The A. 
exclamationis all bore a reddish tinge ; only one specimen of A. ravida was 
met with. Triphana pronuba, T. orbona, Abrostola tripaHita. Barmouth, 
one. — Plusia gamma. Met with wherever I went ; all much worn. — 
Boarmia rhomboidaria. Some remarkably pale forms. — Geometra vernaria. 
Rather generally distributed around Barmouth. — Acidalia marginepunctata. 
At valerian. — A. aversata, Cabera exanthemata, Halia ivavaria. Valerian, 
scarce. — Ematurga atomaria, Camptogramma bilineata. Very variable ; 
two taken without hardly a trace of marking, also several with a blackish 
tinge. — Eubolia palumbaria. Everywhere among heather. — Anaitis plagi- 
ata. Barmouth ; was almost over. — Tanagra atrata. — Augustus D. 
Imms ; " Linthurst," Oxford Road, Moseley, Worcestershire, July 30th, 

Notes from Carlisle. — So far this season seems to be the record one 
here both for scarcity of larvae and imagines, especially Noctuae. Butter- 
flies have been fairly well represented, but this is a poor district for Diurni 
when compared with some of the southern counties. However, the species 
that do occur with us were pretty plentiful. Lycana minima was very 
common, as also were both larvae and imagines of Melitoa aurinia. Cceno- 
nympha typlion was also very abundant, especially on Bowness Moss, which 
I visited on July 1st, when, although the day was anything but an ideal 
one for collecting, I found this butterfly swarming. Owing to the strono 
winds which had been prevailing for a considerable time previously, a large 
number of the specimens I got in the net I released again owing to their 
damaged condition ; large pieces being broken out of their wings, although 
they were not rubbed in the least. I got a good quantity of ova from some 
I took, most of which hatched, even after having been subjected to am- 
monia as they were sticking to the edges of the pill-boxes. The younf» 
larvae, however, have a very sickly appearance and are dying fast. I went 
to Silloth for Satyrus semele on July 19th and found it very plentiful. I was 
much surprised to have my attention called to a male semele and a female 
atalanta in cop. on a stem of grass ; I did not disturb them. Is not this 
rather unusual? With regard to sugar, I may say that I have been out 
over a dozen times and have had only two nights worth mentioning. 
Mr. Day, Mr. Wilkinson, and I journeyed to Bolton Fell, which, by the 
way, means a walk of something like twenty-six miles, on June 26th. We 



250 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

did extremely well at sugar, our take being both numerous and variable, 
although principally common things, the best of which were Agrotis strigxda 
(porphyrea), Acrouycta meiiyanthidis, Macaria liturata, &c. I and a friend 
walked to the same place on July 1 7th, a much more promising night for 
sugar than June 26th, but we only obtained two moths, one Triphana 
pronuha and one Xylophasia poJyodon. However, we have one consola- 
tion — things may improve, but they cannot get worse. — J. E. Thwattes ; 
8, Clement Place, Boundary Road, Carlisle, July 23rd, 1897. 

Notes on the Season : Chester District. — January was a severe 
though changeable month with us — a mixture of frost, thaw, and snow, and 
I saw no insects. But by February 14th the gardens were gay with 
crocuses, and Hyhernia rupicapraria was to be seen, commonly enough, at 
rest on the gas lamps. It was the 20th of March before I paid my first 
visit of the season to Delamere Forest, and then it was too late for such 
things as H. leucoph(Earia and Anisopteryx ascularia, excluding, of course, 
occasional late specimens. Matters to me of greater interest were: (1) Hy- 
bernated larvae of Bomhyx rubi, of Spilosoyna fuliginosa and Nemeophila 
rusiula ; (2) imagines of TepJwosia crqniscularia ^:^biundidaria^=::bistortata, 
all of which were conspicuous bv their absence. It was a fine spring day, 
but moths were few, except Tortr'icodes hyemana, which was unusually 
abundant. Asphalia flavicornis, Phigalia pedaria [pilosaria], H. leucophoB- 
aria, and Dlurnea fagella were represented by one each ; and I took two 
examples of A. ascidaria. An entomologist I met in the Forest showed 
me his box with three male Nyssia hispidaria, four or five fine Amphidasys 
slrataria [prodromaria), and a similar number of P. pedaria ipilosaria), the 
last being undersized males and not well marked. I saw several Brephos 
parthenias on the wing. Larvae of Arctia caia have not been nearly so 
plentiful as in last spring. I took a lot on April 2nd, as well as on subsequent 
dates in the month. They were in their first and second stages after hyber- 
nation. I kept them in an average temperature of ^(f Fahr., and they all 
repaid my trouble, by the end of June, by turning out the most typical 
moths imaginable. I took my first T. hiundxdaria (?) on April 3rd, in 
Delamere Forest, very dark, as usual, but well banded. My other captures 
were two Lobophora carpinata (lobidata), one P. pedaria, and a Tmiio- 
campa cruda, all at rest either on trees or palings. x\lthough I saw my first 
swallow on April 17th, we had a cold, wet and miserable Easter week. It 
was indeed a pitiful time for hunters of Agrotis ashworthii ; and disap- 
pointment and discomfort must have been general, especially among those 
who had travelled long distances by excursion trains. Some were blocked 
at Chester on Good Friday — no trains ! I got a few larvae, but not by the 
labour of my own hands (and feet), and half of these died. On April 24th 
I again visited Delamere Forest for T. biimdulaiia. I took six — three 
males and three females — one carpinata, and a nice Eupithecia not yet 
determined ; and these were the sum total of five hours' hard work ! 
Larvae of B. quercus — they are observers of neither times nor seasons — in 
the second stage, were occasionally met with in May, in damp hedge roots 
about Chester, feeding on meadow sweet. They were very fond of sallow in 
confinement. As I write (July 22nd) some of these larvae have already 
spun up ; others are feeding, and evidently intend to continue doing so, 
whilst a fine female emerged at the end of June, but I think from last year's 
pupae — I am, however, uncertain about this. My first white butterfly 
I saw on May Ist, in Eastgate Street — Pieris rapce ; in fact the " whites," 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 251 

mcluding P. brassicce and Euchloe cardainines (the latter very local), were 
common in May ; and so were Heliaca tenehrata (arhuti) among the butter- 
cups, and, in marshy places, the graceful little " blue " dragonHies, Agrion 
jmella and Ischnura elegans. On May 24th a Chester friend sent me a couple 
of large dark reddish brown Geometer larvae found feeding in his garden 
on ivy. About the middle of June they turned out a fine male and female 
Boarmia rhomhoidaria. On May 29th I went to Delamere Forest again for 
T. biundularia. The moth was over. I took two Cidaria corylata, and 
several very variable Tortrix ministrana. Larvae from low birches were 
four Geometm papilionaria, all free from parasites. Several A. flavicornis, 
Tortrix corylana, aud one of Hybcrnia aurantiaria. Three of the G. papi- 
lionaria emerged as moths on July 2nd and 3rd, the fourth on the 17th. 
Between June 2nd aud 10th E. pulchellata appeared in my breeding-pots, 
from last year's larvae taken in Delamere Forest from foxglove flowers in 
July. June 5th was one of the most enjoyable days spent in the Forest 
district (Whitegate Heaths). Object : Ccenonympha typlwn (davus), but it 
was not in evidence. Other insects were Ematurya atomaria (abundant 
aud variable), Melanippe sociata [subtristata), Acronycta rumicis, Hypsipetes 
impluviata. Beetles, such as Cicendela campestris and Cocciuellidae, were 
on the wing in green and scarlet, common aud numerous. Dragoutiies 
were represented by ^schna juncea, plenty of Leucorrhinia dubia, and 
Enallagma cyathigerwn, together with numbers of Libellulaquadrimaculata. 
The hot sun made the birches give out a strong primrose-like scent. I 
nearly trod on a linnet's nest full of loudly protesting youngsters. Now 
followed some cold non-entomological weather, which changed all at once to 
the proverbial "Queen's" — appropriately enough on Jubilee Day (June 
22nclj. On the 23rd I found a freshly emerged black A. betiUaria at 
Chester ; in fact we only seem to get the type now in Delamere Forest, 
and there it occurs side by side with the black form. June 24th and 25th 
were dull quiet days, the very weather for rock aud tree hunting in the 
early morning. June 26th, Delamere Forest. Hot and sunny. Thecla 
rubi plentiful, but in poor condition. Other lepidopterous insects were 
Nemeophila russula, Pseudoterpna pruinata [cytisaria), Drepanafalcataria 
(falcula), Eubolia palumbarla, and a few other common geometers. Oener- 
ally speaking, this appeared to be a gala day at Delamere among the 
local insects, for 1 never saw so many at a given time. True the gadflies 
took a liberal tax from the human onlooker, until a blow from the hand 
settled the account. For days afterwards there would be little swellings and 
smartings at the punctures, but all this is inevitable if we get into such 
company. Ichneumons were busy and quick in their movements among 
the leaves, where, curiously enough, there seemed to be no larvae. One 
wasp-like species, with a pair of long tail-like appendages, I tried hard to 
get, but failed. Great spiders in pea-green, and with a rose-coloured patch 
on the abdomen, sat on the birch leaves, whilst a beetle, with dark bronze- 
green thorax and bronze-brown wing-cases (possibly Phyllopertha hortlcola), 
spun and danced without moving an inch Irom directly over the centre of 
the birch bush. It is to be hoped the creature's enjoyment was com- 
mensurate with its activity. I only saw one C. typlwn (davus) at Delamere 
this season — July 3rd — a fine fresh female full of eggs, aud of course I let 
her go. Curious that Anarta myrtilli should be so comparatively scarce, 
while, on the other hand, Flusia gamma appears to have obtained a new 
lease of life. On July 14th a fine A:^. grandis was brought to me, which had 
flown into a shop in the city the previous evening. Altogether the present 



252 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

season promises to be a good one. There was some cloudy, warm, showery 
weather about the 10th, which ought to have attracted good" things to sugar 
for collectors favourably situated. — J. Arkle ; Chester. 



SOCIETIES. 



Birmingham Entomological Society. — Juhj 19i/i, 1897. — Mr. G. 
H. Kenrick in the chair. Mr. Bradley showed cocoons and imagines 
of Apanteles formosas, an ichneumon parasitic on Urapteryx sambucata, 
the cocoons being suspended from leaves, &c., by means of long 
filaments ; also a male Sirex fjiyas from Sutton. Mr. Kenrick showed 
some Lepidoptera from Inverness-shire. Anarta melanopa, which he 
said was not long ago supposed to be confined to Rannoch, is now 
known to occur thoughout Inverness-shire, about 3000 feet above the 
sea-level ; and also he had seen it in another locality. The specimens 
exhibited came from a spot nearly on the borders of Inverness-shire 
and Perthshire, where the species is common. He also showed, from 
the same county, Hadena glaiica, which was common ; Scodonia helgi- 
aria ; a Xemeophila plantaginis, with dark females, which he said were 
probably var. kospita. Mr. Chase exhibited living larvae of Eriogaster 
Lanestris. — Colbran J. Waxnwright, Hon. Sec. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 



Descriptive List of the British Anthomyidce. By R. H. Meade, P.R.C.S., 
&c. Two Parts. 8vo, pp. 79. London : Gurney & Jackson. 1897. 

Although the order Diptera is gradually attracting more students, 
it has always been strangely neglected in England ; and while France, 
Holland, Austria, Italy, and even Lapland possess good monographs, 
we have nothing beyond one or two introductory works, lists, and the 
obsolete and avowedly incomplete volume in the ' Insecta Britannica,' 
by Walker. Hence every fresh contribution to the literature of British 
Diptera by a competent author is likely to be very useful to the student; 
and Mr. Meade, who has been working at the Diptera many years, has 
done well to publish a series of descriptions of the British genera and 
species of the interesting and extensive family of Anthomyidse, of which 
he published a preliminary list, in the ' Entomologist's Monthly Maga- 
zine,' some years ago. We hope that other dipterists may be encouraged 
to do the same good service for other families ; and that by and bye 
one of them may take courage and give us a complete book on the 
dipterous fauna of Britain, for which there could be no more admirable 
model than Schiner's two volumes on Diptera in the ' Fauna Austriaca.' 
— W. F. K. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX.] OCTOBER, 1897. [No. 413. 



EPINEPHELE TITHONUS, <y ab. 




The remarkable aberration of E. tithomis figured above was 
taken by Mr. Henry J. Spindler near Luggershall, Sussex, on 
July 29th. The normal fulvous colour is present in its usual 
intensity, but the whole of the typical dark brown is replaced by 
a pale pinkish ochreous ; the subapical spot of fore wings and the 
sex brand are also of this colour. In the figure the shaded por- 
tions represent the fulvous tint proper to the species, whilst the 
pale portions show the aberrant colour. The under surface is 
affected in the same way. 

Referring to the aberration of this species, Mr. Barrett (Lep. 
Brit. Isl. i. p. 247), after discussing variation in the spot mark- 
ings, says: — " Still another form of variation, or rather aberra- 
tion, consists in the substitution of pale yellow, or silvery white, 
for the fulvous ground colour, the brown markings being un- 
affected, or even intensified ; as in a male in Mr. H. Goss's 
collection, having broad dark brown margins and central cloud, 
yet the ground colour nearly white. Mr. S. J. Capper has a 
straw- 3oloured male, one sent me from Gloucestershire by Mr. 
E. C. L. Perkins is whitish except a fulvous tinge near the mar- 
ginal band, and Dr. Mason iias one with the fore wings half 

ENTOM. OCT. 1897. Y 



254 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

fulvous, half white. Mr. S. Webb has both sexes of a clear 
silvery white, the female combining with this the other variation 
of large extra spots in the fore wings ; also one in which the 
hind wings are shaded with white from the margins ; and Mr. S. 
Stevens, besides a silvery white female, taken at Torquay, and 
another of the same sex in which the marginal band has dis- 
appeared, has a male without tbe subapical black spot." 

All the instances mentioned above are ground colour aberra- 
tions, with the exception of the last but one ; that example, 
however, must be very different to the specimen now figured. 

Mr. Tutt informs us {infra) that he has a specimen of this 
species which is somewhat similar to that captured by Mr. 
Spindler, also parallel forms of Erebia goante. I may mention 
that a figure of Pararge {Satyrus) egeria in the ' Tijdschrift voor 
Entomologie,' 1865 (pi. ii. iig. 1), represents a specimen in which 
the usual dark brown is changed to pinkish ochreous, but the 
central area of primaries and the costal and upper portion of the 
outer margin of secondaries are slightly suffused with dusky. 
The black spots retain their normal appearance. 

R. S. 



ON A LUTESCENT ABERRATION OF KPINEPHELE 

TITHONUS. 

By J. W. Tutt, F.E.S. 

In connection with the lutescent aberration of Ejnnephele 
tithonus exhibited at the meeting of the South London Entomo- 
logical and Natural History Society, held on Sept. 9th last, 
I may mention that I have a somewhat similar specimen of this 
species, and also parallel forms of Erebia goante, in which the 
dark colour is reduced and altered, although the orange portions 
of the wing remain normal, and, by comparison with the pale 
surrounding area, appear redder than it usually does in these 
species. Further, I have an exactly parallel aberration of 
Angerona 2>mnaria. All these aberrations are without doubt 
quite natural ; but in the course of some experiments which 
I carried out with Mr. Coverdale some fifteen years ago, we dis- 
covered that the black-brown of Epinephele was very inconstant, 
and liable to change. With regard to the probable interpretation 
to be put on these natural aberrations, in the light of our 
previous experiments, I made the following remarks in ' The 
British Noctuae and their Varieties' (vol. ii. pp. ix-x, 1891) : — 
" Perhaps one of the most interesting results with an alkali is to 
get a direct development of yellow leading up to the brown, as 
exemplified in typical Coenonympha pamphilus, C. davus, &c. 
Under the action of ammonia the pale under sides and fringes of 



LUTESCENT ABERKATION OF EPINEPHELE TITHONUS. 255 

these species become very yellow, and lead insensibly into the 
normal brown coloration. It would seem therefore that the 
general action of alkalies, in this direction, is to develop pro- 
gressive coloration — white (pigmented) to yellow, and yellow to 
red (-brown) ; whilst Mr. Coverdale wrote ill 1886 (error for 
1884),* that ' a great many acids (hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric) 
restored the pigment, when thus changed to its natural colour.' 
Whilst dealing with this relation of brown and yellow, I would 
notice that the dark brown edging to the anterior wings of 
Epinephele tithonus, Ca'nonympha pamphilm ab. lyllits, and their 
allies is much more readily acted on than is the orange colour in 
this species, which is rather remarkable when the colours are 
considered in their genetic relationship, but is not at all so from 
a varietal point of view. The unstable character of this band is 
very marked, and only occurs occasionally in certain varieties of 
some species, although it is quite constant in others. Here then 
we notice that a colour in a condition of transition or formation 
may be, and probably is, more unstable than the colour from 
which it springs, although the latter, genetically considered, is 
of course lower than the former. . . . The transitional and un- 
stable character of the darker colour in Epinephele and its allies 
gives a decided proof of their probable recent development. The 
brown found in those varieties of Angerona priinaria, in which 
the bright orange is reduced to a patch in the central area of the 
wing, is also of a very unstable nature, and easily affected ; not 
so the orange, which is particularly stable," &c. 

It is many years since I interested myself in this branch of 
the subject, my notes, that I published in 1891, having been 
made between 1881 and 1884, or thereabouts, possibly before I 
had contributed to any entomological magazine ; but it seems to 
me that the explanation offered is a sound one with this addi- 
tion. The recent researches into the structure of the scales of 
Lepidoptera, and the physiological conditions involved, both 
subjects which I have recently dealt with at length, suggest that 
whenever a natural aberration is the result of the degradation of 
a pigment considered genetically, it sometimes produces much 
the same result as the reduction of the pigment treated chemi- 
cally — that is to say, both may produce atavic results ; in fact, 
these natural aberrations are the only guide one has to tell 
whether the colours produced chemically are indeed primitive 
forms of the coloration of the insects or not. At any rate, tbat is 
the only explanation I have to offer of the fact that these aberra- 
tions are so generally distributed among orange-coloured species 
with a tendency for some part of the orange to be replaced by 
some darker shade of brown. 

I may add that I have a recollection that this particular 

■'• " The Action of Ammonia upon some Lepidopterous Pigments," Entom. 
xvii. pp. 204-20G.— Ed. 

y2 



256 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

aberration of E. tithonus is so far well known on the Continent 
as to have received a distinct varietal name, but I cannot call to 
mind the reference at the present moment. 

[The only named variety of Epinepliele tithonus of which I 
have seen any description is v. mincki, Seebold (Berl. Ent. Zeit. 
xxxvi. 467 (1892), but this hardly agrees with Mr. Spindler's 
aberration. — E. S.] 



ACOSMETIA MORPJSII, Mokris. 
By H. Guard Knaggs, M.D., F.L.S. 

May I be allowed to correct some inaccuracies which occur 
in Mr. Meyrick's 'Handbook of British Lepidoptera,' p. 121, 
respecting an insect which is there referred to as Caradrina 
morrisii, Dale ? 

In the first place the late Mr. Dale never described the insect 
in question ; he may have ticketed it morrisii, but manuscript 
names are not now recognized. It was the late Eev. F. 0. Morris 
himself who described his own namesake ; therefore the name, 
if resuscitated, should be morrisii, Morris. 

In Mr. Meyrick's ' Handbook' it seems to be taken for granted 
that morrisii, Morris, and bondii, Knaggs, are identical ; not 
only that, but morrisii has been redescribed, and one of its 
features, the " slightly brown costa," which bondii does not 
possess, has been omitted, whilst the dotted second line of bondii, 
which is absent in morrisii, has been added ; so that the de- 
scription of morrisii must have been taken from bondii, and it 
is pretty evident that the writer of it has never seen either 
morrisii or the original description of it. 

The sanction of the name of so high an authority as Mr. 
Meyrick to the statement that morrisii and bondii pertain to one 
and the same species is, in my opinion, calculated to stifle in- 
dependent investigation, and to deter the entomological public 
from referring to the original description ; otherwise I should 
not have taken the trouble to notice it. As it is now just sixty 
years since the original description saw the light of publicity, 
there seems danger of its becoming lost in the mists of antiquity ; 
and as no entomologist living or dead, with the sole exception of 
Humphreys and Westwood, has alluded to it until quite recently, 
1 trust that you will permit me to lay it before your readers, in 
order that they may judge the case for themselves. It is ex- 
tracted from ' The Naturahst,' vol. ii. p. 88, 1837 : — 

"Notice of the Discovery of a New Insect, Acosmetia morrisii. 
Dale MSS. — I have great pleasure in forwarding for your pages a de- 
scription of a species of Acusmetia, which I believe to be entirely new 
to entomologists. My kind friend Mr. Dale has been so good as to 



ACOSMETIA MORRISIl. 257 

name it after me, as the discoverer of the insect. The following is a 
general description : — 

"Pale straw-colour approaching to silvery white, the upper part of 
the wings very faintly streaked with narrow brown lines, diverging 
(from an obscure black dot ?) towards the margin, which is of the same 
colour with the rest of the wings, from which tliey are hardly dis- 
tinguishable ; the wings underneatli* are divided transversely by a 
faint waved brown line, and the margins clouded with the same colour. 
The insect is an inch and half a line in width from tip to tip, and is 
not thick bodied, though belonging rather to that class than to the thin 
bodied. The first specimens I took were met with, several years ago, 
near Charmouth, Dorsetsliire, beyond a lime-kiln on the cliff on tlie 
east side of the little river Char. I believe individuals may be taken 
thei'e every yi-ar, though they certainly are nor, common. They rise 
up from the grass and tiy well and straight, m o iag disturbed m the 
daytime, some viiar. af er t le manner oi P ■i<'- ij' "in," ("' .i " ." ^- 

voiiintaiilyj. i d are la nei' dirficult lO cai-ure. .The 
among the ion. gi'as-<, i > woica t <ey ssuniatt- in i-oio..i. ^ ,u .i > 
remember tlie exact time of their appearan e, but it was aoout the 
middle of summer, and they remained 'out' a considertible time. Mr. 
Dale has also taken specimens at the same locality. 

(Signed) Francis Oepen Morris." 
"April 4th, 1837. 

N.B. — In comparing the above description of morrisii with 
bondii, it should be borne in mind that the latter never flies by 
day, at least that is the experience of all who have collected on 
the ground with whom I have come in contact ; and also that 
the grass to which bondii is attached is dark green in the hottest 
summer. 

Messrs. Humphreys and Westwood (vol. i. p. 244, and plate, 
1843) give a figure of an insect with narrow pointed wings, pur- 
porting to represent morrisii. The wings are all four of the same 
colour, namely, pale ochreous whitish, toned with pale reddish 
brown towards the margins, with two faint transverse lines, 
but no dotted second line. The letterpress says that the fore 
wings, hind wings, and body are all pale straw-colour, and that 
the costa is slightly brownish. 

Curiously enough, the Eev. F. 0. Morris himself published, 
in 1872, his popular illustrated work on ' British Moths,' in 
which he made no mention whatever of morrisii, but gave an 
excellent figure of an insect which he called bondii, and said 
that it occurred at Folkestone. He apparently was unaware 
of the Lyme Regis locality discovered in 1863 by my old friend 
Percy Wormald. 



Folkestone, September, 1897 

Errata in f ■■'■ For "win^ 
original 1 f For " be" read "lie 



Errata in | '■'■'- For " wings underneath " read " under wings. 



258 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SYNONYMIC NOTES ON AQUATIC KHYNCHOTA. 
By G. W. Kikkaldy. 

I AM aware that this paper will not meet with approval from 
many Ehynchotists, owing to the number of nomenclatural 
changes it necessitates ; nevertheless, I believe that such changes 
are, in the end, for the good of science, and that therefore the 
sooner they are done the better. 

Fam. Hydrometrid^. 

1. Hydrobates, Erichson, 1848, is preoccupied by Boie 
(Aves, 1822), and also by Vieillot and Temminck (Aves — Cucu- 
lidffi and Anatidse) ; it will be therefore necessary to employ 
Cylindrostethus, first characterized by Fieber, Europ. Hem. 33 
(1861) ; as, however, no species was there assigned to it, one 
must write CylindrostethiLs, Mayr, that author being the first to 
adopt a species. 

The synonymy can therefore be thus stated : — 

Cylindrostethus, Mayr, Verb. zb. Ges. Wien xv. 444 (1865), 
(Fieb. Europ. Hem. 33, 1861). 
=^ Hydrobates, Erichs. in Schomb. Faun. Brit. Guiana, 614 

(1848) Lnec Boie] . 
Type. Hydrobates linearis, Erichs., I. c. 614. 

2. The following species of Gerris, mentioned in Stephens's 
Syst. Catal. Brit. Ins. ii. (1829), are merely list-names, descrip- 
tions not having been published, viz. aterrima (353), brachyptcryx 
(352), nana a,nd phceoptera (353), and thoracica (352) [not neces- 
sarily thoracica, Schummel]. 

In Lethierry and Severin's invaluable Catal. gener., MS. 
species are not noticed. It would, I think, have been an advan- 
tage had these been added, as one often has occasion to examine 
specimens labelled with unfamiliar names, which may be either 
MS. or belonging to species the descriptions of which one has 
overlooked. 

3. Fam. Gelastocorid^, nov. nom. for Galgulid.e. 
Type genus. Gelastocoris, nov. nom. gen. for Galgidus, 
Latr., 1802, preoccupied by Brisson (Aves), 1760. 
Type. Naucoris oculata, Fab., 1798. 

4. Fam. Belostomatid.i:. 
Deinostoma, nom. gen. nov., for Serphns, Stal, 1862, pre- 
occupied by Schrank, 1780, and Haliday, 1832. It is a pity that 
Mayr did not adopt a new name in his Monograph (1871) instead 
of merely indicating that a change was necessary. The type 
will of course be Belostoma dilatata, Say, and the principal 
references as follows : — 



SYNONYMIC NOTES ON AQUATIC RHYNCHOTA. 259 

Deinostoma dilatatum (Say). 
Belostojna dilatata, Say, New Harmony, 38 [1832?]; reprint 

in-Ann. Eep. N.Y. Agric. Soc. 810 (1858), and in Com 

plete Writ. i. 366 (1869) ; Walker, Catal. Hem. Brit. Mus. 

viii. 177 (1873). 
Zaitha stoUii (nee Am. Serv.), Herr.-Schf. Wanz. Ins. ix. 35, 

pi. 292, f. 897 <? , f. 898 ? (1853) [Jiik Sttil and Uhler]. 
Serphus dilatatits, Stal, Stett. Ent. Zeit. xxiii. 462 (1862) ; 

Mayr, Verb. zb. Ges. Wien, xxi. 403 (1871) ; Uhler, Bull. 

U. S. Geol. Surv. (2), v. 338 (1876). 

5. Fam. Corixid^. 
Corixa annexa (Uhl.), Walk. Catal. Hem. Brit. Mus. viii. 199 
(1873 j, is MS. {fide Uhler). 

6. Corixa escidenta, Motsch., Etud. Entom. v. 77 (1856) ; 
there is no description, merely a note to the effect that the ova 
are used for food in Egypt. A reference to this species is given 
by Guerin-Meneville, Bull. Soc. Zool. Acclim. iv. 581 (1858). 
[This date is usually quoted 1857, but as the seance was held 
Dec. 4th, 1857, it is unhkely that pubHcation took place before 
1858.] 

7. Corixa atomaria, Illiger (Puton), orGermar (Fieber). 

This name appears to be MS., as regards the two older 
authors quoted ; the earliest description I can trace is that of 
Fieber, Bull. Moscou, xxi. (pt. 1), 515 (1848), which is later 
than that of C. panzeriy I.e. 515, and also than that of C. ajjinis, 
Leach, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. xii. 18 (1818) ; this last name — 
afiinis — must therefore be used. I am indebted to Dr. Puton 
for information regarding Illiger, but I fear that with his strong 
views upon the Law of Prescription, he will not approve of the 
use to which that information has been put. 

The synonymy of C. affinis stands at present : — 

C. AFFINIS, Leach. 
C. affinis, Leach, I.e. supra. 

Fieber, I.e. supra. 

Fieber, Abb. k. bohm Ges. Wiss. (v.) 7, 227, 
pi. 1, f. 3 and 5 (1851). 
panzeri and affinis, B. White, E.M.M. x. 61 and 76 (1873). 
salina, Thoms., Opusc. Ent. i. 29 (1869). 
(var.) atomaria var. eonglomerata, Rey, Rev. d'Ent. ix. 29 (1890). 
It is also the striata of Panzer and the graphiptera of Rambur, 
and I believe (though Renter says this equals C. geoffroyi, Leach) 
that it is striata, Geoff"., Hist, abreg. i. 478, pi. ix. f. vii. (1762), 
in which case ajjinis would be the type- species of the genus 
Corixa). 



panzeri 
atomaria 
panzerii 
atomaria. 



260 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

I cannot imagine why nearly all my colleagues prefer the 
spelling CoRisA ; Geoffroy wrote Oorixa., but since his time many 
erudite authors (from Amyot and Audinet-Serville, 1843) have 
laboured to show that Corisa is the correct orthography ; the 
word is presumably derived from Greek " koris," the stem of 
which is " kori-"; it is evident therefore that the suffixes "-xa" 
and "-sa" are both merely ornamental, and equally correct in 
a grammatical sense ; in any case Geoffroy's original orthography 
should be adhered to. 

8. MiciioNECTA, nov. gen. nom., for Sigam, Fab. Ent. Syst. iv. 

60 (partim), 1794, and Syst. Ehyng. 104 (partim), 1803, 

et auctt. ; neque Fab. Syst. Ent. 691 (1775), neque Gen. 

Ins. 177 (1776), neque Spec. Ins. 332 (1781). 

Type. Notoncctaminiitissima, L. {Sigara minutissima, auctt.). 

It is extraordinary that Fabricius's genus should have been 
used so long for the tiny water-bugs of which Notoiiecta mijiutis- 
sima is the representative. It was erected in 1775, Syst. Ent. 
691, for one species— sfrtaf (2— which the author quoted as Noto- 
necta striata, L. ; he further cited as a synonym (!) of his genus 
Geoffroy's Corixa. The two genera Corixa and Sigara are thus 
absolutely identical, and the fact that *S'. minuta {minutissima, 
L.) was added in 1794 cannot affect this. Thirty-nine species 
have been described and grouped under the genus, of which four 
belong to another genus ; the remainder represent perhaps 
twenty-five species. 

Summary. 

1. Cylindrostctlms (Fieb.) Mayr, should replace Ilgdrohates, 
Erichs. (nee Boie). Type : C. linearis (Erichs.). 

2. Gcrris aterrima, hrachypteryx, nana, phceoptera and thoracica, 
Stephens, are MS. 

3. Gelastocoridse, nov. fam. nom., for Galgulidse. Gelastocoris, 
nov. nom. gen. for Galgulus, Latr. (nee Brisson). Type: G. 
oculatiLs (Fabr.). 

4. Deinostoma, nov. nom. gen. for Serphus, Stal (nee Schrank). 
Type : D. dilatatum (Say). 

5-7. Corixa annexa, Uhl., esculenta, Motsch., and atomaria, 
Illiger, are MS. Corixa affinis. Leach, 1818, should replace 
C. atomaria, Fieb., 1848. 

8. Micronecta, nov. nom. gen. for Sigara, Fab. (1794, in 
part) et auctt. (nee Fab., 1775). Type : M. minutissima (L.). 

Sept. 7th, 1897. 



261 



DESCEIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES OF CLYTHRID^ 
AND EUMOLPID.E. 

By Maktin Jacoby, F.E.S. 

Tellena angusticollis, n. sp. 

Elongate, subcylindrical, metallic green ; antennae black ; thorax 
narrowed in front, closely and finely punctured; elytra extremely, 
closely punctured and finely rugose. Length 8-10 mill. 

Head rather closely and finely punctured, with a deep depression 
between the eyes, the latter elongate, notched at the inner margin ; 
labrum and mandibles black ; autennre, scarcely extending beyond the 
base of the thorax, black, the first joint metalhc green, the following 
two joints also stained with metallic blue, very small, the others 
strongly serrate ; thorax twice as broad as long, the sides rounded and 
distinctly narrowed in front, with a narrow refiexed margin, the sur- 
face closely impressed witii fine and larger punctures ; scutellum very 
broad, finely punctured ; elytra more closely but scarcely more 
strongly punctured than tlie thorax, the interstices finely transversely 
wrinkled ; under side metallic green, like the upper surface, but 
clothed with fine grey pubescence, thickly so on the abdominal 
segments ; legs long and slender, the tarsi black, claws bifid. 

Hab. — Brazils, St. Paulo. 

This species has no doubt been confounded with the only 
other one which constitutes the genus, but it is quite distinct, 
although the resemblance is very great. 

Lacordaire, who has described the type T. varians, has 
already drawn attention to the great variability of the insect, 
and says that one could easily separate two species, if only the 
extreme forms were before one; but he only founded these 
remarks on the sculpture of the thorax and the elytra ; and it is 
probable that he overlooked the shape of the thorax, although 
this is difficult to imagine in an author so experienced as 
Lacordaire. In any case, I have before me three specimens, 
which not only differ in the finely rugose elytra, of which 1 
cannot see a trace in the typical form, but in which the thorax 
is distinctly narrowed in front, the same part in T. varians 
showing an equal width in all the specimens I have for examina- 
tion, so that the thorax may almost be described as transversely 
subquadrate. This, I think, justifies my separating the two 
insects, especially as it is not a solitary case. 

Urodera lacordairei, n. sp. 

Black, closely pubescent below ; antennae and legs fulvous ; 
thorax very closely punctured, transverse ; elytra finely punctate- 
striate, the interstices sparingly punctured, the sides, base, and apex 
with a narrow fulvous band extending inwards to the middle of the 
suture. Length 6 mill. 

Head nearly flat, slightly bronze- coloured, very closely and finely 



262 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

punctured, scarcely depressed between the eyes ; antennas extending 
very nearly to the base of the thorax, entirely fulvous, the apical 
joints slightly darker, the fourth and following joints broadly trans- 
verse ; thorax twice as broad as long, convex, the sides rounded, the 
median lobe strongly produced and truncate, the surface very closely 
and finely punctured throughout ; scutellum impuuctate ; elytra not 
narrowed posteriorly, rather regularly and finely punctate-striate, the 
interstices with a few very fine punctures only here and there ; the 
shoulders not prominent ; the disc black, with a slight aeneous gloss, 
margined with a narrow band of fulvous, which is more or less inter- 
rupted at the sides below the middle, where it is also much narrowed, 
leaving part of the lateral margin of the ground colour, from the basal 
margin, this band extends obliquely downward towards the suture, 
where it ends near or below the middle ; under side thickly clothed 
with yellow pubescence ; legs fulvous, tarsi fuscous, moderately 
robust ; mesosternum truncate at its apex. 

Hah. — Brazils, Maranos. 

This species can only be compared to U. hamatifera, Lac, 
"which it entirely resembles in regard to the pattern of the 
elytra, but the fulvous antennae and legs will at once distinguish 
it ; the thorax in the present insect is also much broader and 
more distinctly punctured ; the apical fulvous mark is in shape 
of an ovate spot. It is the only species of the genus having 
fulvous-coloured legs. Two specimens are contained in my 
collection. 

Glyptoscelis gigas, n. sp. 

Elongate, subcylindrical, piceous, covered with white pubescence ; 
thorax broader than long, marked with three white bands ; elytra 
finely rugose, with longitudinal bauds of white pubescence of variable 
width. Length 12 mill. 

Head closely covered with white pubescence, impressed with a 
narrow central groove ; the epistome not separated from the face ; 
labium and palpi piceous ; antenucB extending slightly beyond the 
base of the elytra, piceous, the second joint half the length of the 
third, this and the fourth joint equal, terminal joints slightly shorter 
and thickened ; thorax subcylindrical, one half broader than long, the 
sides slightly rounded at the middle, the posterior margin broadly but 
moderately produced, the disc very closely and finely rugose-punctate, 
the pubescence forming a broad band at each side and a narrow one at 
the middle of white hairs or scales ; scutellum broader than long ; 
elytra slightly transversely wrinkled here and there, everywhere 
clothed with short scale-like white hairs, forming narrow longitudinal 
bands, with a broader and more conspicuous one at each side, below 
likewise densely pubescent ; the legs slender, the claws bifid ; the inner 
division very short. 

Hah. — Brazils. 

This is not only the largest species of the genus, but of the 
whole of the group Myochroinge, to which Glyptoscelis belongs. 
The single specimen I have seen is contained in the collection of 



NEW SPECIES OF CLYTHRIDjE AND EUMOLPID^. 263 

the Oxford Museum, and was obtained by Myers, without par- 
ticular locality being given. 

Glyptoscelis paraguayensis, n. sp. 

Elongate, subcylindrical, obscure teneous; antennte and legs ob- 
scure fulvous ; thorax very finely punctured, clothed with whitish hairs ; 
elytra more strongly and distantly punctate, greenish-aeneous, clothed 
with white and fulvous pubescence, the apex of each not produced. 
Length 6 mill. 

Head closely covered with whitish and fulvous hairs ; labrum fulvous, 
shining ; eyes deeply emarginate ; antennae fulvous, extending beyond 
the base of the elytra, the basal joint blackish, the second short, the 
third longer than the fourth joint, terminal joints widened (the last 
three joints wanting) ; thorax subcylindrical, nearly twice as broad as 
long, the sides rounded at the middle, narrowed near the base and 
apex, the anterior angles pointed, the disc closely and rather strongly 
punctured, piceous, closely covered with white and yellowish hairs 
placed transversely, the middle with a feeble ridge ; scutellum sub- 
quadrate, with a few hairs ; elytra greenish teneous, more strongly and 
distantly punctured than the thorax and similarly pubescent, the 
pubescence forming small white or fulvous very indistinct patches, 
the apex of each rather truncate ; under side and legs thickly 
pubescent, claws deeply bifid. 

Hab. — Paraguay. 

This species differs from G. ceneipennis, Baly, in the want of 
the elytra! transverse rugosities, and in not having their apex 
produced into a point ; G.fascicidaris, Baly, is larger, and has 
four pubescent thoracic bands ; and G. cryptica, Say, is of a non- 
metallic colour, and has also pointed elytral apices and simple 
claws. 

Myochrous curculionoides, n. sp. 

Dark fuscous, clothed with yellowish scale-like pubescence ; 
antennae dark fulvous ; thorax subcylindrical, projected anteriorly, 
rugose-punctate and pubescent ; elytra coarsely and closely punctured, 
the interstices wrinkled throughout, the sides and apex yellowish ; 
femora with a short tooth. Length 6 mill. 

Of elongate and subcylindrical shape ; the head perpendicular, 
finely rugose, and clothed with short yellowish pubescence in shape of 
scales ; labrum and palpi fulvous ; antennae not much extending 
beyond the base of the thorax, fulvous, the terminal five joints 
broadly widened at the apex only, the third and the following two 
joints elongate, nearly equal ; thorax subcylindrical, the sides forming 
a distinct tooth before the middle, the anterior margin strongly 
produced at the middle and forming two elevations at the top, the 
intermediate space of which is depressed, the surface strongly and 
closely rugose, clothed with yellowish scales at the sides, forming 
an ill-defined band ; elytra much wider at the base than the thorax, 
closely impressed with large round punctures, the interstices every- 
where rugose or wrinkled, clothed with dark and yellow scales, which 
near the apex form a transverse distinct band, some smaller yellowish 



264 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

spots are also seen near the shoulders and below the base ; mider side 
black, similarly clothed with yellowish scales ; all the femora armed 
with a short tooth, the anterior cues very obsoletely so. 

Hah. — Bahia. 

The specimen contained in my collection was named as above 
by the late Lefevre, but has not been described to my knowledge. 



NOTES AND OBSEEVATIONS. 



Lepidoptera Phal^n/K of the Whole World. — The Trustees of 
the British Museum have sanctioned the publication of a series of 
volumes on the Moths of the world, and the commencement of this 
important work will be undertaken by Sir George Hampson. It will 
comprise synopses and descriptions of the families, genera, and species 
of Moths, and include every described species about which exact infor- 
mation is obtainable. The type of each genus will be indicated, and 
fall details regarding the geographical distribution of the species will 
be given. There are to be figures in the text illustrative of each genus 
and prominent section thereof, and the structural characters upon 
which the genus is founded will be shown. The general arrangement 
of the work will be based on the lines of classification recently brought 
most prominently before us by Mr. E. Meyrick in his 'British Lepi- 
doptera.' There is probably no question about the system upon which 
Meyrick's classification is founded being valid, and taken as a whole 
his arrangement of groups and families appears to be a natural one. 
As regards the composition and sequence of genera, however, it would 
seem that both are open to judicious revision. It is further proposed 
to issue, in parts, an atlas of coloured plates giving half figures of as 
many as possible of the species which have not previously been satis- 
factorily figured, especially of "types" in the British Museum. We 
are very pleased to learn that the Museum authorities have determined 
on this step, as a work of such a comprehensive character produced 
under their auspices must do much towards establishing something 
definite in the way of classifying the old-style Lepidoptera-Heterocera, 
and at the same time bring entomologists into line on the question of 
nomenclature. 

Bpjtish Mymarid^. — In the September number of 'Knowledge' 
there is a highly interesting article by Mr. Fred Enock on "Fairy 
Flies " (Mymaridfe). These hymenopterous atoms have not received 
very much attention from entomologists ; but, as Mr. Enock suggests, 
" One reason for this want of attention is, no doubt, because of the 
extreme smallness of the members of this family, the largest being not 
more than one-twentieth of an inch long, whereas the smallest is less 
than one-eighty-fifth of an inch from head to tail." Dr. Sharp 
(' Insects,' pt. i. p. 538) says : " Probably Mymarides may all prove to 
be dwellers in eggs of other insects " ; and as regards the British 
species, it would appear that Mr. Enock believes this to be the case, 
as he states : " All the species are egg parasites, and each species has 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 265 

its peculiar taste, selecting with unerring instinct the right kind of 
egg — generally that of an injurious insect — in which the female lays 
one of its own eggs, which in due time hatches or develops into an 
active maggot." The number of British species is given as thirty- 
five, and these are distributed among the eleven genera as follows : — 
Ooctonus (4), Gonatorerus (5), Alaptus (2), Litus (1), Eiistochus (1), 
Mymar (1), Cosmocoma (8), C'araphractus (1), Anaphes (7), Anagrus (4), 
Camptoptera (1). 

Reaking Bombyx eubi. — As a rule, considerable difficulty is ex- 
perienced in obtaining imagos of this species from larvae that have to 
be kept in confinement throughout the winter. In an interesting 
article on rearing B. rubi (E. M. M., Sept., pp. 199-201), Mr. Robson 
tells us that he collects the larvre during fine sunny days in the early 
months of the year, and so avoids the trouble of preparing hybernating 
quarters for them. Instead of putting the larvfe together in a breeding- 
cage, he encloses each one in a separate paper box about two inches 
square. The results appear to be very satisfactory. 

Destroying Insects by Steam Power. — In America, machines 
constructed something on the plan of a steam fire-engine are employed 
to repel the attacks of insects on the foliage of shade trees, and the 
attention of growers of fruit on a large scale is called to this new 
method of dealing with insect pests. For further particulars and 
illustrations of these engines of destruction, the reader is referred to a 
pamphlet on the subject, entitled, ' The Use of Steam Apparatus for 
Spraying,' by L. 0. Howard, Ph.D. 

Studying Neuration without Removing the Scales of the Wings. — 
In an article on this subject (' Canadian Entomologist ' for August), 
Professor Skinner points out that in the present day " Neuration can 
be studied with the greatest ease and accuracy, and permanently re- 
corded in a photograph, or, more strictly speaking, a radiograph. The 
anatomy of a living chrysalis may be studied without removing the 
cocoon, and also the internal anatomy of the thorax and abdomen can 
be fairly well seen, and in time the process may be improved for this 
work. With the aid of the Rontgen or X-rays and the photographic 
plate one could make a picture of the neuration of the beautiful, rare, 
and curiously shaped (hiiithoptcrd parcuUsea , and not disturb a scale on 
its superb wings. W^ith the fluoroscope one could doubtless see all the 
neuration without even going to the trouble of making a picture." 

Photography without Shadow. — Some time ago the 'Canadian 
Entomologist' gave a method of photographing insects without shadow. 
It was done by fixing the camera in a perpendicular position so as to 
look down upon a sheet of glass placed horizontally below, and beyond 
that a white screen, the insect being pinned to a small piece of cork 
attached to the glass. By this process the shadow was thrown through 
the glass on to the white screen at an angle quite out of the line of 
vision. Now I believe that professionals find considerable difficulty in 
adjusting their heavy apparatus to the perpendicular position, and I 
therefore suggest that it can be done quite as effectively by using the 
camera horizontally, and placing the insect on a piece of cork fixed to 
a perpendicular sheet of glass, with a white screen, also perpendicular. 



266 THE ENTOMOLOGIST, 

a short distance behind it. I tried the experiment the other day, and 
the result was perfectly satisfactory, — the shadow fell upon the screen 
some inches to the side of the object. — H. G. Knaggs ; Folkestone, 
September, 1897. 

Strange Resting-places of Pieris rap^ and Satyrus semele. — 
During one of the brief periods of sunshine with which we were 
favoured on some of the later days of August, I had occasion to leave 
one place of business in a busy London thoroughfare, and proceed 
to another some hundred yards or so further on in the same street. 
On my way I happened to meet an acquaintance with whom I 
stood talking for perhaps ten minutes, during which time the sun 
became obscured by clouds. I was wearing an ordinary straw hat at 
the time, and on reaching my destination and hanging my hat on a 
peg, I was not a little surprised to find a female Pieris rajm resting 
upon it. The butterfly was certainly not on the hat when I started on 
my journey, and I have no doubt that it settled there when the sun 
ceased to shine, selecting the hat as a secure resting-place by reason 
of the similarity of its colour to that of its own under side. Earlier in 
the month I had been staying at Bournemouth, and had spent many 
hours on the heaths and downs of the adjacent coasts, frequently being 
accompanied by my son. Both of us were in the habit of wearing grey 
flannel trousers, and I was much struck by the persistent way in which 
Sati/rus semele, which was exceedingly abundant at the time, rested 
upon them almost whenever we stood still for a few moments, often 
returning again and again when driven away. I have little doubt that 
in this case also the similarity of the colour of the material rested upon 
to that of the part of the insect most exposed when at rest was the 
attraction. — Robt. Adkin ; Lewisham, September, 1897. 

Varieties of Melanippe montanata. — At a meeting of the South 
London Entomological and Natural History Society, held on August 
12th last, Mr. J. N. Smith exhibited a specimen of M. montanata, in 
which the ground colour was heavily suffused with leaden grey; this was 
one of a pair of similar aberrations of the species taken June lOfch, 
1895, by Mr. Fitzgerald in a lane near Dursley. A somewhat similar 
specimen, from Longleat, in Wiltshire, is figured in the ' Entomologist' 
for 1881 (xiv. pi. 1, fig. 20). 

Variety of Catocala nupta. — On August 8rd there emerged in 
my breeding-cage a variety of Catocala nupta, having the usually red 
portions both of the upper and under sides of the hind wings brown, 
with perhaps a very faint tinge of red. The larva was found on willow 
in the garden here. — E. V. Hall; 4, The Avenue, Brondesbury, N.W. 

[Similar aberrations of this species have been obtained in the 
London district before (see Entom. xxv. 243, and xxix. 315). There 
is also an example, taken on August 10th, 1895, on Wandsworth 
Common, in the National Collection at South Kensington. — Ed,] 

Variety of Nemeophila plantaginis. — About the middle of last 
June, I took a fine male specimen of Chdonia (Nemeophila) piantafjinis, 
flying on the moors at Penmaenmawr, North Wales, in which the 
ground colouring of the hind wings is quite white instead of bright 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 267 

orange, but with the normal black markings. — J. B. Morris ; Maldon 
House, Maldon Eoad, Wallington, Surrey, September 22ad, 1897. 

Vkspa crabro. — I should be greatly indebted for any information 
afforded respecting the numerical strength of a hornet's nest. Though 
there must be many nests in this neighbourhood, I doubt whether any 
one nest contains more than one hundred or so. This formidable 
insect occurs in such plenty here this season as to prove a positive 
source of danger, and the fruit crops, especially the apples, suffer 
accordingly. Only a few hundred yards from the Vicarage, along the 
Stoke and Nayland Road, are two cottages under one thatched roof, 
inhabited respectively by two families related to each other, and com- 
prising jointly probably about fifteen children. In the side of the 
thatch of the first cottage there is a hornet's nest ; and in the thatch 
of a low outhouse, on the further side of the second cottage, there is 
another. It goes without saying that the time-honoured, and as a rule 
the best, plan for suffocating the inmates, by the application of a folded 
linen rag, alternating with layers of sulphur, and then set light to, 
cannot be adopted here, as the thatch would speedily be in a blaze ; 
and moreover, in the case of the nest in the outhouse, it is believed to 
be several feet distant from the only hole of entrance, at the far end 
possibly of the old run of a rat, as the booming sound made by the 
insects is distinctly heard close to the rear of the building. The 
suspension of wide-mouthed bottles, containing a compound of sugar 
and beer, to the sides of the cottage and outhouse, has not been without 
the desired effect, as several hornets have crawled in, and got drowned. 
But this is only a partial remedy, and the wasps that have met a 
similar fate therein (many of them tree wasps, if I am not greatly 
mistaken) are far more numerous. Another method was for the father 
of one of the families, to whom I lent my insect net for the purpose, 
to catch them as they flew out and in ; but this speedily had the natural 
effect of rendering them furious. I then suggested what seemed to me 
to be the only available method, namely, the insertion of a piece of 
lead piping in the hole, so that the hornets must pass through it on 
their way to the outer air, and the fixing at the same time of the other 
end of the said piping well into the neck of the aforesaid bottle (now 
suspended for the purpose close underneath). By this means many 
have been caught and drowned, including the queen, who may have 
only quitted the interior on the supposition, or intimation, that some- 
thing was wrong. The nest in the outhouse has thus been considerably 
weakened, but the second nest still remains to be tackled. It cannot 
be seen to at present, as the cottagers are all so busily employed in 
getting in the harvest. There is also a third nest, within the distance 
of a short half-mile, down another lane, in the tiled roof of a cottage 
opposite the short cut across the fields to Boxford, and here the hornets, 
to reach their hole, crawl along the leaden gutter under the eaves. A 
fourth nest, situate in the root of a tree in Assington Park, was taken 
and destroyed several days since. Owing to the number of hornets 
that fly in and out of the numerous oaks in the wood known here as 
Assington Thicks, I feel convinced that there are several more nests 
undiscovered as yet, — probably in the hollows of some of the above- 
mentioned oaks, There is a little summer-house or shanty in this 



268 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

wood, for the gamekeepers to shelter when it rains, and for several 
seasons past hornets have suspended a nest from the interior of its 
ceiling, flying in through the open pane of glass in its side. This year, 
however, they have not put in an appearance there. I believe one 
such nest in the shanty was cut down, and presented to the museum 
at Colchester. 

During my short sojourn at this vicarage I have captured twelve 
hornets with my net as they came successively to regale themselves on 
the sap exuding from the trunk of an oak in the back shrubbery. I 
note that there is hardly ever more than one hornet at a time, either 
where the sap exudes or on a partially devoured apple. Probably there 
is not room for the operations of both. But if one be captured thereat, 
within a brief space (say ten minutes) another visitor, in brown and 
yellow jerkin, flies up with a sonorous hum to take his place. Some- 
times, but more rarely, two may be seen together seated on one apple. 
Are these solitary visits due to some well-understood and defined 
arrangement between themselves ? The present unsettled state of the 
weather here (sunshine alternating with clouds and frequent showers) 
renders the hornets all the more dangerous, as apt to creep about 
noiselessly in a semi-torpid condition resulting from the heavy wet. 
Query, do the queens leave the nest at this period of the year ? It 
would seem so, as when my wife was in the orchard here a few days 
since, on picking up a fallen apple, she heard a loud buzzing in the 
grass close to the fruit, and in a few moments a hornet ascended a 
blade of grass and flew away. Luckily for herself she did not touch 
it, as at first sight she mistook it for a dragonfly, and from the size 
which she described it could only have been a queen. 

Of late years, I have seen very few hornets in England, and during 
the whole of my residence in my Cambridgeshire parish I only recall 
the occurrence of one nest in the roof of a farmhouse or cottage three 
or four doors from the rectory, and taken by an elderly parishioner to 
whom various odd jobs were delegated, and commonly supposed to 
possess a very thick cuticle, at any rate he went about his work 
fearlessly. "They do horn so," he said. One of the very few occasions 
on which I have seen a queen hornet alive was in the winter season 
on the drawing-room window-sill of the said Cambridgeshire rectory, 
when it was in an almost torpid state, and covered with soot, and I 
naturally dreaded its presence on account of my children, who were 
then very young. I remember in boyhood's hour being greatly diverted 
at beholding an hornet sweep in its flight into a hole in the side of a 
large jargonelle pear, and no fewer than twenty wasps forthwith to 
tumble out therefrom in a state of the most abject terror to the ground. 
In those days also a relative observed a hornet seated on the bough of 
an apple tree, and tearing a hive bee to pieces for the sake of its 
honey-bag. The hornet does not always score, however, for while two 
English ladies were walking in the environs of Chexbres (Lake of 
Geneva) in the month of July, 1893, while ^held the chaplaincy of 
that place, they recounted to me how a wasp and hornet dropped 
struggling together from an orchard tree in front of them, and how the 
wasp, being more agile, managed to dart about and sting his adversary 
here and there until the latter succumbed. — (Eev.) F. A. Walker; 
Assington Vicarage, near Colchester, August 24th, 1897. 



269 



CAPTURES AND FIELD EEPORTS. 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN DoRSETSHiRK. — One Specimen captured at Swauage 
[vide Mr. Hall's note, p. 972). 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN CoKNWALL. — I saw two Specimens as I drove from 
Truro on Aug. 13th, and a day or so later a young friend showed me one 
that he had caught, saying that he had seen several. I do not know if the 
species has been recorded from other parts this year. I have not seen it 
for some years. — (Rev.) J. A. Mackonochib ; St. Columb, Cornwall. 

CoLiAS HYALE AND C. EDUSA IN SussEX. — Last Tuesday I took a 
female 0. hyale near here, in a meadow close to a clover-field ; in this same 
clover-field, about a fortnight ago, I caught a female G. edusa, and saw two 
males. — L. G. S. Raynor ; Hill View, Bognor, Sept. 10th. 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN EssEX. — Tovvards the end of August, my friend Mr. 
C. 0. S. Hatton and myself made several morning visits to a very fine field 
of lucerne situated in this parish, and belonging to Mr. E. A. Fitch. The 
second brood of Strenia clathrata was very abundant, and we captured 
several interesting varieties. On Aug. 26th, almost immediately after 
entering the field, Mr. Hatton found a male 0. edusa, resting on a lucerne 
stem. It was such a fresh specimen that I think it was undoubtedly bred 
on the spot, especially as within the next hour I captured two other 
e.x.amples, one male and one female, in the same part of this large field, 
whereas we did not see any more specimens, either on that or on any other 
day. We much regretted afterwards that we did not search for the empty 
pupa-case of the first specimen. — (Rev.) GiLBiiRT H. Raynor; Hazeleigh 
Rectory, Maldon, Sept. 11th, 1897. 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN THE IsLES OF SciLLY. — C. edusa was fairly common 
in the Isles of Scilly during the month of August, the earliest date being 
Aug. 2ad, but only one var. helice was taken. — B. W. Adkin ; Brandon 
House, Morden Hill, Lewisham, S.E. 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN THE IsLE OF Man. — On 30th July last I captured a 
fine male specimen of C. edusa in an old gravel pit at Ramsey, Isle of Man. 
Is this not a rather northerly locality for this species ? — (Rev.) B. Harvey- 
Jellie, B.A. ; St. Helens. 

[C. edusa has been recorded from Orkney. — Ed.] 

CoLiAS EDUSA IN HAMPSHIRE AND Kent. — I saw E specimen on the 
coast at Lymington on Aug. 7th, and I have heard of a specimen being 
seen at Folkestone on Sept. 1st. — W. J. Lucas; Kingston-on-Thames. 

Vanessa antiopa in Yorkshire. — A specimen of V. antiopa was seen 
in Beedale, a beautiful wooded valley seven miles from Scarborough, on 
Aug. 9th. I have been at some pains to verify the record by communica- 
tion with those who were actually on the spot and saw the insect, I myself 
being only a few yards distant, and feel no doubt as to its genuineness. — 
James H. Rowntuee ; Westwood, Scarborough, Sept. 15th, 1897. 

AcHERONTiA ATROPos IN SUFFOLK. — A larva of A. atropos was recently 
found in a garden here. It was nearly full grown at the end of July. — - 
Edward Ransom; Sudbury, Suffolk, September, 1897. 

ENTOII.— OCT. 1897 z 



270 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Deilephila galti in Devon. — Mr. Bontnall|(E. M. M., Sept., p. 212) 
records ihe capture of a larva of this species at Starcross, on Aug. 7th last. 

Chcerocampa celerio in Cambkidge. — A female example of this 
species was taken in the town on the 4th, and given to me on the 6th Sept. 
As it had passed the intervening time in a match-box, it was considerably 
damaged. — J. C. Rickard. 

Sphinx convolvuli in London. — In Piccadilly, on the night of Sept. 
14th, quite an interested crowd gathered to witness the capture of a single 
specimen of this moth. When taken it bore unmistakable evidence of 
having been handled roughly. It may possibly have been conveyed to this 
district by some vegetable cart ; being attracted by light, it fell a victim to 
Mr. W. Henry Barton. The last captures of this insect were in 1887, 
when two fine specimens were taken, at rest, on a fence at Hammersmith 
Bridge, but were, I believe, not then notified. — H. W. Bell-Marley ; 
Kavenscourt Park. 

Sphinx convolvuli in Wiltshire. — Yesterday (Aug. 31st) a fine 
specimen of Sphinx convolvuli was brought to us by a neighbour, who had 
found it at rest on his house-door, probably attracted by the flowers in the 
garden.— Cecil M. Gummeb; Swayne's Close, Salisbury, Sept. 1st, 1897. 

Sphinx convolvuli in Suffolk. — On Aug. 19th I had a specimen 
of S. convolvuli brought to me which had been found clinging to the wall 
of a house here. — Edward Ransom ; Sudbury, Suffolk, September, 1897. 

Sphinx convolvuli. —On Friday, Sept. 3rd, two fine specimens of S. 
convolvuli were observed in the garden here. They were flying, about 7.30 
p.m., over a bed of tobacco plant {Nicotiana affinis). — M. Alderson ; Park 
House, Worksop, Notts. 

Sphinx convolvuli in the Isles of Scilly. — While staying in the 
Isles of Scilly during the month of August and the first few days of 
September, my friend Mr. Whiffeu and myself took seventeen specimens 
of IS. convolvuli in rather worn condition, hovering over flowers. — B. W. 
Adkin ; Brandon House, Morden Hill, Levvisham, S.E., September, 1897. 

Note on Stauropus fagi. — 1 have a nice lot of larviB of S.Jagi from 
ova deposited on Aug. 5tb. These commenced to hatch on Aug. 13th, and 
were only eight days in the egg state. The spring brood were sixteen 
days in the egg stage. — W. E. Butler; Hayling House, Reading, Sept. 
11th, 1897. 

Larva of Eupithecia pumilata feeding on Holly Flowers. — 
When at Oxshott, on Whit Monday last, I obtained, among holly flowers, a 
few larvse of a species of Eupithecia which I did not recognize at the time, 
but on June 26th and three following days they produced specimens 
of E. pumilata. I know that the larva of this species will feed on the 
blossom of many kinds of plants, but I do not remember to have seen any 
record of its having been found on the flowers of this shrub. — Richard 
South ; lOU, Ritherdon Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Note on Acidalia inornata. — On July 6th last I captured a female 
A. inornata at Oxshott, and she deposited about forty eggs. The larvie 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 271 

hatched in due course and were supplied with knotgrass. About two-thirds 
of the number fed up rapidly and pupated, the first imago appearing on 
Sept. 4th. The remainder of the larvae evidently intended to hybernate 
from the first, as they were only about half grown when the major portion 
of the brood pupated, and they have not increased at all in size since that 
time. So far as I can see they do not eat the fresh food with which they 
are provided, but seem to prefer the withered sprays that are allowed to 
remain on the suface of the earth in their cage. At the present time they 
appear active enough, as whenever the cover of their cage is removed, and 
the debris at the bottom gently blown upon, each individual at once 
indicates his presence by a quick swaying movement of the anterior 
segments. — Kichard South; 100, Ritherdon Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Abraxas grossulariata, var. — The most interesting form of A. grossu' 
lariata I have seen this year is one I took here, in which the usual orange 
band on the fore wings is diff'used towards the anal angle. The band is 
continued on the hind wings, being very distinct on the inner margins. In 
these respects the moth bears a faint resemblance to A. sylvata. — Alfred 
Sigh; Villa Amalinda, Burlington Lane, Chiswick, July 5th, 1897. 

Food-plants of Plusia gamma and Hadena trifolii. — Larvae of 
Plusia gamma have been noted this season feeding on a large variety of 
plants. I had three or four that were found on lime. Mr. W. E. Butler 
informs me that he has observed them feeding on the pods of scarlet 
runner beans. Mr. Butler also notes larvae of Hadena trifolii (chenopodil) 
eating the young leaves of onions. — R. S. 

Plusia moneta in Surrey. — I took two specimens of P. moneta in a 
garden here at the end of July, and about the same time a specimen of 
Smerinthus populi in pretty good condition. — J. B. Morris ; Maldon House, 
Maldon Road, Wallington, Surrey. 

EuGONiA (Ennomos) autumnaria (alniaria) at Chichester. — I have 
to record the capture of a male specimen of Eugonia autumnaria {alniaria) 
here on Sept. 5th. It was taken settled in the road in the daytime, by the 
Rev. H, Housman, who kindly gave it alive to me. — Joseph Anderson, 
Jun. ; Chichester. 

Notes from Sussex — At the end of August last I beat a full-fed larva 
of Stauropus fagi from hazel, which in a few days spun up in the cage 
between two oak leaves. The Diurni appear to have been by no means 
plentiful about here this season. Sugar, however, has proved very attractive, 
and the commoner Noctuse I have noticed in enormous numbers. — Wilfrid 
J. Andrew ; Hawthorn Villa, West Hoathly, Sussex, Sept. 17th, 1897. 

Entomology in Merionethshire (continued from page 248). — 
Neuroptera-Odonata : Dragonflies on the whole were unusually scarce, 
though diligently sought for, only six species being met with. Cordule- 
gastcr annulatus occurred sparingly, both at Barmouth and Tan-y-bwlch ; I 
did not encounter it elsewhere. Orthetrum ccerulescens was fairly plentiful 
at Tan-y-bwlch, but only one came under notice at Barmouth. All the 
examples taken were females, with the exception of a solitary male. A 
single jEschna grandis was noticed flying over the heather at Tan-y-bwlch. 
Pyrrhosoma minium and Agrion piiella swarmed at Tan-y-bwlch, but were 
in much less numbers at Barmouth. 



272 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Coleoptera : Several species of Elateridae and Brachelytra were found 
washed up by the tide, the names of which I have not, so far, definitely 
ascertained. Timarcha lav'ujata was common, crawling over mountain 
paths at Barmouth. — Augustus D. Imms ; " Linthurst," Oxford Road, 
Moseley, Worcestershire, September, 1897. 

Collecting at Swanage, Dorset. — Butterflies seem to have been 
very plentiful this year, some species being more than usually abundant. 
The following species were found during a five weeks' stay, Aug. 5th to 
Sept. 9th : — Pieris brassicce, P. rapcB, P. napi, Colias edusa (one), An/yiinis 
aglaia, Vanessa xirticm, V. atalanta (very abundant ; twenty-five were 
counted on one rubbish-heap), Pijrameis cardui (plentiful ; I took four in 
about five minutes one morning), Mcianargla r/alatea (fairly common, but 
rubbed), Ep'mepliile ianira, E. tllhonus, Satyrus {Hipparchia) semele, Cceno- 
nyvipha pamphiius, Pararye (Satyrus) megara (all common), Thecla qiiercus 
(two), LyccBna astrarche (ayestis), L. icarus (both common), L. bellargus, L. 
corydon (common, but local), L. minima (only two or three), L. argiolus, 
Polyommatus phlceas, Hesperia thaumas (a few worn specimens), H. actceon 
(plentiful). Not many moths were obtained, but Macroglossa stellatarum 
was abundant, at the flowers of geranium mostly, and also found at fuchsia. 
Plusia gamma swarmed everywhere, in fields, gardens, &c., coming 
especially to geranium and fuchsia. Zygana Jilipendidiv. was common ; also 
Aspilates ochrearia and Phlogophora meticulosa. Two or three Bombyx 
{Lasiocampa] quercus were seen, one Bryophila muralis on a pine-tree, and 
one Amphipyra pyramidea. Larvae of P. brassicce and P. rapce on nastur- 
tium, Euclielia jacob(B(B on ragwort, and Phalera bucephala v?ere common ; 
and three larvae of Sphinx ligustri vfere ohtained. — E. V. Hall; 4, The 
Avenue, Brondesbury, N.W. 

Rhopalocera at Llakdudno. — On Aug. 25th I revisited an old 
collecting-ground on the Conway Shore, Llandudno, where I remembered 
taking insects in 1884. Thermometer 75®, sunshine, blue sky with 
cumulus clouds, gentle breeze, sea calm. The ground, a portion of which 
had been used for golfing since my previous captures, was sandy, covered 
with thistles, teasels, and low herbage. The first insect I noticed was 
Lyccena icarus, a pair of which, evidently not recognizing au entomologist, 
fluttered round me repeatedly as I stood. Satyrus [Hipparchia] semele was 
abundant, in all conditions, from the perfect specimen to the bleached and 
battered veteran. Epinephcle ianira, which formerly I had observed 
abundantly at this collecting-ground, was conspicuously absent, nor were 
any Vanessas seen, although Y. cardui, V. io, and F. urticai had all occurred 
here in 1884. One or two specimens of a Noctuid were dashing about 
(probably Plusia gamma, but too active to be identified with certainty). 
Other butterflies seen were Pararge (Lasiommata) megcsra, Ccenonympha 
jiamphilus, Polyommatus phlceas, and Lyccena astrarche (agestis). — Graham 
Renshaw ; Vale Bridge House, Vale, Cheshire, 

Dragonflies around Birmingham in 1897. — During the past season 
Odonata were very plentiful in point of numbers, but a poor selection 
of species was met with. The best locality proved to be a large pond at 
Earlswood (nine miles distant from the city), over which, on a hot and 
bright day, enormous numbers of these insects were to be seen. About 
this pond Libellula depressa was the commonest species, though elsewhere 
it only occurs sparingly. L. quadrimacidata was scarce, being only 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 273 

observed here twice, and once near Hockley Heath, a few miles distant. 
j^sclina grandis undoubtedly was the commonest of the larger species, it 
being met with in a variety of situations throughout the district ; it was 
especially abundant over the commons in Sutton Park (N. Warwickshire), 
where also y5?. cyanea was plentiful. This last species is sometimes seen 
careering wildly about the streets of Birmingham. Cordulegaster annu- 
latus, though usually considered a local insect, is widely distributed over 
this district, but never in considerable numbers. CalojJteryx splendens was 
plentiful amongst rank herbage about a brook at Hockley Heath. C. virgo 
is also common, but I did not meet with it this year. Pyrrhosoma minium 
and its companion. Agrion jiuella were both about in immense numbers. 
On several occasions jEschna grandis was observed ovipositing, sometimes 
on the leaf of a water-lily, and at other times thrusting its abdomen some 
distance below the surface of the water, the eggs on this occasion being 
attached to the stem of the plant. Once I noticed the insect fasten its eggs 
under the leaf of the plant ; during this process it almost entirely 
submerged itself, While ovi position was taking place the female always 
contracted her long slender abdomen into the form of a loop, the reverse to 
Libellula depressa, the structure of whose abdomen seems only adapted to 
be kept fairly rigid ; being broad and flat, it certainly does not admit of 
such extreme contraction. — Augustus D. Imms; "Linthurst," Oxford 
Road, Moseley, Worcestershire, September, 1897. 

Captures in Essex. — The following is a list of Lepidoptera that I have 
taken during the present season. Unless otherwise stated, Benfleet is the 
locality : — Leucania ohsoleta, June 24th, at sugar. Ditula hartmarmiana, 
June 26th, several on fences near osiers. Elachista triatomella, Jane 26th, 
flying over meadow-grass, and settled on the railway fence. Penthina 
gentiana, June 27th, several bred from teasels. Aplecta advena, June 28th, 
at sugar. Ceratophora inornatella, June 28th, a few on sugared reeds. 
Cnephasia politana, June 28th, netted. Coleopliora anatipennella, June 
30th, one or two on the wing. Acontia Itictuosa, June 30th, 10.45 p.m., 
flying round one of the lamps at Benfleet station. Antithesia salicella, 
July 3rd ; this fine tortrix common among osiers. I don't know whether 
this species or P. curtisellics more closely resembles the excrement of a bird ; 
when at rest on a fence the likeness in each case is remarkable. Agrotis 
corticea, July 3rd, at sugar, a rare moth in these parts. Leucoma salicis, 
July 3rd — Aug. 4th, at gas-lamps, Southend. Eupcecilia angustana, July 
Gth, at rest. Orthosia ujmlon, July 9th, at sugared blackthorn, but osiers 
quite near. RhodopJma advenella, July 29th, at light, Benfleet Station. 
Nonagria neurica, July 31st and Aug. 7th, at sugar. N. geminipuncta, 
Aug. 14th, bred, and taken at sugar. Hornceosoma senecionis, Aug. 5th, 
a few from larvae collected at Leigh July 1 2th. Apodia hifractella (Aug. 
15 th), and Ptocheuusa inopiella (Aug. J 8th), on heads of Inula at Leigh. 
Plusia festuccB, July 18th, at sugar. The season here has been a good one, 
not equal to the last, but still better than that experienced in many 
districts. — F. G. Whittle: 3, Marine Avenue, Southend, Sept. Ist, 1897. 

[Hornceosoma senecionis, Vaughan, is now generally considered to be 
synonymous with H. cretacella, Rossler ; vide Entom. xxiii. 365. — Ed.] 



274 



SOCIETIES. 

South London Entomological and Natural History Society. — 
Jnhj 22nd, 1897.— Mr. A. W. Dennis in the chair. Mr. Ashdown 
exhibited a living specimen of the rare and local Longicorn, Oberea 
oailata, taken at Wicken Fen. Mr. Kedgeley sent for exhibition a 
specimen of the dragonfly yEschna cyanea, which had been taken in the 
Borough on July 18th. 

August 12th. — Mr. E. Adkin, F.E.S., President, in the chair. Mr. 
McArthur exhibited a fine bred series of Toxocampa cracccB from North 
Devon. Mr. Edwards, young larvae of Callimorpha hera, which he had 
just received from the French Alps, where the imagines absolutely 
swarmed. Mr. J. N. Smith, on behalf of Mr. Fitzgerald, a remarkably 
smoky variety of Melanippe montanata, one of a pair taken at the same 
time and place. Mr. Tolhurst, the curious telescopic larvfe of Eristali.t 
tenax from a tank of foul water in his garden. Mr. West, of Green- 
wich, specimens of the Hemipteron Atractotomiis mail, which he had 
taken on whitethorn at Lewisham. Mr. Ficklin, larvte of Dianthcecia 
nana from the Land's End. Mr. South, two bred specimens of Peronea 
permutana from Eastbourne which differed very considerably from the 
Wallasey type. Mr. Adkin, a small brood of Abraxas grossulariata 
which exhibited none of the peculiarities of the female which deposited 
the ova. 

August 2Qth. — The President in the chair. Mr. Tutt exhibited the 
Qgg of Polgommatus corydon, which had never been previously described, 
and remarked on its beautiful reticulated appearance ; a living Mantis 
from Aix-les-Bains, which had fed ravenously on cockroaches; a Tipxda 
with beautifully marked wings ; and specimens of an Orthopteron 
which were abundant and active on the wing about 9 a.m. near Susa, 
and remarked on the protective coloration of the latter species. On 
behalf of Mr. Tuck, of Bury St. Edmunds, he also exhibited a nest of 
Yespa rufa which had been attacked by the larvae of Aphomia sociella, 
and which was about a foot deep in a bank ; part of the nest of Bombus 
lapidarius attacked by the same species, and which had been taken 
from a rat's hole in a pigstye; and further a nest ot Bombus latreillellus , 
similarly attacked, taken from a mouse's hole in a pasture. They 
were all taken during the few previous days. Mr. Adkin, series of 
Bryophila muralis [glandifera) and B. perla from Poole, with series from 
Eastbourne for comparison. Mr. McArthur, specimens of Larentia 
salicata from North Devon, small and dark compared with those from 
other localities ; a second brood specimen of S)iieri>ithus popuU; and a 
series of good varieties of A. grossulariata bred this year. 

September 9th. — The President in the chair. Mr. Spindler exhibited 
a remarkable variety of Epinephele tithonas, in which the whole of the 
dark markings were absent, while the fulvous colour was of the normal 
tint. It was taken at Luggershall, Sussex. Mr. South, several un- 
usually dark forms of Spilosoma menthastri, descendants of Moray 
parents, reared in London. Mr. Turner, an unusually grey specimen 
of Mamestra abjecta taken in the Greenwich marshes; a small red form 
of Agrotis tritici from Woolmer Forest, Hants ; series of under sides of 



SOCIETIES. 275 

Enodia hyperanthus* irom Carlisle and Chattenden to show the contrast 
in the ground colour, the former being of a grey appearance, while 
the latter were deep and rich ; a larva of H eterogenea limacodes from 
Westerham ; and larvte of Acidalia immorata from Alpine ova. Ee- 
ferring to the latter, he remarked upon the undoubted Acidalia-\i^Q 
habits and appearance of the larvse, and said that they fed readily 
upon knotgrass. Mr. West, of Greenwich, specimens of the local 
Hemipteron. Dictrjonota fuliginosa, taken on broom at Plumstead. Mr. 
Adkin, series of Satynis semele, from Eastbourne and Bournemouth, for 
comparison, with examples set to show their natural resting positions 
on the ground. Mr. Tutt remarked that allied continental species had 
precisely the same habits. Mr. Lucas, specimens and drawings of the 
scarce dragonfly Ai/rion mercuriale, which he had taken in the New 
Forest. Mr. Dennis, under the microscope, ova of both Polyommatus 
corydon and Plebins agon, the former of which had not yet been de- 
scribed. Mr. Tutt, a cabinet drawer containing a long series of Erehia 
nerine and its near allies, together with photographs of the famous 
Mendelstrasse, in illustration of a paper, entitled, " A Gregarious 
Butterfly, Erebia nerine, a Keminiscence of the Mendelstrasse, with 
Notes on the Lepidoptera of the Serpents of the Mendelstrasse," which 
he read. — Hy. J. Turner, Hon. Rep. Sec. 

Birmingham Entomological Society. — August IQth, 1897. — Mr. G. 
T. Bethune-Baker, President, in the chair. Mr. Bradley showed 
lEschna grandis from Sutton, and said that it was quite unusually 
common there this year both in the park and in his garden ; also Molo- 
philus murinus from his garden, where he had taken a fair series this 
year, though it had not occurred there before. Mr. E. H. Martineau 
showed larvae, pupge, and imagines of Authophora f areata, to illustrate 
its life-history ; also Salius fuscus from Wyre Forest, with a large 
spider it had captured ; Mimesa bicolor, male and female, from Coles- 
hill ; and Ammophila sabulosa from Wyre Forest. He also said, 
a propos of a note by Mr. E. Saunders in the July number of the Ent. 
Mo. Mag. on "Muscular Energy in a Tipula Leg after Death," that 
he had watched a dissevered leg of a harvest bug (Acarin^) move 
spasmodically round a plate for thirty-five minutes. He also stated 
that he once removed the body from a living wdsp, and then supplied 
it with liquid food ; it drank up the food until it had deposited a large 
bead of it behind. He then attached a cork body to it, and the insect 
flew across the room, though of course badly and not straight, as the 
balance could not be restored. Mr. J. W. Moore showed a little lot of 
Lepidoptera from the Fens, where he had collected them last Whitsun- 
tide, which included Senta maritlma with var. wismariensis, a fine series 
of Leucania obsoleta, a single Tapinostola elymi, Acronycta leporina, 
Lithosteye griseata, &c. ; also, from Scotland, Arctia fuliyinosa, bred 
Hadena 2nsi which were small, dark, and more marbled than usual, 

* It is quite possible that liyperanthus is not strictly congeneric with Epinephele 
ianim and E. tithomis, but still it is probably more correct to keep it in that genus 
than to place it in Enodia. Scudder (Butt. New Engl. i. p, 176), m his remarks on 
Enodia, states that the genus " is confined to eastern North America, where it is 
represented by a single species," i.e. E. portlandica, Fab., =^ andromacha, Hiibn., a 
very different looking insect to the European E. hyperantlius. — Ed. 



276 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

an Acronycta myrica, ; also a series of Agrophila sulphuralis from 
Tuddenham. Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker exhibited two drawers from 
his collection containing the genus Aporia, and parts of the genera 
Pai-nassius and Fieris. He pointed out how naturally Parnassias runs 
into Aporia through mnemosijne, in which all the red and some of the 
markings have gone, and stuhhendorfd, in which the dark colour is 
nearly confined to the nervures ; also that Aporia runs into Fieris 
through A. hippia and P. melete. — Colbran J. Wainweight, Ron. Sed. 



EECENT LITEEATURE. 

Puhlications Issued by U. S. Department of Ayriculture, — Entomoloyy. 

The Asparagus Beetles, by F. H. Chittenden. — The introduction 
and subsequent spreading of Crioceris asparagi, L., and C. duodecem- 
punctata, L., in America are referred to. In addition to its natural checks, 
which appear to be numerous, various simple methods are discussed for 
keeping the commoner species, C. asparagi, under control ; the other 
species does not seem to have done any great damage at present. 

Some little-known Insects affecting Stored Vegetable Products : a col- 
lection of articles detailing certain original observations made upon insects 
of this class. By F. H, Chittenden. — Contains information concerning 
Ephestia cahiritella, Zell. = passidella, Barr., and E. elutella, both of 
which are said to feed on chocolate, either in its raw state or on the 
manufactured article. Other species of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera 
injurious to dried fruits, grain, flour, and various stored products are 
dealt with. There is also an article on the parasites of Ephestia 
kuhniella and Plodia inter punctella. 

The San Jose Scale and its Nearest Allies: a brief consideration of the 
characters wJiich distinguish these closely related injurious scale insects. By 

T. D. A. COCKERELL. 

bisect Control in California. By C. L. Marlatt. 

General Index to the Seven Volumes of Insect Life, 1888-1895. This 
elaborate compilation enables one to find what one requires in the 
volumes without trouble. 



Obituary. — We regret to announce the death of the Eev. Andrew 
Matthews, rector of Gumley. He was born on June 18th, 1815 ; and 
died on September 14th last. In 1872 Mr. Matthews published the 
first volume of ' Trichopterygia illustrata et descripta,' with thirty-one 
plates drawn by himself ; and in his eightieth year he completed a 
second volume, ^also illustrated by his own hand : this is now with 
the publisher. Among his other works are papers on the genera 
Hydroscapha, Amblyopinus, Myllaena ; and synopses of the Trichop- 
terygid^ of Europe and North America. He also described the 
species of his particular group of Coleoptera in ' Biologia Centrali 
Americana.' We understand that after the publication of the first 
volume of Trichopterygidae he was offered the Fellowship of the 
Royal Society, but declined the honour. 



Entomologist, Noveinber, 1897. 



Plate I. 




Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2 



W. J. Lucas del 



Fig. 3. 



-piQ^ 1. — Aprioii mercuriale. a, male imago (twice natural size), h, female imago 
(twice natural size.) c, distinctive markings on first and second segments of abdomen 
(more highly magnified.) 
Fig. 2. — A7iax formosus. Full-grown nymph (nat. size.) 
Fig. 3. — Caloptenjx splendens. Full-grown nymph (twice nat. size.) 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX.] NOVEMBEE, 1897. [No. 414. 

DKAGONFLIES IN 1897. 

By W. J. Lucas, B.A. 

(Plate I.) 

While lepidopterists have been complaining of the useless- 
ness of sugaring and larvae -hunting, and of the paucity of 
insects generally, the dragonfly collector has had his hands full, 
though perhaps the scarcer species have not crossed his path 
so frequently as he would wish. Owing, however, to the cold 
weather in the latter part of the spring, the season for the perfect 
insects was somewhat late in commencing, and my first capture 
of Lihellula quadrimaculata did not take place till May 9th, 
whereas in 1894 I secured a specimen as early as April 25th ; 
and though Pyrrhosoma mmimn was taken on May 2nd at the 
Black Pond, near Esher, it did not become general there till 
after the middle of the month. 

During the season I have been able to sketch and describe 
the eggs of about a quarter of the British species of Dragonflies, 
and [although perhaps the material thus obtained is scarcely 
sufficient to allow one to make many general statements, yet the 
following remarks will probably need but little subsequent modi- 
fication. In colour the eggs are very pale yellowish white, 
which in some cases turns to reddish brown after they have been 
for a time in the water. They are semitransparent, and closely 
resemble ovules or very young seeds of a plant, their contents 
being granular, as if protoplasmic, and perhaps containing 
globules of an oily nature. They all, or nearly all, still further 
resemble ovules in possessing a little pedicel at one end. In 
shape there is some variation. The Libelluline, Corduliine pro- 
bably, and Corduligasterine families have eggs whose section is 
elliptical, oval, or pear-shaped, the two axes not differing greatly 

BNTOM. NOV. 1897. 2 A 



278 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

in length, the major being in Platetram depressum about three- 
quarters of a milHmetre. With the ^schnines, however, the 
egg is much longer than broad, being, in fact, a cylinder with 
rounded ends — in Anax formosus nearly 2 mm. long and one-third 
of a millimetre broad. I have not seen any Calopterygine eggs, 
but those of two Agrionines — Agrion cyathigerum and Pyrrhosoma 
tenelluni — were very similar to one another, and closely resembled 
those of the ^Eschnines, being of course smaller, though large 
for the insect ; they were not quite cylindrical, but the transverse 
axis increased a little in length towards the end bearing the 
pedicel. It would seem that the broad-bodied group and their 
relatives have broad eggs, while the decidedly long-bodied groups 
have elongated ones. A dragonfly like Anax formosus must pro- 
duce a tremendous number of eggs, for when about to lay the 
body of the female contains little else than ova. No doubt this 
is an advantageous provision of nature, for the very young 
nymphs, and possibly the eggs also, must find many enemies in 
their watery home. In the case of several species I have noticed 
that the female drops the eggs at random into the water, often 
being accompanied by the male, which, with its anal appendages, 
clasps her by the thorax, apparently with the object of supporting 
her on the wing while she is ovipositing. 

As regards larva-nymphs, by various means I was able to 
identify several during the season. From the Black Pond was 
obtained a nymph, which I suspected to be Cordulia (snea, but 
about which I could not feel quite certain, as it at first sight 
closely resembled the nymph of Libellula quadrimaculata. The 
discovery of one or two skins, that clearly belonged to the same 
species, in close proximity to newly-emerged imagines of C. cenea, 
made me confident that I was right in my surmise, and the 
breeding of a specimen on May 21st from a nymph obtained 
near Byfleet enabled me to identify the species with certainty. 
It may be distinguished from L. quadrimaculata and Platetram 
depressum, both of which broad-bodied nymphs it closely re- 
sembles in general shape, by the greater length and slenderness 
of the legs, by the pale lateral markings on the abdomen, and 
by the shape of the ninth and tenth segments, which end abruptly 
and do not taper off gradually to the anal appendages. On May 
16th, at the Black Pond, I found a C. cenea so lately emerged 
that its wings were not inflated, transfixed through the head by 
a spike of dry grass. The insect was alive, and the accident had 
probably been caused by the wind, for the same day I took a 
living female floating on the water. 

Although I bred P. depressum on June 14th, and had during 
a previous season bred L. quadrimaculata, I am afraid I could 
not undertake from their general appearance to distinguish be- 
tween the nymphs. The former appears to have stouter legs, 
with which it burrows easily in the mud, and it should, I think, 



DRAGONFLIES IN 1897- 279 

be sought there ; L. qiiadrimaculata, I believe it may be safely 
asserted, will always be found amongst weeds. 

A male Agrion pidchellum put in an appearance on May 22nd, 
but I was not expecting to breed the species, and the nymph-case 
after the emergence was so collapsed that little could be made 
of it. 

On June 7th, near Wisley in Surrey, I found a number of 
nymph-cases of Calopteryx splendens. This nymph cannot pos- 
sibly be confused with any other except its congener, C. virgo, 
which, however, it certainly does very closely resemble. But as 
I have never met with C. virgo anywhere in the neighbourhood, 
while C. splendens is remarkably "common, its identification was 
a matter of certainty. It possesses three caudal lamellae, as do 
the Agrionines, but the outer ones are three-edged instead of flat, 
and the nymph itself is very much larger than any of that family. 
Besides this the triangular head and extremely long basal joint 
of the antennae are also conspicuous points for distinguishing it 
from anything except C. virgo. Of those found on June 7th, 
some were on reeds and others on wooden walls. In the latter 
case they must have crossed a canal-path and then climbed 
several feet up the wall before disclosing the imago. All were 
a good deal incrusted with mud. This insect, which is of a 
general brownish colour, is shown in the Plate (fig. 3), twice 
natural size. Singularly enough, I received from Mr. Bell- 
Marley, on Aug. 3rd, a nymph (apparently of JEschna cyanea), 
which, he says, must have crawled ten yards or more out of the 
water, and then mounted a high railing before the imago emerged. 
He noticed the absence of pond-reeds, and this probably was the 
cause of the expedition. 

Collecting at the Black Pond on June 17th, I came across an 
empty nymph of Anaxformosiis, whereupon a young friend, W. 
Prest, who was with me, searched carefully, and found a fair num- 
ber of nearly perfect cases at the bases of the clumps of rushes : 
others he obtained in the same manner on the 21st. In this 
instance, though no imagines were found near the empty cases, 
there could have been no doubt as to the identification, even if 
the nymph had been unknown to me, for no other dragonfly 
at all commensurate with A.formosus was then on the wing at 
the Pond. It is represented of the natural size at fig. 2 in the 
Plate, and maybe described as follows : — In length it is 54mm., 
and in breadth 10 mm. The colouring of the empty case is a 
pale yellowish brown ; along the back is a much darker stripe, 
which is almost obliterated on the posterior part of each segment, 
and is traversed down the centre by a pale streak. Most of the 
abdominal segments have eight small dark depressions, and the 
sides of the abdomen, as well as the thorax, are relieved by a 
number of pale streaks. The head is flat, while the eyes are 
large and rounded, and separated by almost a straight line from 

2 a2 



280 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



the occiput, the posterior margin of which is also almost straight. 
The two thoracic spiracles are uncovered and conspicuous. The 
mask is rather slender and of good length; it broadens somewhat 
anteriorly, and the inner hook is cut square, while the outer 
nioveable one is long and sharp. Of the leg-base processes, the 
hinder one is largest, and a right angle is enclosed between them. 
The legs, which are fairly stout, are marked with several rather 
dark rings. In front the abdomen is slightly contracted, but it 
expands posteriorly, and then contracts again. Segments 7, 8, 
and 9 have long lateral spines, that on the ninth being almost 
as long as the tenth segment. The lower abdominal appendages 
are long and sharp, the middle one is rather shorter and notched 
at the extremity, while the superior laterals are not half as long 
as the lower ones. The male projection on the under surface of 
segment 9 is very small, but that of the female is about two- 
thirds the length of the segment. 

On July 18th, when Sympetram scoticum was just emerging 
at the Black Pond, I succeeded in securing a few nymph-cases 
by looking for the very recently-emerged imagines, and then 
searching for the nymph-skin on the rushes or reeds below it. 
Except as a result of breeding, this is usually the most satis- 
factory method of obtaining nymph-cases whose identity is un- 
doubted ; in the case of the Agrionines, however, the skins 
are usually so ethereal that they are of little use. S. scoticum 
is rather elegant in form, and closely resembles a miniature 
C. (snea, and might be mistaken for that nymph, only that 
C. cenea of the same size would be almost or quite innocent of 
wing-cases. 

Some nymphs of Syinpetrum striolatum, which, as mentioned 
earlier in this volume (p. 30), hatched out about Oct. 18th, 
1896, are at present, I am afraid, represented by a single speci- 
men, but that is now (Oct. 1st) about 16 mm. in length, and 
certainly will not take two more seasons to reach its full size. It 
will, I should say, if still living, produce an imago next July, 
and that although it has not had a plentiful supply of food. It 
would almost seem that a well-fed nymph might become mature 
the season following the laying of the egg, instead of taking 
three years as is sometimes supposed ; but it is just possible 
that out of doors the eggs may not hatch till the following 
sjjring. 

Turning now to the perfect insects. The first on the list, 
Platetrum depressum, was met with on two occasions only— at 
Longcross, near Chertsey, on June 6th, when I noticed a female 
ovipositing by dipping her abdomen in the water, apparently 
quite at random, and at the Black Pond on June 13th. LibeUula 
qiiadrim'aculata did not appear to be quite so common as usual. 
I found it between May 9th and July 25th at the Black Pond, 
the Basingstoke Canal near Byfleet, and Wisley Pond. In the 



DRA.GONFLIES IN 1897. 281 

New Forest, almost wherever I went between Aug. 1st and 
14th, Orthetnim ccsrulesceiis was very common. The other 
species of the genus, 0. cancellatum, I met with at Wisley Pond 
on June 22nd, when it was rather fresh upon the wing. Sijmpe- 
trum striolatum was another very common species in the New 
Forest at the beginning of August, and I often noticed them in 
pairs, the females ovipositing by dipping their abdomen into 
the water, as in the case of P. depressiim, and apparently quite 
as aimlessly. This species was also seen or taken in several 
spots around Oxford towards the end of August. It was common 
at Wisley and Black Ponds in Surrey in September, and several 
specimens were observed at the last locality as late as Oct. 17th. 
Sympetrum scoticum was first noticed at the Black Pond on July 
18th, and was then in good numbers. It was still on the wing 
in considerable plenty at the same place on Oct. 17th. I noticed 
a few at Wisley Pond on Aug. 16th, and a pair on Sept. 11th. 
In the New Forest I came across a few on Aug. 10th, in a boggy 
spot about a couple of miles from Brockenhurst ; but there 
apparently are not many in the Forest, at any rate in the 
southern part. One or two specimens of this species had a ten- 
dency to saffron suffusion of the fore wings, not an uncommon 
form of variation amongst the Libelluline dragonflies. 

CorduUa cenea was met with on several occasions — at the 
Black Pond on May 16th, May 23rd, and June 13th ; over 
the canal, near Byfleet, on June 7th; and at Wisley Pond on 
June 23rd. 

Between Aug. 1st and 14th C or diileg aster annidatus was very 
common in the New Forest, generally flying low along the 
streams. Large numbers of males might have been taken, but 
I noticed only one female, which was captured as she was ovi- 
positing. 

In Surrey, Anax formosus, though certainly very difficult to 
capture, is not so uncommon an insect as is often supposed, and 
it cannot be confused with any other dragonfly, for there are none 
on the wing during its time of flight that it at all resembles. 
Good numbers were out at the Black Pond on June 13th, and 
several were about still on July 25th. On July 18th I took a 
female there which had a blue abdomen, somewhat like the one 
figured by Charpentier;* but all other females I have taken have 
been quite green. On July 25th I caught a male which I had 
just observed catch a S. scoticum. This it let go in the net. I 
then, while holding formosus by the wings, offered it another 
scoticum, which it seized and held with its legs (not its jaw). 
After being bitten scoticum was let fall. I again offered the 
scoticum, which (except the wings and part of the abdomen) was 
devoured with gusto. I also saw this species at Wisley Pond on 

* ' Libelluliuse europaese,' pi. 45, fig. 1. 



282 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

Jane 22nd and 23rd, and took a male on Bookham Common on 
July 3rd. Brachijtron pratejise was noticed on June 7fcli at the 
canal near Byfleet, and on June 23rd at Wisley Pond. 

Though a good many ^schnas were seen, I took but two 
during the season, an early female j^. cijanea near Esher on July 
25th, and a female M. mixta at Wisley Pond on Sept. 11th. On 
the latter date I had been watching for some time, in one corner 
of the large pond, a small Mschna, which I took to be mixta, 
especially as it flew rather high, a habit which rightly or wrongly 
I have associated with this insect. Other ^schnas went up to 
it, but left it alone. Presently it went away towards the smaller 
pond. Later I went there, and saw the same insect, or another 
somewhat like it, flying about some bushes. After a time it 
settled, whereupon I secured it, and sure enough it was a splendid 
female mixta, a new record for Wisley, and my second capture of 
the species, my first of the female. Strangely enough, a day 
or two later Mr. M. Burr sent me a male of the same species, 
which he had knocked down at East Grinstead on Sept. 12th 
with a tennis-racket — an ignominious method of capture, con- 
sidering the patient watching that is usually required before 
securing an insect belonging to the genus A^schna. The last 
jEschna seen though I could not identify it, was on Oct. 10th 
at Esher. 

Calopteryx virgo was still fairly common in many places in 
the New Forest, between Aug. 1st and 14th, though its real 
season was over. C. splendens swarmed in many places in 
Surrey. I took it between June 7th and July 11th, principally 
along the canals and rivers ; only stragglers were taken at the 
Black Pond and Wisley Pond. On Aug. 19th one female was 
taken on the bank of the Thames — in Berks, at Eynsham, a few 
miles from Oxford. 

Lestes sponsa was taken over a tiny, almost dried-up pond 
near Brockenhurst on Aug. 13th, at Wisley Pond on Aug. 16tli 
and Sept. 11th, and two were captured on a cool windy day 
(Sept. 4th) on Winchelsea marshes. 

But six Platycnemis pennipes were taken near Newark Abbey, 
in Surrey, on July 11th, but the species was very common in 
some places in the New Forest in the beginning of August, and I 
found a few by the Thames side in Berks, near Eynsham, on 
Aug. 19th. 

Between June 7th and Aug. 19th, Iscknura elegans was noticed 
in several localities : Canal at Byfleet ; near Newark Abbey, 
Surrey ; in the New Forest ; at Wisley Pond ; and in Berks, 
near Eynsham. 

Agrion puella was not noticed till May 23rd, but it had a long 
period, for the last to be noted occurred on Aug. 16th. Localities 
were the Black Pond, not very common ; Longcross, Surrey ; 



DEAGONFLIES IN 1897. 283 

canal, near Byfleet ; Wisley Pond ; Booliham Common ; near 
Newark Abbey ; near Brockenhurst. A. cyathigerum was on the 
wing still longer than A. imella, for the first was seen on May 
16th, and the last on Sept. 26th, the localities being Black Pond, 
very common ; canal, near Byfleet ; Bookham Common ; New 
Forest. Charpentier * figures the female blue ; but, though I 
have taken several blue females, most are greenish in ground 
colour. The spot on the second segment of the male, which 
is usually elliptical, has not seldom a point anteriorly, and 
in one case was reduced to a thin transverse streak detached 
from the circlet as the spot often is when normal in shape. 
A. pidchellum was fairly common in one restricted spot by the 
side of the canal, near Byfleet, on June 7th and July 11th. 
On Aug. 3rd I found A. mercuriale fairly common along one 
of the streams in the New Forest. In several cases they were 
flying in pairs, but the majority were males. A few days later 
I saw no females at all. On the wing this insect closely 
resembles A. puella, A. cyathigerum, or A. pidchellum, but it is 
decidedly smaller (see Plate, fig. 1). The males of this species 
may be at once recognised by the very distinctive mark on the 
second segment, an enlarged drawing of which is shown in 
the figure. The females are dark, like those of A. puella or 
A. cyathigerum. 

Between May 2nd and Aug. 5th, Pyrrhosoma minium was met 
with in a number of localities — Black Pond ; Longcross, near 
Chertsey ; canal, near Byfleet ; near Newark Abbey ; and one 
or two places in the New Forest. Specimens with a bunch of 
acari attached to the under surface of the thorax were taken at 
Longcross. P. tenellum was as usual later than its congener. It 
was on the wing from June 13th till Sept. 11th, and was noticed 
at the Black Pond in large numbers, and in a few localities in 
the New Forest. 

Erythromma najas, a very local dragonfly, swarmed in a some- 
what restricted locality at the canal, near Byfleet, on June 7th. 
Some were taken at Wisley Pond on June 23rd, and, strange to 
say, a single specimen, a male, was taken at rest on the evening 
of June 17th at the Black Pond, this making yet another new 
record for that prolific locality. 

21, Knight's Park, Oct. 19th, 1897. 

* 'Libellulmse europseae,' pi. 42, fig. 1. 



284 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

CHORTODES MORRISII, Dale MSS., Morris = 
G. BONDII, Knaggs. 

By J. W. TuTT, F.E.S. 

I AM sorry to disagree with so eminent a lepidopterist as 
Dr. Knaggs, but as I long ago came independently to precisely 
the same conclusion as Mr. Meyrick as to hondii, Knaggs, being 
simply a synonym of morrisli, Morris (or Dale), and as I have 
had reason occasionally to adversely criticise some of Mr. Mey- 
rick 's work, I think it only just to say plainly that I agree with 
him absolutely on this point, and disagree just as absolutely 
with Dr. Knaggs. 

So far as this is a matter of fact and not of sentiment, I 
would ask any lepidopterist interested in the subject to compare 
carefully Humphrey and Westwood's figure, which Dr. Knaggs 
dismisses as " an insect with narrow pointed wings, purporting 
to represent morrisli," with a good series of the Folkestone 
insect, and say whether they are not identical, and again, if they 
think not, I would ask what other British insect the ^figure 
represents ? 

The fact that the Kev. F. 0. Morris, in 1872, forgot something 
that he had done in 1837, thirty-five years before, is not wonder- 
ful. To say the least, Mr. Morris was not a deeply scientific 
entomologist. Besides, to what other Acosmetia (in the old 
sense) are the opening words of his own description, "Pale 
straw-colour approaching to silvery white," &c., applicable ? 
There were many things entomological, if we take Morris's book 
as a standard, of which that author was apparently unaware. 
In fact, he seems to have been much more "unaware" than he 
was "aware" of some of the subjects of which he treated, but 
that does not alter the fact that Charmouth, where the original 
morrisii were captured, is, next to Folkestone, the best known 
locality for hondii. I do not wish to quibble about Charmouth 
and Lyme Eegis and their respective positions. I take the 
report of Mr. Goss as to its distribution as the important factor 
in this direction, and most working lepidopterists know that the 
Lyme Eegis locality has long since been found to extend almost 
to Charmouth. 

There are many important things relating to the enquiries 
that have been made into the synonymy of this species of which 
Dr. Knaggs does not seem to be aware. Some six years ago I 
thoroughly sifted the matter, and wrote as follows (* British 
Nocture and their Varieties,' vol. iv. p. 97) : — " This (morrisii) 
certainly is not a pale variety of arcuosa. The original descrip- 
tion and notes relating to morrisii, copied from Humphrey and 
Westwood, are as follows : * Acosmetia morrisii, Dale (' Naturalist,' 
ii. p. 88, and Errata) : This species measures about an inch in 



CHORTODES MORRISII. 285 

the expanse of the fore wings, which, as well as the hind wings 
and body, are entirely of a pale whitish colour ; the costa of the 
fore wings slightly brownish, &c. Named by Mr. Dale after the 
Eev. F. 0. Morris, who discovered it. It has been taken several 
times on the East Sea Cliff, Charmouth, Dorset, at the beginning 
of July. We are indebted to Beverley E. Morris, Esq., for the 
loan of two specimens differing somewhat in size' ('British 
Moths,' p. 243, pi. liv. fig. 12). The probability of this being 
identical with hond'ii, on an examination of Humphrey and 
Westwood's figure, the hind wings of which are strikingly those 
of hondii, was immediately strengthened by the knowledge that 
Mr. Tugwell had previously recorded hondii from Lyme Eegis, a 
few miles from Charmouth, where the typical specimens of 
morrisii were captured by Mr. Morris. I wrote to Mr. Tugwell, 
asking him about the probability of hondii occurring at Char- 
mouth, and he wrote : ' The locality for hondii at Lyme Eegis is, 
I believe, about ten miles as the crow flies from Charmouth ; but 
from what I saw of the coast-line, I should judge that hondii 
might occur in many places between the two towns. I only 
worked the Devonshire side of Lyme Eegis, but found it in 
plenty there' {in litt. 18/7/92). This, therefore, helps to support 
my determination of Humphrey and Westwood's figure, and 
morrisii will have to be struck out as a variety of arcuosa and 
added as a synonym of hondii, which name, indeed, it will 
replace if extrcnvi be not generally accepted for this species, as 
morrisii is much anterior to hondii. There can be no doubt 
that Humphrey and Westwood's figure is made from indubitable 
morrisii, for the specimens were sent by Mr. Beverley Morris 
from the collection of the Eev. F. 0. Morris, the original captor. 
It has always appeared strange to me that so common a species 
as hondii has since proved itself to be in its favoured localities 
should have been quite unknown to our older collectors who met 
with many of our rarer species. 

" With regard to the occurrence of hondii in the neighbour- 
hood where the original morrisii came from, Mr. Goss writes : 
' Although probably most lepidopterists are aware that T. hotidii 
is to be found in the neighbourhood of Lyme Eegis, I do not 
think the occurrence of this species in Devonshire has been 
noticed in this magazine. As the species is so extremely local, 
not only in this country but on the Continent of Europe, it may 
be as well to record the fact of my finding it in abundance, in the 
beginning of July last, on the rough broken ground forming the 
slopes of the cliff" immediately to the west of the cement-works at 
Lyme Eegis, well into Devonshire. It may be worth noting that 
of the two localities in this country from which this species has 
yet been obtained, one is in the south-east of Devon, and the other 
m the south-east of Kent ' (Ent. Mo. Mag. xvii. p. 134) ; whilst 
the editors of the Ent. Mo. Mag. note at the same time that the 



286 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

species was first discovered at Lyme Eegis by Mr. Percy Wor- 
mald, and noticed in ' The Zoologist,' vol. xxi. p. 8861." 

As the foregoing extract was published in 1892, and Mr. 
Meyrick's 'Handbook' in 1895, it would have been well if Dr. 
Knaggs, in correcting "some inaccuracies" made by Mr. Mey- 
rick, had set forth logically both sides of the question, when he 
might have discovered that others who had studied the question 
de novo were in perfect accord with Mr. Meyrick. 

I am rather inclined to think with Dr. Knaggs that the species 
will have to be in future written Chortodes morrisii, Morris, and 
not Chortodes morrisii, Dale. 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF IRELAND. 

By W. F. de Vismes Kane, M.A., M.E.LA., F.E.S. 

(Continued from p. 238.) 

EupiTHECiA SATYEATA, HI). — Is fouud commonly on all the 
bogs and moors of Ireland. It varies greatly, the whitish grey 
variety having been met with at Derry (C.) ; Churchill, Co. 
Armagh {J.) ; near Favour Eoyal, Tyrone ; Moycullen, Conne- 
mara ; Markree Castle, Sligo, and Knocknarea (Buss). A 
striking form with well-marked striae, but perhaps not so strongly 
banded as most examples of the var. carzoni, occurs at Powers- 
court, Co. Wicklow ; and on the Belfast hills Mr. Watts met 
with similar specimens. The var. subatrata also occurs abun- 
dantly near Galway (A.), and Moycullen ; at Mohill, Co. Leitrim; 
Favour Eoyal, Tyrone ; and elsewhere. 

EupiTHEciA CASTiGATA, Hb. — One of the commonest species 
of this genus throughout Ireland, and most variable in markings 
and tint. Large examples with strongly marked striga; are often 
difficult to distmguish from E. lariciata. 

EupiTHECiA JASIONEATA, Crewc. — This interesting species ap- 
pears to be confined to the south-west corner of Ireland, not 
Jjaving so far been captured out of Kerry and the portion of Cork 
which includes Bautry Bay. In those districts, however, it is 
found abundantly both along the shores of Dingle and Bantry 
Bay, and inland from Kenmare, as well as about Killarney ; in 
fact, generally wherever Jasione montana is plentiful. The first 
Irish specimens were brought as pupae by certain collectors of 
Mr. Meek, who, taking them to belong to some common s]3ecies, 
threw them out on a dust-heap in his yard. In due time many 
of them emerged, and proved to be the scarce Eupithecia named 
by Mr. Crewe from Cornish specimens. They are to be taken 
in flight at dusk where plentiful, but are more easily captured 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTEKA OF IRELAND. 287 

as larvffi on their food-plant. They vary somewhat, and often 
are handsomely marked with pale strigse outside the central 
spot and the elbowed line. 

EupiTHEciA TRisiGNARiA, H, S. — Howth {B.) I havB not met 
with it in Ireland. 

EupiTHECiA viRGAUREATA, DM. — Howth, Powerscourt, Co. 
Wicklow, and Killarney (B.) ; Knocknarea, rare {Buss}, and 
Markree Castle, Co. Sligo ; Armagh {J.) ; Clonbrock, Co. Galway 
{B. E. D.) ; Glendalough, Co. Wicklow. Mr. Campbell recorded 
this species from near Derry, as I understand, in error. 

EupiTHECiA FRAxiNATA, Cvewe. — Very rare, Killarney ; Clon- 
brock [B. E. D.) and Ardrahan, Co. Galway ; Markree Castle, 
Co. Sligo. 

EupiTHECiA piMPiNELLATA, Hh. — Howth {B.). At a quarry by 
Dean Rock on the Lough road, Cork {Holt) ; near Derry (C) ; 
and probably Birchair 8 record of denotata, Killarney {Wallace) 
refers to this species. 

EupiTHECiA vALERiANATA, Hh. — I have met with the larvae in 
Lord Earnham's demesne, Cavan. Imagines taken at Moy- 
cuUen, Co. Galway, were identified by Mr. Barrett as probably 
of this species. 

[EupiTHECiA iNNOTATA, Hufii. — Birchall's Wicklow record must 
be deleted. There is a reference in the Ent. Mo. Mag. vol. ii. 
261, to a capture of this species in the "North of Ireland."] 

EupiTHECiA iNDiGATA, Hh. — This specics has probably been 
overlooked, and will be found more widely distributed than my 
localities suggest. The tracts of country in Donegal, Galway, 
Leitrim, and Mayo, where wild juniper grows freely, still await 
careful exploration by entomologists. Altadiawan, Co. Tyrone 
{M.F.); Clonbrock {B.E.D.) and Galway {A.); Derry (C.) ; 
and some very black specimens taken near Belfast by Mr. Watts 
are questionably referable to this species, but probably to assimi- 
lata {G.C.B.). 

EupiTHECiA coNSTRicTATA, Gil. — Mr. Barrett's statement that 
this insect was generally distributed and common, and that he 
had taken it in considerable numbers at Howth, Galway, and 
Killarney, has been corroborated by its subsequent capture in 
many localities since. Howth {G. V. H.), Glendalough, Co. 
Wicklow; Eavour Boyal, Tyrone; Armagh {J.) ; Castle Belling- 
ham {Thornhill) ; Island Magee and Kilkeel, Co. Down {W.) ; 
Knocknarea {Buss) and Markree Castle, Co. Sligo ; Drumaweir, 
Inishowen {G. V. H.), and Derry (C.) ; Kilcornan, Co. Galway. 
Staudinger gives no continental localities for this insect. 

EupiTHECiA NANATA,/iZ>.— Universally distributed and common 



288 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

on all the bogs and mountain tracts of Ireland. The whitish 
strigge are sometimes not very conspicuous, but I have seen no 
specimens approaching var. obscurata, Stgr., in which they are 
almost obsolete. 

EupiTHECi.'V suBNOTATA, Hb. — Mr. Birchall met with it in 
some numbers. I have taken it on the Dublin coast, at Howth, 
Lambay Island, and Skerries. 

EupiTHECiA vuLGATA, Hciw. — Everywhere common. Variable 
in colour and strength of markings. I have seen nothing like 
the Hebridean form, 

EupiTHECiA ALBiPUNCTATA, Haiv. — LarvBB taken at Queens- 
town, Co. Cork, by Harper-Crewe. Knocknarea {Russ). 

EuPiiHECiA EXPALLiDATA, Gw. — Wicklow (Biv.) ', Howth and 
Skerries, Co. Dublin; Castle Bellingham, several {Thornhill) ; 
Killynon, Westmeath, one; Magilligan, Co. Derry (Curzon). 
Great difficulty exists in identifying this species unless it is fresh, 
and some doubt having been expressed as to the captures of my- 
self and Mr. Thornhill at Castle Bellingham, I have carefully 
compared the series with bred specimens from the collections of 
the late F. Bond and the Rev. Joseph Greene. 

EupiTHEciA ABsiNTHiATA, C^erc^'. — Generally common. 

EupiTHECiA MiNUTATA, G)i. —Rather common in most places. 

EupiTHECiA AssiMiLATA, Dbl. — Dubliu {B.) ; Roches Point, 
Co. Cork ; Markree Castle, Co. Shgo ; Clonbrock, Co. Galway ; 
Favour Royal, Tyrone. 

EupiTHEciA TENui.ATA, ii^^.— Widely spread, and often not 
uncommon. Killarney (B.) ; common in Co. Wicklow, at Ark- 
low, GlenmaluL-e, and Wooden Bridge {G.V.II.); Knockdrin, 
near MuUiugar ; Markree Castle, and Knocknarea (Russ), Co. 
Sligo ; Derry (JV.E.H.); Castle Bellingham, abundant, Co. 
Louth [Thornhill) ; Armagh, and Belleek, Co. Fermanagh (J.). 

EupiTHECiA LARiciATA, FtT. — When I first added this species 
to the Irish list, I had little idea that it would subsequently 
prove so widely spread as subsequent observation has indicated. 
It would seem extremely improbable that Birchall could have 
overlooked it if it existed in his time with the same distribution 
and numerical proportions. His last su^jplement to the ' Cata- 
logue' was published many years after its discovery in England. 
I am therefore of opinion that this moth is a recent introduction 
to our fauna, consequent on the extension of planting operations, 
especially of larch, since his time. The imago varies a good 
deal in size and marking, some specimens being small and 
obscurely marked, and approaching E. castigata in general ap- 
pearance. Knockross, on the shore of L. Derrevaragh, Co. 
Westmeath, numerous; Altadiawan, Co. Tyrone, numerous; 



A CATALOGUE OF THE LEPIDOPTEKA OF IRELAND. 289 

Knocknarea (Russ) and Markree Castle, Co. Sligo ; near Done- 
gal ; Drumreaske, Monaghan ; Castle Bellingham, Louth {Thorn- 
hill) ; Glendalough, Co. Wicklow ; Howth (G. V. H.) ; Cratloe, 
near Limerick; Ardrahan, and near Galway {A.). 

EuPiTHEOiA ABBREviATA, 6^f.— Widely spread and common in 
many localities in Wicklow, Kerry, Galway, &c. I have not 
met with it numerously in the North of Ireland. The following 
are a few localities where it is more or less numerous : — Killarney ; 
Powerscourt, Arklow, and Wooden Bridge, Wicklow ; Clonbrock, 
very abundant, Co. Galway ; Markree Castle, &c., Sligo ; Derry 
(C); Ballycastle, Co. Antrim [Curzon) ; Favour Koyal, Tyrone ; 
Drumreaske, Monaghan ; Belleisle, on L. Erne, &c. 

EupiTHECiA DODONEATA, Gn. — Has occurred in several widely 
separated districts in the centre and north of L-eland. Powers- 
court and Glendalough, Co. Wicklow ; Armagh {J.) ; near Gal- 
way, fairly abundant (A.); Knocknarea (Buss), (Ent. Eecord, 
vol. vii.). 

EupiTHECiA ExiGUATA, lib. — Not scarcc, and widely spread. 
Common at Powerscourt and other parts of Wicklow ; Dublin 
(B.) ; Killynon, Co. Westmeath {Miss B.) ; Drumreaske, Mona- 
ghan, abundant ; Favour Eoyal, Tyrone ; Kenmare and Killar- 
ney, numerous ; Sligo {Buss) ; Clonbrock and Merlin Park, 
Galway. 

EupiTHECiA soBRiNATA, HI). — A good series was beaten from 
juniper at Tudor Cottage, near Kingstown, by the Eev. Joseph 
Greene many years ago. The Eev. W. F. Johnson has taken it 
at Armagh similarly. These no doubt are introduced specimens 
from nursery gardens. On the indigenous plants, however, it 
has also occurred at Knocknarea, near Sligo {Buss) ; and Mr. 
Barrett met with it in the Co. Antrim, and Mr. Watts at Slieve 
Donard, Co. Down. 

EupiTHECiA TOGATA, Hb. — This piuc-feedcr appears to be 
spreading over an extensive area in Ireland as a result of the 
planting of spruce-fir, and must be considered an introduced 
species. I first met with it at Knockdrin, near Mullingar, where 
Miss Eeynell captured the first specimen, and it proved to be 
fairly numerous, as well as at Eockview, where I took the larvas 
abundantly. Agher, Co. Meath {Miss B.) ; Killarney, one {W.) ; 
Sligo, one {M'C); Clonbrock, Co. Galway, abundant, by Mr. 
Dillon and myself ; and at Coolarne in the same county {A.). At 
Mote Park, Eoscommon, and at Charleville Forest, Tullamore, 
Kings Co., and Drumreaske, I found traces of the larvae. The 
Irish specimens I have seen appear to belong to the true type, 
being handsomely marbled with red ; while the Scottish grey 
form appears more like the species abietaria, Goze (as was 



290 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

pointed out to me by Mr. Tutt\ whose larvae feed similarly on 
fir-cones. 

EupiTHECiA PUMiLATA, Hb. — Everywhere numerous in both 
emergences. 

EupiTHECiA coRONATA, Hb. — Widely spread, but not apparently 
to be taken in numbers. Dublin, and Wicklow {B.) ; Drumreaske, 
Monaghan ; Favour Royal, Tyrone ; near Derry (C.) ; shores of 
L. Gill, Sligo ; near Kenmare, and at Killarney ; Crookhaven 
and Glengarrifif, Co. Cork. 

EupiTHECiA RECTANGULATA, L. — I havo met with no remark- 
able forms in Ireland. It is numerous in many localities. 
Drumreaske, Monaghan ; Armagh (J.) ; Ballygawley, Tyrone ; 
Tempo Manor, Enuiskillen (Langham) ; Castle Bellingbam, 
Louth {Thornhill); Derry {W.E.H.); Eockwood, Sligo; Kil- 
larney ; Clonbrock {R. E. D.) ; Galway, &c. 

EupiTHECiA DEBiLiATA, Hb. — Locally abundant in a few places. 
Tore Wood, Killarney ; Markree and Eockwood, near Sligo ; 
Glendalough, Co. Wicklow ; Dromana, Co. Waterford ; Clon- 
brock, Co. Galway, one {R. E.D.). 

(To be continued.) 



RE -APPEARANCE OF DEILEPHILA GALII ON THE 
LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE COAST. 

By THE Rev. A. Miles Moss. 

Deilephila galii has been in the district again and we have all 
but missed it ! If you tell your friends you are going to search 
for I), galii they laugh at you, and suggest that you might as 
well go out to look for gold watches ! And this is the way we 
lose the prize. 

No one will deny that the genuine, hnrd- working, field ento- 
mologist is a true sample of that dogged persistency of which 
we English, as a nation, are proud. He has made up his mind 
that he is not going to be beaten, and that no pains shall be 
spared when there is any reasonable chance of success. 

But in a case like the present he is not always on the alert, 
and is sometimes apt to be behind the times. I know it has 
been so with me this year, or I should have been able to furnish 
the pages of the ' Entomologist ' with a glowing record. 

But to proceed. On Sunday, Sept. 12th, Mr. Prince, an 
entomological friend, told me that D. galii had turned up some- 
where on the Welsh coast, and he suggested the possibility of it 
also occurring at Wallasey. So, determined to give the place a 



REAPPEARANCE OF DBILEPHILA GALII. 291 

thorough search on the first opportunity, I took train out to 
Wallasey on the following Tuesday, Sept. 14th. My friend 
would have joined me in the expedition had he been free, but he 
was unfortunately detained by work. 

On approaching the Wallasey golf-house I met a boy with a 
butterfly net, so I made his acquaintance, and asked him what 
he had found. He had not been searching the bedstraw, and had 
only got larvae of Bombi/x ruhi ; however, a man working on the 
greens had shown him a curious hawk-caterpillar, which he de- 
scribed as being like Chmrocampa elpenor, biit with eyes all along 
the body. I guessed at once what it was, and thanked the lad 
for his information, telling him that in all probability it was the 
very creature I was in quest of. My first hunt therefore was to 
find this green-keeper, which I soon succeeded in doing, and 
there, sure enough, in the bottom of a tin was poor galii, trying 
to turn without any sand. The man very generously gave it to 
me, refusing to hear of any remuneration. I might mention 
here that it turned to a pupa the same evening on my return 
home, and is, I fear, slightly deformed through its rough 
handling. He had found it when half-grown, on a grassy 
meadow on the golf-course, and had kept it for a fortnight. It 
may seem an odd roundabout way of picking up knowledge, but 
this is where the motto of our excellent monthly journal comes 
in — " By mutual confidence and mutual aid great deeds are 
done and great discoveries made." To this spot I proceeded, 
but it did not look a likely place, as there was but little sand, and 
what bedstraw there was was growing amongst thick short grass. 
I could find no trace of any larvsG here, so I took a straight 
course of four or five hundred yards to the sandhills bordering 
the shore, where I soon discovered a mound with bedstraw 
growing sparsely all over the sand, and an occasional thicker 
patch. 

It looked an ideal place, and so it would have been for me 
had I been there a week earlier. Not one or two, but numbers 
of galii had been feeding there, for the sand in many places was 
literally strewn with large pellets of frass, some still quite fresh, 
but I was too late. The nature of the place was such that I 
could not have missed them, had they been there as caterpillars, 
and an hour's diligent search only produced the shrivelled but 
unmistakable skin of one that had succumbed. In two other 
spots along the coast I found frass, but not in the same quantity, 
and was again only doomed to disappointment, finding two more 
dead. I could not leave without trying every expedient, so, 
borrowing a spade from a house on the links, I returned to the 
spot where the larvae had been plentiful. I took my coat oft' and 
set to work with a will; but though I dug deep and shallow, and 
ere and there and everywhere, it was all to no purpose. 

I feel confident that galii, like many other larvae, sometimes 



292 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

wanders some distance before turning, and with no apparent 
reason, except it be natural instinct of self-preservation, or some 
provision of nature whereby the creature, by being kept in 
motion, is the better able to get rid of all digested food, and thus 
become prepared for the pupal stage. We know not : it is 
merely my own idea and it may be wrong, though I can produce 
arguments to support it. 

Even now, as I write, I have three or four larvae of Macro- 
fjlossa stellatarum that have turned colour, and have for two days 
been wandering round their box from end to end, apparently un- 
decided as to where to pupate. I might mention that these 
larvae, varying from infancy to old age, have just been found at 
West Kirby, on Sept. 18th, but no signs of D. galii were to be 
found there. 

But I must get on This day, which had stirred my hopes 
and expectations to their very zenith, ended in failure and dis- 
appointment, and I went home feeling very angry with myself for 
not having been " more on the spot," in every sense of the term, 
a week earlier. I ought to add that on Aug. 17th I searched 
carefully over much of the same ground for Choerocampa por- 
cellus and M. stellatarum with much the same result. I was a 
week too late. The frass of both these larvae, more especially 
M. stellatarum, was there, but they appeared to have been all 
of one batch, and every larva had gone down. Not a trace 
of any email galii larvae did I see, showing clearly that the 
period from ova to full-grown larva must occupy less than four 
weeks. 

The golfer after a bad day's sport goes home and vows he will 
never touch a club again, but invariably the next sunny morning 
sees him issuing forth to the fray again, recruited in strength 
and prepared to face and overcome any difficulty. In fact, some 
unknown quantity within him seems to whisper, "You can and 
will succeed if you stick to it and try again." It was with senti- 
ments of a similar nature that the morning of Sept. 18th found 
me training out to Waterloo to make trial of the bedstraw there. 
A brief two hours' search was all that I could afford ; however it 
was enough. The spot which I visited has been known to me 
since 1884, and, though in the midst of houses and infested by 
hens, the bedstraw grows well, and has generally been productive 
o'f C. porcellus and M. stellatarum (when present in the district at 
all). The first patch near the road showed me that D. galii had 
also visited the Lancashire coast this year, for there was the 
frass, and there, sad to say, was a dead caterpillojjii The head 
and first two segments were quite fresh and still brightly 
coloured, but to all appearance a hen had been sampling the 
latter portion. Nearer to the sea I again found frass, but was 
once more disappointed as the caterpillar had gone, probably 
having buried on the previous day. However, success eventually 



REAPPEARANCE OP DEILEPHILA GALII. 293 

crowned my efforts ; and in half an hour's time I was the happy 
possessor of three real living larvae of D. galii nearly full fed. 
The search also revealed at least half a dozen other mashed-up 
remains in various stages of growth. The three which I found 
alive were not far apart from one another, but all in different 
places. It was the first time my eyes had beheld their full 
glory, and splendid creatures they are indeed. Two of these 
larvae, after wandering round the breeding-cage in the same 
uneasy manner as stellatarum before mentioned, have at length 
buried ; the third, I am happy to say, is now a successfully pre- 
served specimen for the cabinet. It seemed a shame to kill it ; 
but I think the action is justified by the result, for I never had a 
smooth caterpillar which retained its shape and colour better 
when blown. I have since been able to complete my search of 
the bedstraw growing along the coast-line as far as the ladies' 
golf-course at Hall Eoad, some two miles north of Waterloo, but 
can find no more traces of galii, though stellatarum has been 
there sparingly. Had I not been bound by parochial ties I should 
doubtless have made a still more thorough search for this 
interesting species ; but the amount of time I have already 
spent on these sandy wastes has been smiting my conscience 
somewhat. However, one doesn't like to be beaten by a cater- 
pillar ; and, let these writing-desk entomologists say what they 
will, galii does not visit us every year. 

I should like to say much more as to my own views about this re- 
appearance, about migration, spasmodic habits, and the rest ; for 
though so much has been written on the subject in connection with 
Z). galii {vide letters by Messrs. Briggs, Corbett, Sharp, Tugwell, 
and Tutt in the 'Young Naturalist' for 1889 and 1890), yet how 
little can really be said to be known. So many theories are held, 
some of them more ingenious than practicable ; but at present 
we must all confess that it is a subject over which there are 
infinite possibilities, and one which calls forth a corresponding 
amount of interest. It is on this account, and because I believe 
that others will be as interested as myself, that I have presumed 
to trespass on so much of the valuable space of this journal. If 
I have unnecessarily gone into details at too great length, I 
apologise for it ; but to me this is where the interest lies. 

I am awaiting the next few monthly issues with keen 
expectation to see what others have experienced this year with 
D. galii. 

26, Hamilton Square, Birkenhead : Sept. 22nd, 1897. 



ENTOM. — NOV. 1897. 3 B 



294 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 

Variation of Callimorpha dominula, Linn. — The most widely dis- 
tributed, and perhaps the best known aberrant form of this species 
is var. rossica, Kolenati. This only differs from the type in having 
the hind wings yellow instead of scarlet. It occurs occasionally in 
almost all localities where the type is found ; Mr. Sabine obtained two 
specimens of it from Dover this year. 

Var. persona, Hiibn., is, so far as I know, only found in Southern 
Europe ; the hind wings are black, with an irregular and interrupted 
yellow patch at the base, and one, sometimes two, small yellow spots 
beyond this patch ; the spots on fore wings are much smaller than in 
the type. Var. italica, Standfuss, has the spots on fore wings very 
little larger than those of var. peisona, and the yellow markings on 
hind wings are more extensive. In both these forms the abdomen is 
black ; the thorax of ^je/so?ia is black also, and without, or with very 
faint traces of, yellow marking. 

In var. bithynica, Staud., all the spots on fore wings are yellow, but 
it does not differ materially in any other respect from the type. Var. 
hamelensis, Pfliim., has all the spots on fore wings white. 

Of these named varieties, rossica is the only one known to me to 
occur in England, but Kent is noted for the production of a melanic 
form. I have only seen one English example of this aberration, but 
Mr. Leech has a tine specimen of it in his collection, together with 
one or more examples of the other named forms. This specimen, 
which is labelled "Berlin," has the fore wings pretty much of the 
typical colour, but the spots are black, and only noticeable when the 
specimen is viewed in a certain way ; the hind wings are also black, 
with the typical markings showing in certain lights ; thorax colour of 
fore wings, abdomen black ; under surface uniformly rusty black. 

It has been stated that black specimens of C. dominula are patho- 
logical aberrations, and have no scientific value. To my mind the 
melanic form described above is quite as important from a scientific 
point of view as the other varieties of the species. As regards rossica, 
persona, italica, and the black form, I consider that they represent 
stages in the development of C. dominula, and that the black form is 
probably the most ancient. 

I may mention that a remarkable aberration of the species, quite 
unlike any of those previously referred to in these notes, is figured in 
the 'Entomologist' for 1883 (xvi. p. 1), and I should add that I have 
not seen vars. lusitanlca, bieli, and romanovi. — Richard South ; 100, 
Ritherdon Road, Upper Tooting, S.W. 

Aberration of Pieris rap^. — Mr. Sabine, of Erith, has been good 
enough to send for inspection some interesting varieties of certain 
species of Lepidoptera that he obtained this season. Among these are 
two female specimens of P. rapes, each of which has a small black spot 
on hind wings, placed between veins 3 and 4. In one example the 
costal spot of hind wing is much larger than usual, and the apical 
patch of fore wing extends, almost without interruption, to vein 4. 
They were taken by Mr. Sabine at Folkestone in September, and were 
the only examples of the species that he netted. 



NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS. 295 

Mr. A. M. Montgomery, of Ealing, has also obtained this extra- 
spotted form of the species this year. He writes : — " In a small brood 
of P. rapce (from ova deposited in captivity) three females out of 
twenty-two examples of that sex have a small cluster of black scales 
between veins 3 and 4. Two males out of sixteen in the same brood 
have traces of an additional spot placed below the usual black spot 
on fore wings. All the specimens emerged between August 18th 
and 25th." 

Previous to receiving specimens from Mr. Sabine, I had not noticed 
this extra spot on the hind wings of P. rapa, but I had seen it in 
females of the summer brood of both English and Irish P. napi ; also 
in females of the allied P. extensa var. eurydice and P. melete var. 
mandarina, both from China. In one or two examples of the latter, 
which seem to be exceptional instances, the outer area of hind wings 
has a more or less complete broad black or fuscous border, and it 
occurs to me that the black spot between veins 3 and 4 is probably a 
remnant of this border in the case of mandarina. Possibly the other 
species also had, in some ancient stage of their development, hind 
wings banded or bordered with black, and the black spots between 
veins 3 and 4 are vestiges of such bands or borders. — E. S. 

Aberration of Epinephele tithonus. — Mr. G. W. Oldfield has sent 
for examination the variety of E. tithonus described by him in the ' Ento- 
mologist ' for 1878 (xi. p. 228), as he considered that it agreed with the 
aberrant example of this species figured ante, p. 253. It differs, how- 
ever, from Mr. Spindler's specimen in the ground colour being pale 
brownish buff and not pinkish ochreous ; the black ring of apical 
ocellus on the fore wing is present in Mr. Oldfield's insect, but absent 
in the Luggershall example. At the first October meeting of the 
South London Entomological and Natural History Society, Mr. Mont- 
gomery exhibited an aberrant example of E. tithonus which appeared 
to me to be almost identical with Mr. Oldfield's variety. A some- 
what similar form of Epinephele (Satyrus) ianira is figured Entom xi. 
p. 1.— R. S. 

Aberration of Vanessa urtic^. — In two specimens of V. urticce, 
bred by Mr. Sabine, the three blue marks nearest the apex of fore 
wings are ray-like in character, and extend inwards along the nervules 
almost or quite to the edge of the black marginal border. — E. S. 

Aberration of Smerinthus tili^e. — From a larva found at North- 
ampton an example of this insect was bred in which the broad central 
band on the fore wings is reduced to a small oblong spot. The outer 
margins are also much suffused with reddish. — A. D. Imms ; " Lint- 
hurst," Oxford Road, Moseley, Worcestershire, Oct. 1897. 

[The central band of fore wings is usually more or less interrupted 
about the middle, the lower portion is often absent, and less frequently 
the upper portion also ; but all gradations between the complete band 
and its entire absence occur. An interesting specimen is figured 
(Entom. xxvii. p. 50) in which there is no trace of the band on the 
left fore wing, while on the right fore wing the band is merely repre- 
sented by a spot at the outer end of the discal cell. — Ed.] 

Gynandrous Example of Dicranura bifida. — In this specimen, 



296 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

which was bred by Mr. Lewingfcon, of Market Kasen, the right side is 
male and the left side female. So far as can be seen with the aid of 
a strong lens, the bilateralism seems to extend to the sexual organs, 
so that gynandromorphism is complete. Dorfmeister (Stett. Ent. 
Zeit. 1868, p. 181), theorising upon the origin of gynandrous speci- 
mens of Lepidoptera, suggests that part of a male germ and part of a 
female germ come together in the formation of the egg which is 
destined to produce a gynandrous example. Consequently, wherever 
one such specimen appears in a brood there should be another similar 
one resulting from the other parts of the two germs. As a test of the 
soundness of his views, he proposed that experiments should be tried 
by breeding whole broods from the egg, and instanced Ocneria dispar 
and Lasioccniipa quercifoUa as suitable species for the purpose. Further 
information on the subject will be found in a paper entitled " Uber die 
hermaphroditische Anlage der Sexual driisen beim Mannchen von 
Phyllodromia yermanica," published in 1890 (Zool. Anz. xiii. 451-457). 

Gynandkous example of Lyc^na ICARUS. — A specimen of L. icarus, 
sent to Mr. Sabine from Dover, has the left wings male in character on 
both surfaces, but the right wings are those of a female, the upper 
surface being coloured bright blue as in var. cmnilea. The orange 
lunules on the upper surface of the right fore wing are present, but not 
clearly defined, whilst those of the right hind wing are partly absent. 

Leucorrhinia dubia, var. — All the wings suffused with smoky 
saffron, the suffusion strongest at the wing bases, and weakening 
gradually towards the margins. A specimen taken on Whitegate 
Heaths (Delamere Forest), June 5th ; the only one I have ever cap- 
tured. — J. Arkle ; Chester. 

AcosMETiA MORKisii, Morris. — With regard to Dr. Knaggs's note on 
this insect {ante, p. 256), I should like to call attention to the fact that 
Mr. Meyrick has simply accepted the conclusions arrived at in Tutt's 
' British Noctuae,' vol. iv. pp. 99--100, where a discussion of the matter 
will be found, which has apparently been overlooked by Dr. Knaggs. 
It appears to me that, even if Morris's original description is inadequate, 
the work of Humphreys and Westwood should not be left out of con- 
sideration.— Louis B. Prout; 246, Eichmoud Road, N.E., Oct. 8, 1897. 

White Female of Colias chrysotheme near Vienna. — On Aug. 25th 
last, when I was collecting C. chrysotheme on the high ground above 
Modling, in the neighbourhood of Vienna, I was fortunate enough to 
take one white female, freshly emerged and in perfect condition, as 
indeed were most of its more gaily-coloured, if less interesting, com- 
panions. There was no doubt as to its identity, as neither C. edusa nor 
C. myrmidone were flying in that locality, and it resembled the other 
females exactly in size, shape of wings, and markings. About a week 
later I had the pleasure of a few minutes' conversation with Dr. 
Staudinger at Dresden, and upon making inquiries from him respecting 
this insect he informed me that a white variety of C. chrysotheme had 
never before come under his notice ; it had no name, and he did not 
possess one in the whole of his immense collection. However, he said 
as this form occurred not unfrequeutly among other species of this 
genus, there was no reason why G. chrysotheme should be an exception. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 297 

I should be very glad if any continental collector would tell me if they 
have ever met with it. I also took, on Aug. 27th, in the same locality, 
a male specimen of this species in which the entire orange ground- 
colour of both wings was vividly shot with pink-mauve, a few of the 
females possessing a very slight inclination to the same. Is this a com- 
mon feature in fresh specimens of C. chrysotheme ? — M. E. Fountains ; 
7, Lansdowne Place (East), Bath, Oct. 1897. 

Monographs of the Genera of Lepidoptera. — Messrs. L. Eeeve & Co. 
announce that they are about to publish a series of Monographs of the 
genera of Lepidoptera. The first of the series will be on the genus Tera- 
coins, by Miss E. M. Bowdler-Sharpe ; this will be illustrated by figures 
of all known species from drawings by Miss Maud Horman-Fisher. 

Larva of Lophyrus pini feeding on Heather. — The sawfly larvae 
referred to {ante, p. 69) emerged as perfect insects June 6th and 11th. 
Mr. W. F. Kirby, who kindly identified the species for me, writes : — 
" The sawflies prove to be Lophyrus pini, Linn., a common species 
enough ; but yet you have made a discovery of some interest and 
importance, for Cameron says the Lophyridinfe feed exclusively on 
Coniferae ; and I am not sure that any sawfly has hitherto been recorded 
to feed on heath." — J. Arkle ; Chester. 

BoMBYx RUBi Larv^. — I have several times kept these over the 
winter under a bell-glass in an orchard, feeding them with bramble. 
I have reared Arctiafuliginosa in the same way. — E. Meynell; Durham. 

Further Note on Stauropus fagi. — Referring to my last note to 
you on S. fagi (ante, p. 270), I may say that the larvae are now spinning 
up all right, also that, although they were eight days less in the egg state, 
they were eight days longer in the larval state than the spring brood. 
From the time the eggs were deposited to the time the first larva spun 
up exactly fifty-seven days elapsed in the case of each brood ; so what 
the second brood gained in the egg state they lost in the larval state. — 
W. E. Butler; Hayling House, Oxford Road, Reading, Oct. 11, 1897. 

Larva of Lophopteryx camelina feeding on Wild Cherry. — When 
sugaring last month for Xanthia aurago, I found a larva of L. camelina 
feeding on wild cherry. I cannot find it given as a food-plant for that 
species in any of the books I have. — W. E. Butler ; Hayling House, 
Oxford Road, Reading, Oct. 11, 1897. 

Larentia flavicinctata in Ireland. — A specimen of this species, 
taken in Antrim, was exhibited at the September meeting of the South 
London Entomological and Natural History Society. 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 

Ennomos autumnaria (alniaria) in South Hants. — A specimen of 
this rare moth was taken here (Portchester) during the third week in Sep- 
tember, by Mr. Thomas Russell, who has kindly given it to me. It was 
in good condition. According to Kirby this insect is rare in England: is 
that so? — Madeline J. Stakes; Portchester, Oct. 9th, 1897. 

[Although the occurrence of this species in a wild state in England 



298 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

may, perhaps, be regarded as a rare event, it has been reared in numbers 
from ova obtained in the first instance from females captured in this 
country, chiefly on the south-east coast. There are other records of its 
having been found in Hampshire. — Ed. J 

Plusia moneta at Walton-on-Thames. — On July 8th last I captured 
a specimen of Plusia moneta at Walton-on-Thames. It was in very fair 
condition. — C. N. Hughes; 21, St. Ermins Mansions, Westminster, S.W. 

AcRONYCTA alni AT LiGHT. — I was much pleased at taking a specimen 
of this insect, at light, on June 27th, and would like to know if it has 
occurred in this locality before. Does it usually come to light? — W. A. 
Tyerman ; Damfield, MaghuU, Lancashire. [There are several records of 
the occurrence of this species in Lancashire, but we do not recall any 
previous instance of its having been taken at light. — Ed.] 

AcHERONTiA ATROPOS IN LANCASHIRE. — On Sept. 2nd this year a fine 
specimen of A. atropos (now in my possession) was captured by a friend, 
flying about in his house at Patricroft, a small town five miles from 
Manchester. This insect, so far as my experience goes, is a very unusual 
visitor to this neighbourhood, and as I have not seen recorded or heard of 
any other recent captures, I should be pleased to learn the experience of ray 
brother entomologists in Lancashire with regard to the species. — W. 
Buckley; 17, Upper Moss Lane, Hulme, Manchester, Sept. 28th, 1897. 

Sphinx convolvuli in Lincolnshire. — A specimen of Sphinx con- 
volvuU was brought to me on August 19th, which had been picked up from 
the pavement a few yards from my door. It was seen to fly from a privet- 
hedge. On examining it, I found its abdomen torn as if a mouse or bird 
had been attacking it. I may add that it was about the middle of the day 
when the specimen was found. — W. Lewington ; Market Rasen, Lines. 

Sphinx convolvuli in South Yorkshirk. — On Sept. 6th last I had 
a specimen of S. convolvuli brought to me by the owner of a foundry in the 
centre of this town, who found it at rest on the wall of a workshop. Electric 
light is used on the premises, so no doubt that was the attraction. Unfor- 
tunately, when it reached me it had gone through the inevitable match-box 
treatment, and is not in the best of condition. This is the second Barnsley 
specimen I have. — J. Harrison ; 7, Gawber Road, Barnsley. 

Sphinx convolvuli in Worcestershire. — A fine specimen of this 
moth was taken at rest on Sept. 3rd ; and on the 7th I saw a second speci- 
men hovering over the bloom of Nicotiana affinis in my garden. By the 
time I had rigged my net it had disappeared. — W. Edwards; Malvern. 

Sphinx convolvuli in Scotland. — A specimen of S. convolvuli was 
sent to me in September from Sutherlandshire. — W.M.Christy; Watergate. 

CoLiAS edusa in North Devonshire. — At Braunton, N. Devon, on 
Aug. 10th last, I captured two specimens of C. edusa and saw another, all 
within the space of five minutes, but did not see any more of this species 
during my stay of a fortnight there. — Chas. Bartlett; 58, Woodstock 
Road, Redland, Bristol, Oct. 2nd, 1897. 

CoLiAS edusa at Earnley, near Chichester. — I have seen, and 
know of, but one example of Colias edusa in this neighbourhood this season. 
The butterfly was taken at Earnley one day in the last week of August, by 
Master Arthur Buckell of this city. — Joseph Anderson Jun. ; Chichester, 



CAPTURES AND FIELD REPORTS. 299 

CoLiAs EDUSA IN THE PORTSMOUTH DISTRICT.— Mr. Christv reports a 
specimen of G. editsa seen near Portsmouth in July. 

COLTAS EDUSA AND SphINX LIGUSTRI IN PEMBROKESHIRE. C. edusa 

was fairly abundant at Tenby in the latter part of August and beginning 
of September, chiefly on the sandhills (" The Burrows "), where on several 
days I saw five or six on the wing. V. cardui was scarce. Sphinx ligustri 
larvae unusually abundant in the town and neighbourhood. I found ten 
in one garden, on lilac. — E. Meynell; Durham. 

PiERis DAPLiDiCE IN Kent. — A female specimen of Pieris dapUdice 
was captured on Aug. 27th last, at Dover, and an example (sex not 
mentioned) was seen at Heme Bay during the same month (Ent. Mo. Mag. 
October, 1897). 

Ochsenheimeria VACOULELLA IN SouTH LoNDON. — Mr. Percy Richards 
(Ent. Mo. Mag. October, 1897) states that this species was common in 
September in the neighbourhood of Brockley. 

CoLEOPTERA IN 1897. — The following are among my captures of this 
order during the past year; where no locality is specially mentioned, 
Worcestershire is intended : — Cicindela campestris, Sutton Park (N. War- 
wickshire). C. hyhrida, one from Hoylake. Carabus violaceus, C. nemo- 
Talis, the commonest of the larger Carabidse here. C. monilis, scarce this 
year. Pterostichiis niger, Notiophilus biguttatus, Dytiscus marginalis, 
Ocypus olens, Timarcha lavigata, common on mountain paths about Bar- 
mouth. Dromius quadrimaculatus, Geotrupes stercoraHus, G. sylvaticus, 
Helophorm rugosus, one only, at roots of poplar. Hister unicolor, H. 
cadaverinus, Elater pectinicornis, Meligethes cEueus, Pyrochroa coccinea, 
rather common. Tomicus {? sp.), very destructive to a couple of oaks in 
Sutton Park. Anomala frischii, received irom Hoylake. Apoderus coryli, 
one on hazel at Barmouth. Attelabus curculionoides, by sweeping flowers, 
Sutton Park, Oliorrhynchus picipes, Chrysomela distinguenda, C polita, 
Apteropeda graminis, Phyllotreta nemorwn, scarce. — A. D. Imms ; " Lint- 
hurst," Oxford Road, Moseley, October, 1897. 

Autumn Collecting in Carlisle District. — Sugaring during this 
last few weeks has shown a decided improvement here, compared with the 
earlier part of the season. Anchocelis Litura, A. rujina, Cerastis vaccinii, 
Miselia oxyacanthcB, and Hadena protea have been very common, while 
Agrotis suffusa, Noctiia glareosa, N. castanea var. neglecta, Orthosia lota, 
O. macilenta, Anchocelis lunosa (nevv to Carlisle list), Scopelosorna satellitia, 
Agriopis aprilina, and Calocampa exoleta, have all occurred more or less 
freely. P. gamma has fairly swarmed everywhere. I have also seen about 
half a dozen Vanessa cardui ; this is a very scarce butterfly here now. 
V. atalanta has been very common, both larva and imago ; last season I 
only saw a single specimen. The larva of Smerinthus ocellatus has been 
extremely common on dwarf sallows, as also has the larva of Dicranura 
vimda. The " picture-makers " have played havoc with both. Phalera 
bucephala has been in myriads. Larvae of Dicranura furcida, Notodonta 
ziczac, and Gonoptera libatrix have also occurred. The larva of Bombyx 
rubi, which last season was observed in unprecedented numbers, is 
extremely scarce this season ; in fact, last year, I counted 175 in a few 
square yards ; this year I only found twenty in a day's collecting. — J. E. 
Thwaytes; 8, Clement Place, Boundary Road, Carlisle, Oct. 18th, 1897. 



300 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

SOCIETIES. 

Entomological Society of London. — October 6th, 1897. — The Kev. 
Canon Fowler, F.L.S., Vice-President, in the chair. Mr. W. H.Bennett, 
of 15, Welhngtou Place, Hastings, and Mr. B. Tomlin, of 59, Liverpool 
Eoad, Chester, were elected Fellows of the Society. Mr. Merrifield 
exhibited specimens of Aporia cratmjl and Argynnis paphia, subjected 
to high and low temperature during the pupal stage. In both species 
the examples which had been cooled were much darkened. Mr. Tutt 
showed for comparison the extremes of over 500 examples of A. cmtcegi 
bred or captured in Kent between 1860 and 1868, but none were so 
marked as those which had been artificially treated. Mr. Tutt showed 
a remarkable melanic aberration of Nemeophila plantaginis, in which all 
trace of the pale ground colour of the hind wings was lost ; also a 
series oi Abraxas ulmata captured during the past summer by Mr. Dutton 
in the neighbourhood of York. Previously aberrations of the species had 
been rare, but a large number of this series were suffused with blue-grey 
or smoky ochreous. Many of the aberrant forms were cripples. He 
also showed, for Dr. Eiding and Mr. Bacot, bred specimens of both 
broods of Tephrosia bistortata from Clevedon, Somerset; and bred 
specimens of T. crepxiscidaria and its ab. delamerensis from York. 
Hybrids were exhibited between T. bistortata (male and female) and 
T. crepuscular ia (male and female), between the former and the form 
delamerensis (male and female), and between the two latter crosses. 
The offspring of the first crosses were roughly divisible into two groups 
following the parent forms ; those of the second tended to become mon- 
grel in appearance. Hybridization led to the production of continuous 
broods, and certain broods tended to produce males only. The colora- 
tion became more intense with increase in the duration of the pupal 
stage. Dr. Dixey drew attention to the experiments on hybridization 
recorded ia Dr. Standfuss's ' Handbuch der Palaarktischen Gross 
Schmetterlingen,' and gave a summary of the results. Mr. Champion 
showed, for the Rev. J. H. Hocking, an example of the long-bodied 
moth Satacoma agrionata, from New Zealand ; also one of Protopaussus 
walkeri, Waterh., from China, the subject of a later communication; 
and specimens of the rare Emblethis verbasci, F., from the Scilly Isles. 
Mr. Jacoby showed a Halticid beetle with a singular abnormality, the 
side-margin of the prothorax being split and embracing a long process. 
Dr. Chapman exhibited and described varieties of Spilosoma lubricipeda 
and Acronycta psi, bred by Dr. Riding. In the latter species the 
characters of the different races were very stable. Mr. Burr exhibited 
a Mantis, Phyllocrania illudens, from Madagascar, with a close resem- 
blance to the dead leaves among which it lived, some of which were 
shown with it. A new British coccid, Kermes variegatus, from Kent, 
was exhibited by Mr. Waterhouse. Mr. G. C. Griffiths read a paper 
on *' The Frenulum of the Lepidoptera." Mr. Kirkaldy communicated 
a "Preliminary Revision of the Notonectidte, Part I."; and Mr. Water- 
house the "Description of a new Coleopterous Insect of the family 
Paussidae." 

[Reports of other Societies are unavoidably postponed until 
December.] 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Vol. XXX.] 



DECEMBER, 1897. 



[No. 415. 



THE LARVA OF PHORODESMA PUSTULATA (BAJULARIA). 
By Henry A. Auld. 




^^\?n^. 



Theke is probably no more interesting example of protective 
resemblance than that afforded by the larvae of Phorodesma. So 
much do they liken themselves to their surroundings that old 
collectors have times out of number unconsciously ejected 
them from the beating-tray ; and even when they have been 

ENTOM. — DEC. 1897. 2 C 



302 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

pointed out to the keen-sighted ardent young entomologist, so 
much surprise has heen expressed at their quaint appearance, 
that I think it not amiss to ask the indulgence of our Editor in 
reproducing a beautiful drawing which has been lent to me by 
my kind friend Dr. Knaggs, whose son-in-law Mr. Victor Prout 
has caught and portrayed the larvaB in just such positions as 
they assume in nature. 

The first time that I met with the larvre of P. imstulata 
(bajularia) in any numbers was when beating into a Bignell tray 
in the New Forest, about the middle of May of the present year. 
A succession of severe night-frosts had cut off all the young 
foliage from the oak-trees, leaving in their place only the 
buds, which were bursting out afresh. Larvse were not plentiful, 
and for awhile it looked like returning with empty boxes, but 
presently Boarmia rohoraria yielded to the beating-stick ; then, 
later on, it would be my luck to bring down a couple of Hylo- 
phila quercana at a stroke. There were, of course, many 
blackened oak-leaves and pieces of dead wood, with an occasional 
larva of Cleora lichenaria in the beatings ; and it was when 
examining such a mixture that I spied some brown oak-bud 
husks standing up, a trembling mass on the tray. My acquaint- 
ance with the larva of P. smaragdaria at once led me to detect 
its full-dressed relation P. pustidata, which, when picked up, 
slipped through my fingers, hanging by a silken cord like the 
individual in the illustration. In that position who could help 
holding it in admiration, wondering at the facile way it fools the 
naturalist and outwits the bird and its other enemies. I enjoyed 
a hearty laugh when I got the larvte home, for an oak-bud and 
a larva were in the position shown (5, in figure) when I asked 
one of our progressive entomologists whether he happened to be 
acquainted with it. "No," said he, "I should like to see it." 
So I handed him the twig, which he turned round and round, and 
then asked, " Where is the brute ! " thus reminding one of the 
other Pliorodesma — P. smaragdaria, of which it has been said : 
" I shall show you the larva and you shall not see it." For ten 
long months P. pustulata leads a caterpillar life, anchoring itself 
tightly by a silken fastening to the oak to withstand the winter 
winds. It is very active when the genial warmth of spring sets 
it to work to gain the imago state, and it may then be seen as in 
the figure, sleeping, waking, breakfasting, and taking exercise on 
the trapeze. 

A most excellent description is given in the pages of the 
E. M. M. (vol. ii. pp. 91 and 114) respecting the life-history of 
P. hajidaria (pustulata). It would be superfluous for me to add 
to the information which the Kevs. E. Horton and John Hellins 
have there supplied. My desire is to try to make the larva 
familiar to the collector, and I trust that these few remarks 
may have the desired result. 



303 



ACOSMETIA {MIAN A) ARCUOSA, Hw., var. 
MORRIS II, Morris. 

By H. Guard Knaggs, M.D., F.L.S. 

Eefereing to my reproduction of the original description of 
mornsii in your October number {ante, p. 256), Mr. Louis B. 
Prout {ante, p. 296) calls attention to the fact that Mr. Meyrick 
simply accepted the conclusions arrived at by Mr. Tutt, which is 
satisfactory, though only in so far as it shows the correctness of 
my supposition that the writer in the ' Handbook ' had never 
seen either morrisii or the original description of it. I can 
assure Mr. Prout that I have not overlooked either Mr. Tutt's 
" discussion " on morrisii referred to, or the article in which 
he candidly explained the peculiar method of reasoning by 
which he arrived at his conclusions ; and as the latter seems to 
me to be particularly interesting and instructive, I should like, 
with the editor's permission, to place it before the readers of the 
'Entomologist.' The passage (' Ent. Record,' iv. pp. 72, 73) 
runs as follows : — 

" Fig. 1 represents Acosmetia morrisii, Dale, a species we have 
known for some time as bondii, Knaggs. It has always appeared 
wonderful to me that a species turned up at Folkestone as late 
as 1861 should then have required a new name ; this remarkable 
circumstance I have repeatedly communicated to entomological 
friends. I was set on the move about this species first by a note 
which Mr. Dale wrote to the ' Ent. Eecord,' vol. i. p. 34, in which 
he refers morrisii to arcuosa as a pale var. I wanted to know 
more about morrisii for my book on the British Noctuae ; but for 
some time I could not find anything. However, one day, looking 
through the last plates of Noctu?e in Humphrey and Westwood's 
' British Moths,' I came across a figure, at the sight of which I 
ejaculated, ' extrema, Hb. — bondii, Knaggs.' I turned to the 
letterpress, and the name was morrisii. I immediately went to 
my cabinet, satisfied myself as to its identity with bondii at once, 
both from the figure and letterpress ithe hind wings of the figure 
are unmistakeable), and then set to work to learn more. The 
specimen from which the figure was made was captured by Mr. 
Morris himself at Charmouth, in the same line of coast, and 
about ten miles from the well-known locality for bondii at Lyme 
Regis, discovered by Mr. Wormald ; and afterwards captured 
there in plenty by Messrs. Goss and Tugwell. The greatest 
puzzle about the whole affair, is to think that a species described 
by Mr. Dale in the ' Naturalist,' vol. ii. p. 88, and errata, figured 
by Humphrey and Westwood in 1843 or 1844 under Dale's name, 
should be re-described in 1861 (eighteen years at the most), and 
accepted by entomologists without question. Perhaps they lived 
more slowly in those days; at any rate, they appear to have 

2c2 



804 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

lived with their eyes partly shut. I am not particularly surprised 
that Dr. Knaggs re-described the species. The few years that he 
was devoted to the study of Lepidoptera brought many new 
things to light, which have since sunk into darkness ; but I am 
astonished that men of comparatively good scientific knowledge, 
with Humphrey and Westwood always in their hands as their 
every-day reference book, did not detect the blunder committed 
by a (may I say?) then comparative beginner. Perhaps it was 
then as it is now. If work be not done in the groove laid down 
by our extra-scientific friends, it is something to be ignored and 
jumped upon. This it appears to have been taken for granted, 
was bound to be correct, and did not require enquiring into. 
Fancy the lepidopterists of to-day letting some comparative 
beginner re-describe a species only eighteen years old ; and yet 
this is what the entomologists of 1861 did. Bondii, Knaggs, 
will, therefore, have in future to be labelled morrisii, Dale." 

Mr. Prout evidently doubts the adequacy of Mr. Morris's 
description to sink bondii as a synonym of morrisii ; and 
certainly bondii is not of a pale straw colour assimilating to the 
colour of sun-dried grass (indeed the contrast between the almost 
chalky white moths settled upon the dark green foliage of their 
food-plant on a summer's evening is about as striking as can well 
be imagined) ; neither does it possess faint narrow brown lines 
diverging towards the margin ; nor is it attached to a grass 
which becomes desiccated in summer ; nor has it ever, as far as 
I can learn, been known to fly by day. And, further, a liassic 
soil, such as occurs at Charmouth, seems to me to be a very 
unlikely one for bondii to inhabit. On the other hand, the 
description is fully adequate to identify arcuosa, male, especially 
if worn, when the dotted elbowed line is apt to become indistinct 
or obsolete, the diverging lines to show up more conspicuously, 
and the hind wings to fade, as appears to have been the case in 
the specimens named morrisii. 

Mr. C. W. Dale (son of the late respected Mr. J. C. Dale, and 
inheritor, I believe, of his father's collection), who has, in all 
probability, seen the insect, if it was considered worth preserving, 
and heard from his father's lips its history from its "discovery" 
to its suppression, ought surely to be better qualified to give an 
authoritative opinion on morrisii than any other entomologist 
who has never enjoyed these advantages. Mr. Dale has stated 
decidedly (' Ent. Eecord,' vol. i. p. 34) that morrisii is a pale 
variety of arcuosa ; and every line, every word of Mr. Morris's 
description confirms his decision. The alar expanse, build, 
colour, and markings, — the narrow brown lines diverging 
towards the margin (not to mention the slightly brown costa, 
noted by Humphrey and Westwood) ; — all agree with arcuosa. 
The starting up and flying by day, when alarmed, is a well- 
known habit of arcuosa ; and the long grass, which, as its seed 



NEW SPECIt;S OF ANDRENA FROM NORTH AMERICA. 305 

ripens, becomes parched up and more or less bleached in the 
hot rays of the summer sun, points to Aira ccespitosa, the food 
of arciiosa. 

Folkestone, November 4tb, 1897. 

Note. — In reading Mr. Morris's description, his meaning 
will be much simplified by bearing in mind that by "the wings" 
he meant all four wings, so that " the upper part of the wings" 
=^ the upper wings, just as "the wings underneath" (or "the 
under part of the wings ") = the undei- tvings. — H. G. K. 



NEW SPECIES OF ANDRENA FEOM NORTH AMERICA. 
By T. D. a. Cockerell, N. M. Agr. Exp. Sta. 

The bees of the genus Andrena are very numerous in North 
America, but up to the present time they have received com- 
paratively little attention. Mr. F. Smith, many years ago, 
described a number of species from Canada and the Eastern 
United States, as well as five from Vancouver's Island. Mr. 
Cresson described several from Texas, and one from New Mexico. 
Mr. Ashmead described four collected by the present writer in 
Colorado. L'Abbe Provancher made known some new species 
from Canada, and two from California. From Mexico six have 
been described by Smith, and one by Gribodo. 

Subsequent to most of the above-mentioned publications, 
Mr. Eobertson made a careful study of the Andrence of Illinois, 
and Miss J. E. Casad and the present writer studied those of 
New Mexico, and in each of these regions most of the speciea 
were found to be still undescribed. 

So far, one hundred and fourteen species of Andrena have 
been described from North America (including Mexico). The 
European list is much longer. 

(1.) Andrenja pascoensis, n. sp. 
? . Length about 15 mm., head aud thorax black, legs and abdomen 
mosthj rufous. Pubescence greyish white. Face about as broad as long, 
its sides covered with greyish white pubescence. Clypeus ivith a diffused 
central yellow patch ; end of scape, and first flagellar joint, ferruginous 
beneath. Mesothorax moderately shiny, microscopically tessellate, 
with large punctures, becoming extremely dense at sides; enclosure ot 
metathorax ill-defined. Tegulte amber colour, transparent ; tn7igs 
strongly suffused ivith yellowish, except the apical cells ; apex dusky with 
a slight violaceous lustre ; nervures and stigma pale ferruginous. 
Legs ferruginous ; the coxge, anterior femora behind, middle femora 
except apical third, and posterior femora except extreme tip, black ; 
pubescence of basal joints of tarsi ferruginous. Abdomen rather shiny. 



806 THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 

broad, strongly and closely punctured, bright ferruginous ; base and 
part of sides of first segment, and spot on each side of second, black; 
third and following segments suffused with black dorsally and ventrally, 
the apex quite dark. The second to fourth segments have dense 
creamy-white apical hair-bands, that on the second being slightly 
interrupted in the middle ; fifth segment and apex covered with 
glittering very pale orange hair. 

Hab. Pasco, Washington State, May 25th, 1896 (T.Kincaid). 

A. pascoensis differs from A. argemonis by the broader abdo- 
men with less parallel sides, the broader face, the greyish white 
(instead of fulvous) pubescence, the pale nervures, &c. From 
A.fastuosa it differs by having more red on the abdomen and 
legs, and the colour of the pubescence. 

(2.) Andrena trevoris, n. sp. 

(? . Length about 9 mm. ; black with thin greyish white pube- 
scence ; clypeus yellow with two black spots ; the four hindmost tarsi 
pale ferruginous. This closely resembles A. bipunctata, differing as 
follows : — Size larger ; clypeus higher and less produced at sides, 
chrome yellow instead of lemon yellow ; flagellum dark, scarcely 
brownish beneath ; area between eyes and ocelli finely longitudinally 
striate ; vertex shiny and more distinctly punctured ; abdomen shiny, 
with small and sparse but distinct punctures ; four hind tarsi light 
ferruginous ; abdomen rather more hairy ; nervures and stigma dark 
reddish brown ; stigma smaller relatively to the size of the insect ; 
third submarginal cell longer. 

Hah. Olympia, Washington State, June 12th, 1895 (T. 
Kincaid). 

(3.) Andrena apacheorum, n. sp. 

? . Length 10 mm. ; black, with